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School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

1.1.OBJECTIVES 1.2.1. Have an overview of real life working environment in a refinery which is essential for developing and enhancing personal and professional competencies. 1.2.2. Have an overview and basic understanding of mechanical equipment in the refinery. 1.2.3. Have an overview of real maintenance, repair, and overhaul cases so as to know how maintenance engineers and technicians work together. 1.2.4. Instilling right working attitudes and professionalism, while acquiring practical skills, strengthening work values, and gaining interpersonal skill. 1.2.SCOPE 1.2.1. Job Scope In ExxonMobils Machinery Department, the author was given plenty of opportunities to get involved in work and learn through out the process. The author was constantly reminded by engineers and technicians to make fully use of the attachment period to learn as much as the he could. During his stay, the author was instructed by Mr. Arni R Tharakaram to submit weekly log in which summarizes the learning process and experience through out the week. When there was an equipment to be dismantled or installed at the Mechanical Workshop, the author would approach technicians, observe them working, and they were very generous in giving explanation to the authors queries.
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Very often, the author also had the chance to visit various plants in the refinery (Filter House, Offsite Berths, APS2, Solvent Plant, Utilities Plant, VLCC), and even went to the newly restart of SHU plant which was intended to supply hydrogen gas for other plants in the future. Apart from the PAC, the author was also given a chance to visit the Jurong site and got acquainted with the technicians and engineers there. For the period of 2 days, the author was assigned there to help for the development of softcopy data for Jurong Turnaround 2007. Occasionally, Mr. Arni R Tharakaram also brought the author to the meeting with various vendors, sometimes in the vendors working place, sometimes in the Mechanical Workshop. The author was given chance to witness how a professional senior engineer raised opinions, made decisions, and dealt a contract. Those experiences were essentially very valuable to the author. On top of those, various assignments were assigned by the authors supervisor, Mr. Arni R Tharakaram, which include : Mechanical Seal Training Package Development Global Reliability System Database Development Marine Database Development. Pumps Plot Plan Update Marine Equipment Training Package Development MOC (Management of Change) Update PowerPoint Slides Development for various presentations.

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1.2.2. Scope of Report This report discusses about Pumps, the Training Packages (Mechanical Seal and Marine Equipment) developed by the author, Pumps Plot Plan, and PDU Filters. Compressors, Gearbox, and Fin Fan Cooling Tower are omitted from the report as they are less acquainted by the author. However, they were included in the university logbook and authors weekly report to Mr. Arni R Tharakaram. Also, equipments from jurisdiction of other departments (Cooler, Boilers) are omitted from the report, and were included in the university logbook and authors weekly report to Mr. Arni R Tharakaram.

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2.1.INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses about the function of a pump, pump operating requirement, various types of pump, and some case studies related to centrifugal pump. Pump is very important in a refinery since the flow of products depends almost fully on pumps. Like all other equipments, a motor-driven pump for certain application always has one similar turbine-driven pump for the case of emergency. For more operationally critical pumps, they would have two similar pumps to stand in for the case of repair or maintenance. During his attachment, the author was more acquainted with pumps as they are the most common rotating equipment that his department has to deal with. He often followed the technicians and engineers to the plant site and mechanical workshop to observe the dismantling and installation of various types of pump, and along the way, the technician and engineer was very gladly to give explanation to him. Apart from that, the author also read a number of training manuals about pumps, and helped to edit the Pumps Plot Plan (shall be discussed in another chapter). 2.2.FUNCTION Pump serves the purpose of increasing the pressure to a fluid so that they can be transferred from one location to another through the pipeline. Sometimes, a pump may also need to increase the fluids pressure so as to suit the process requirement. 2.3.OPERATING REQUIREMENT

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To operate a pump ideally, it is important to refer to its performance curve so as to know its operating characteristic and understand which operating point (flow rate, differential pressure) to be chosen to suit the application. Like what the author studied in one of his modules in university (MP2005 Fluid Mechanics), a pumps performance curve usually comprises of differential head, BHP (Brake Horsepower), NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head), and efficiency, each in different flow rate and differential pressure. The performance curve also illustrated the best operating point in which the pump can be ideally operated. For actual pump operation, though, it is adequate to choose an operating point within 15% of its best operating point so as to attain efficiency and to be effective.

Performance curves


200.00 Head


Npshr Efficiency Head' Npshr' min flow Bhp Bhp'




0.00 0.00






Graph 1. Pump Performance Curve

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Sometimes, design and process requirement may request for re-adjustment of a pumps operating condition and performance by modifying the impellers diameter and/or shafts rotational speed so as to produce another differential head and/or flow rate. These adjustments will generate a completely different performance curve for the pump. (1) H 2 D2 = H 1 D1

H1 = Initial Pressure Head H2 = New Pressure Head



H2 N2 = H1 N1 Q 2 D2 = Q1 D1 Q2 N 2 = Q1 N1

D1 = Initial Impeller Diameter D2 = New Impeller Diameter N1 = Initial Rotational Speed N2 = New Rotational Speed Q1 = Initial Flow Rate Q2 = New Flow Rate



By the Affinity Law as shown above, increase in the impeller diameter or rotational speed will exponentially increase the differential head produced by the pump, and linearly increase the flow rate sustainable by the pump.

2.4.VARIOUS TYPES OF PUMP Due to the nature of the pump, it can be classified into two main types, i.e. centrifugal pump and positive displacement pump. Centrifugal pump makes use of the centrifugal force exerted by the impeller to impart the velocity head to the fluid and eventually converted into pressure head. In positive displacement pump, a certain volume of the fluid is displaced by a piston, gear, or helical screw to move forward to the discharge pipe in very high pressure. In their applications, centrifugal pump is

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able to provide relatively larger fluid flow, yet smaller discharge pressure. Positive displacement pump is able to provide relatively larger discharge pressure, yet smaller fluid flow. In the PAC refinery, most of the pumps are centrifugal pumps, since they are able to provide sufficient pressure for the process requirement and their larger flow rates are desirable to achieve efficient operation. Positive displacement pumps are employed only in some applications that require very high discharge pressure, like lube oil transferring into small pipes. Due to this, the author was more often involved in observing the technicians and engineers while they were doing an overhaul and maintenance on the centrifugal pumps, thus positive displacement pump is mentioned only briefly in this chapter. Centrifugal pumps are classified into several types, namely overhung pump, between bearings pump, and vertical pump.

Fig 1. Overhung Pump

Fig 2. Between Bearings Pump

Fig 3. Vertical Pump

2.4.1. Overhung Pump

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Discharge Impeller Radial Bearing

Thrust Bearing



Radial Bearing Mechanical Seal

Thrust Couplings Bearing

Fig 4. Simple Schematic Diagram of Overhung Pump

This type of pump involves a relatively simple pump arrangement. Since it is only able to employ single stage pumping, it is used only in application where relatively lower pressure is needed in the application. If higher pressure is desirable, while space is a constraint, a step-up gearbox can be installed to increase the shaft rotational speed which leads to higher pressure being developed by the overhung pump. 2.4.2. Between Bearings Pump
Discharge Impellers Thrust Bearing Radial Bearing


Mechanical Seal Suction

Mechanical Couplings Seal

Fig 5. Simple Schematic Diagram of Between Bearings Pump

This type of pump is able to employ multi-stage pumping which can create elevated pressure at the discharge. During its operation, it is important to maintain the fluid flow rate during every stage of pumping so as to produce

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the desirable high pressure at its discharge. It is usually more reliable than an overhung pump so it is used more often in some critical application.

2.4.3. Vertical Pump

Motor Discharge M

Couplings Thrust Bearing Radial Bearing Thrust Bearing Radial Bearing Mechanical Seal Impeller Suction

Fig 6. Simple Schematic Diagram of Vertical Pump

This type of pump operates with a negative NPSH. It usually functions as a firewater pump that pumps the sea water up, or as a sump pump that pump the oil from the sump for further processing. It usually involves multiple pumping to overcome the negative NPSH, and thus having multiple impellers like a between-bearings pump. At the suction side, a strainer is usually installed to filter the fluid so as to ensure no big particles can go into the pump and damage the components.

2.5.CASE STUDIES ABOUT PUMPS 2.5.1. Failure of Pump P1151A

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On Wednesday, 5 September 2007, the author went down to the Mechanical Workshop to observe the re-assembly of pump P1151A. The technician, Mr. Harry Lim, was there to explain to the author about what had happened to the pump, its basic operation, and the assembly point at that time. P1151A is an LPG transfer pump. Due to cost and space considerations, P1151A is a type of Vertical Can Centrifugal Multistage pump instead of Horizontal Between Bearings Pump. Its failure was detected from the leakage of the primary seal in its mechanical seal. The details about mechanical seal will be discussed in the subsequent chapter. Picture of Pump P1151A

Motor Discharge line Inlet line from LPG sphere Pump Suction and Impellers submerged in the pump can underground
Fig 7. Installed Vertical Can Pump Onsite Failure Detection The failure was detected when it was found out that the primary seal leaked. The primary seal was worn out due to

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misalignment of the shaft, while the shaft was misaligned because of the failure due to the bush bearing wear. After the repair, the bush bearing had been changed to the new one, and the mechanical seal was sent to Flowserve, for repair.

Fig 8 Worn out Bushing

Fig. 9 New Bushing Installed

Fig 10. New Mechanical Seal Assembly

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Fig 11. Self Locking Liquid

Fig 12. Water Displacement and Rust Removal

Fig 13. Solvent for Oil Drying

Fig 14. Bushing tightened with Flange

Fig 15. Bearing Heating

Fig 16. Seal Flushing Plan 13

Fig 17. Bearing after Assembling into its Housing

Fig 18. Adjusting the Lift of the Impeller


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Fig 19. Design Gap that Resulted from Lift (for having a Clearance between Impellers and Pump Casing)

Fig 20. Pump Motor

2.5.2. Seal Upgrade of Pump P3002A

Fig 21. Motor Operated P3002A

On Tuesday, 11 September 2007, the author followed a technician, Mr. Loo Chon Fai, to the plant to observe the condition of P3002A after it was stopped due to leakage. P3002A is operated by a motor. Since its design operating speed is faster than the motor speed, it requires a step-up gear box to achieve it (1 to

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2 ratio). When it is under service, P3002B will replace it temporarily. P3002B is operated by steam turbine and could achieve the operating speed by itself, without a gear box. Motor operated pump is more reliable and cost effective than steam operated pump since steam supply is usually limited.

Fig 22. Motor for P3002A

Fig 23. Gear Box for P3002A

Fig 24. Turbine for P3002B

The product pump by P3002A is asphalt. During pumping, asphalt may solidify and block the piping. Thus steam lines are installed along the piping so as to prevent the asphalt from solidification.

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Fig 25. Steam Line

After several upgrade of its mechanical seal, seal leaking still happened over time. Thus it was decided to do an upgrade of its mechanical seal from single seal to double seal arrangement.

Fig 26. Asphalt Leakage

2.5.3. Installation of P3002A with Double Seals On 19 October 2007, Mr. Loo Chon Fai brought the author to the plant to observe the installation of P3002A and its double seals. The double seals arrangement was upgraded into back to back arrangement, i.e. the rotary faces are adjacent to one another.

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Fig 27. Installed P3002A

The flushing plan for the mechanical seal is API plan 53, which utilizes seal pots that provide pressurized barrier fluid circulation to prevent product leaking to the outer seal. This flushing plan also employs a cooler that cools the barrier fluid due to the heat generated at the primary seal faces.

Seal Pot

Seal Pot


C Cooler

Fig 28. Seal Pots Providing Pressurized Barrier Fluid

Fig 29. Coolers for Cooling Barrier Fluid

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Suction Line to Cooler

Water Line

Discharge Line from Cooler

W Water Line

Fig 30. Oil Suction and Discharge Line to Cooler

Fig 31. Water Flow Indicator

The cooler utilizes cooling water to exchange heat with the barrier fluid so as to bring down its temperature.


This chapter discusses about introduction to a mechanical seal, two different types of mechanical seal, mechanical seal flushing system, seal upgrade requirement, mechanical seal compression setting notes, and lastly a basic explanation of tandem seal arrangement as related to Chapter 2 (P3002A). During his attachment, the author was assigned to develop the Mechanical Seal Training Package for the purpose of providing basic understanding about mechanical seal for new technicians and operators. The author was given several manuals about mechanical seal, and he got associated with machinery technicians during the overhaul of pumps which would require a change-out of their mechanical

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seals. At the later part of the training package development, the author was introduced to an engineer from the mechanical seal vendor and they work together towards the completion of the training package.

3.1.INTRODUCTION Sealing operation serves the purpose of preventing or limiting the pumped product from escaping to the atmosphere through leaking points, such as gland gasket, insert mounting, shaft packing and the interface between a rotating shaft and the pump wall. Common sealing devices commonly employed are either compression packing or end face mechanical seal.

When selecting an appropriate sealing method, we must consider : Installation Maintenance Product loss Treatment costs Energy requirement

In ExxonMobil, the type of seal commonly used is a mechanical seal. The types of mechanical seal commonly employed in ExxonMobils rotating equipments are:

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Fig 32. Types of Mechanical Seal used in ExxonMobil

In general, a mechanical seal is composed of : 1. Primary seal faces - one that rotates with shaft and one that is stationary in housing: seal ring and insert. 2. Secondary seals - shaft packings and insert mountings: O-rings, wedges, and V-rings. 3. Housing and other mechanical seal hardware: gland rings, collars, compression rings, pins, springs, and bellows. Usually dissimilar materials are used for the stationary insert and the rotating seal ring face in order to help prevent adhesion of the two faces. 3.2.TYPES OF MECHANICAL SEAL 3.2.1. Pusher Seals Comprise of secondary seals that move axially along the shaft so as to compensate for wear and seal wobbling at the seal faces. There are two types of it available; single coil spring seals and multiple spring unit (for high speed application).

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Point C Gland Gasket

Point D Insert

Point A Face

Point B Shaft Packing

Fig 33. Pusher Seal

Advantages : Lower price and wide range of sizes available. Applicable in high pressures.

Disadvantages : Narrow range of temperatures Prone to swelling due to chemical attack. Build up of material at the seal faces that results in the

inability of the seal to move forward for compensating wear. Prone to fretting corrosion of shaft due to misalignment.

3.2.2. Non-Pusher Seals The secondary seal in a non pusher design does not have to move along the shaft or sleeve in order to maintain seal face contact. The welded metal (for high speed application) and elastomer bellows seals are typical of this design.

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Point C Gland Gasket

Point D Insert

Point A Face

Point B Collar Packing

Fig 34. Non-Pusher Seal

3.3.SEAL FLUSHING Seal flushing is employed to remove the heat generated at the primary seal faces, and to flush residue generated at the seal faces over time. 3.3.1. Product or Bypass Flush This method is achieved by the use of pipelines to recirculate the pumped product to the seal faces. Orifice (when specified) Bypass Flush from Pump Discharge

Fig 35. Product Flush


External Flush A compatible fluid from an external source can be used to flush either a single seal inside seal or an outside seal. Close Clearance Throat Restriction Flow Meter Pressure Gauge

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External Flushing Source


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Fig 36. External Flush

For the details of Seal Flushing Troubleshooting and Different Flushing Plans, the reader may refer to the Appendix A and Appendix B.

3.4.MECHANICAL SEAL UPGRADE A seal upgrade requires some information to determine whether a certain type and size of seal can be installed in the application. While considering the design of the new seal, it is recommended the existing flushing position to be maintained because the flushing pipe settings onsite are usually fixed. Reconstructing the pipe setting can be very tedious.

As mentioned previously, for the selection of the type and material of the seal for an application, we would need to have some information provided to the vendor. These are : <> Product Type <> Suction Pressure
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<> Pumping Temperature <> Vapor Pressure 22

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<> Discharge Pressure <> Viscosity of the Product

<> Specific Gravity of the Product <> Number of Rotation per Minute of the Process.

Also, to determine whether the size of a seal can fit into the application, the vendor would require the following information : a. b. Stuffing box diameter Stuffing box depth, i.e. the distance from the shaft

step to the end face of stuffing box. c. First Obstruction Distance, i.e. the distance from

the gland face to the first obstruction encountered (usually bearing housing). d. Stuffing Box the stuffing box face. Depth e. Number and Diameter of the Stuffing Box Studs. Pitch Circle Diameter of the position of studs on


Stuffing Box Diameter

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First Obstruction Distance


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Fig 37. Drawing of a Mechanical Seal


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A mechanical seal needs to have certain compression strength so as to mate the two seal faces together all the time. This compression strength has to be fairly accurate, because a slight error might cause heat generation (too strong) or seal leakage (too weak). Setting the compression strength is only applicable when we are dealing with a non-cartridge seal, since the cartridge seal has a preset compression from the vendor. When we are dealing with a non-cartridge seal, there are two types: 3.5.1. Basic Seal

Marking Offset

Fig 38. Drawing of a Basic Non-Cartridge Mechanical Seal

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In this type of seal, the compression unit bites onto a certain position on the shaft and the compression strength is automatically set. To determine the exact position, we can do the following : i. Put in the bearing mounted shaft into the equipment housing (without the mechanical seal). ii. the shaft. iii. Hold a sharp-edged ruler on the end-face of the stuffing box and carve a mark on the shaft. iv. Measure and mark the position offset from the marking using the sharpedged ruler (in this case 12). v. Insert the gland and the compression unit onto the shaft, and let the compression unit bite onto the offset marking. vi. Insert the shaft into the casing with the gland being screwed into the stuffing box through studs. Use a marker to mark the position of the end-face of the stuffing box on

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3.5.2. Seal with Hook Sleeve Marking

Fig 39. Drawing of a Non-Cartridge Mechanical Seal with Hook Sleeve

In a hook sleeve seal, R-dimension is one dimension to measure whether it fits with the one given by the vendor. R-dimension is actually the distance from the shaft step to the end-face of the stuffing box. i. seal). ii. the shaft. Use a marker to mark the position of the end-face of the stuffing box on Insert the bearing mounted shaft into the equipment housing (without

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Hold a sharp-edged ruler on the end-face of the stuffing box and carve a mark on the shaft.


Measure the distance from the shaft step to the marked position so as to get the R-dimension to compare if it agrees with the one given by the vendor (in this case 133"24"1" = 108" ).


If it agrees, put in the sleeve and the gland onto the shaft, together with the compression unit. Then insert the shaft into the casing with the gland being screwed into the stuffing box studs.


Fig 40. Tandem Mechanical Seal

Tandem literally means one after another. This may occur to us that this arrangement refers to a double seal arrangement. This design is used when we are dealing with product that may become hazardous when exposed to the atmosphere. It has two mechanical seals, one after another arranged from the pump, thereafter we refer as a primary seal and a secondary seal. The flushing plan being used is plan 13, which takes the flushing from the suction. During operation, the primary seal takes up the full pressure from the product from the pump and seals it
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from leaking. Between the primary and secondary seals, there is a recyclic flow of barrier fluid at very low pressure (typically much lower than the product pumped). The secondary seal serves the purpose of sealing the barrier fluid from leaking to the atmosphere. When the primary seal leaks, the higher pressure at the product side would force it to flow into the barrier fluid. This would cause an increase in the oil level of the barrier fluid indicator, and eventually strike the alarm system, therefore the failure can be handled immediately. In the case of a leakage in the secondary seal, merely the barrier fluid leaks to the atmosphere and it is not hazardous. Then the oil level of the barrier fluid indicator would drop and strike the alarm.

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4.1.INTRODUCTION The author was given an assignment to edit and add in new pump and pump pads to the plot plan by his supervisor, Mr. Arni R Tharakaram. For the consolidation, he went to the mechanical workshop library to obtain the pumps technical data sheet and performance curve. Apart from that, he was also brought to pump pads in the refinery sites so as to be able to identify where to locate, identify, and plot them in the plot plan. Having no background in Macros in Excels and Visual Basics for Application, the author also purchased a reference book for his own reading so as to be familiar in the software for modification of the plot plan. Besides, he also found the software beneficial in doing future assignment more ordered and effective. The pumps plot plan was originally developed by one of the authors supervisors, Mr. Hing Choon Haw, during his internship in the past, and further enhanced by other previous interns before the author. In order to be able to edit the information, or rather add in new information in the pumps plot plan, it requires a basic understanding of Macros in Excels and Visual Basics for Application because the document is developed mainly using these two.

4.2.FUNCTION AND SIGNIFICANCE Pumps plot plan in ExxonMobil refinery refers to an Excel format document developed in such a way resembling to a map of a site, where the location of every pump and pump pad can be clearly seen and easily found.

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Having a pumps plot plan, we are able to find the location of a pump and pump pad as long as we have the pump tag and pump pad number in hands. Having found the pump in the plot plan, a click on the box panel leads us to its technical data sheet and performance curve. On top of that, we can input a new diameter and rpm to estimate the change in the performance curve of that corresponding pump. During a repair or overhaul of a pump, this system can effectively facilitate new engineers and technicians to find the location and information of the intended pump easily. On top of that, this can also help them to familiarize with the overall physical structure of the refinery as a whole.

4.3.VARIOUS PUMPS PLOT PLANS There are altogether six documents corresponding to different plot plans for different pump sites, namely Fuels Plot Plan, Lubes Plot Plan, Offsites Pump Pads, Utilities Plot Plan, Gofiner Plot Plan, and VLCC Plot Plan. In doing the assignment, I have dealt with Fuels Plot Plan, Lubes Plot Plan, and Offsites Pump Pads.

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Fig 41. Fuels Plot Plan after 20% Zoom

Fig 42. Lubes Plot Plan after 40% Zoom

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Fig 43. Offsites Pump Pads after 70% Zoom

Fig 44. Example of Pump Technical Data Sheet in Plot Plan

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5.1. INTRODUCTION On July 13th, 2007, the author was brought by technician Mr. Edwin Ng to the Filter House. He was introduced to the Rotary Drum Filter, also known as Propane Dewaxing Unit (PDU), at the Filter House. The author was interested to know more about PDU unit so he approached fellow interns and obtained the training manual. This chapter discusses about the function of a PDU unit, the wax filtering process, the overview of the filter cloth and wire tensioning, and finally a case study of the broken sensoring pipe at the vicinity of the PDU unit. 5.2. FUNCTION PDU serves the purpose of filtering out the wax from the feedstock oil to produce the filtrate (dewaxed oil). The feedstock oil being sent to the Filter House was the bottom-end product from the Distillation Column.

Drive End with the shaft

Fig 45. Illustration Diagram of a PDU Unit (Front View)

Master Valve End

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Filter Cover/Hood Shaft driven by the motor Filter Bottom Casing/ Stand The Drive End (Front)

Attached to drum

Fixed to driver

Fig 46. Illustration Diagram of a PDU Unit (End View)


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Propane Solvent Propane Solvent wash Heat Exchanger

Wax Evapo rator


Rotary Drum Filter

Feed solution Drum

Dewa xed Oil Evap orator



Dewaxed Oil

Fig 47. Schematic Diagram of Dewaxing Process

5.3.1. Propane and Wax Nucleus Addition to the Feedstock Oil Propane serves as a solvent in the dewaxing process, while Wax Nucleus helps in the formation of wax precipitate. The mixture of the propane, wax nucleus, and the feedstock oil is named the feed solution. 5.3.2. Pre-cooling for Dewaxing The feed solution passes through the heat exchanger, chilling tower, and finally to the chiller where the temperature of the feed solution drops to -20F so as to support the wax precipitation. 5.3.3. Dewaxing by Rotary Drum Filter The cold feed solution flows into a feed solution drum. Periodically, the cold feed solution will partially fill the rotary drum filter. The wax will be

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filtered out from the cold feed solution at the Rotary Drum Filter which rotates at 0.5 rpm, and it will be collected at the filter cloth. On the filter cloth, the wax undergoes a washing, drying and cake conditioning process. Washing is done by propane solvent from the drip headers so as to remove remaining oil on the wax, while in cake conditioning process propane is used to control the dry and fluffy wax. Next, the blowback gas will enter the filter drum through the master valve to provide a removal of wax from the filter cloth. Subsequently, a scrapper guides the wax to the scroll. There are two re-slurry pipes near to the scroll, namely spray pipe and drip pipe. Spray pipe sprays the propane at the scrapper to ensure smooth sliding of the wax towards the scroll, while drip pipe sprays the propane over the wax at the scroll to support dilution process. Finally, the scroll will transfer the wax out of the rotary drum filter to its designated location. 5.3.4. Recovery of Propane The recovery of propane from the filtrate (dewaxed oil) and the wax is achieved by either distillation or steam stripping. Generally, both the filtrate and wax enter their evaporators, and have their propane removed. The recovered propane is recycled for addition to a new feedstock and for washing the rotary filter.


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Notch bar 1st cloth

10th cloth 2nd cloth 3 Filter Tray 2 1 30

Drum Rotation

Filter Tray Groove

Fig 48. Diagram of Filter Clothes Wrapping

Overlapping joint Cloth

Single joint with shimming cloth 60mm

2 3

1 Drum Top

30 29

Drum rotation

Drive end

(Normal operation & filter clothing)

Division strips (Total 30 Nos)

Fig 49. Arrangement of Clothes Wrapping the Drum

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There are 30 filter trays on a filter drum, being wrapped around by the filter clothes. One filter cloth can cover up to three filter trays and they have overlapping towards each other so that the filter cloth can be fastened tightly to the filter groove with notch bar division strips. This is important because if the clothes shift or fold overtime, the filtration process would be very detrimental and unhealthy.

5.5. WIRE TENSIONING OVERVIEW Wires are wrapped tightly around the filter clothes to prevent them from bubbling up and to avoid wear from the scrapper blade. Overtime, filtration processes will cause the wire to loosen up, therefore a spring tensioner is needed to assist the technician in tightening the wires every week. The spring tensioner comprises of the Ratchet ratchet and the pulley components. Tightening is done by adjusting the ratchet. We can tighten the ratchet by employing the external hand wheel, which results in the wire being tightened as well, and this drives the mobile plate closer to the fixed plate. Fixed plate

The gap closes when the wire is tightened. Mobile plate Tension Pulley

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Tensioner Spring


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Fig 50. Mechanism for Wire Tensioning

5.6. CASE STUDY (FAILURE OF SENSORING PIPE FOR FILTER 1) On Wednesday, 22 August 2007, Mr. Edwin Ng and Mr. Manish brought the author to the filter house. They were going to dismantle Filter 1 because one of its sensoring pipes broke and dropped to the feedstock oil pool. Sensoring pipe serves the purpose of informing the technician the feedstock oil level during operation. There are three sensoring pipes for the filter, and the one that broke was the longest one (for detecting 20% oil level). This incident was deduced to be due to the continuous vibration of the pipe during operation. The vibration was probably caused by shaft misalignment during the PDU unit installation.





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Technicians set a loading bar to remove the filter cover

The cover was unscrewed and a steel rod was inserted to ensure the cover was lifted up straightly

The loading bar and steel ropes were set in ready position to lift up the cover

The filter cover was successfully lifted up

The filter without its cover

The cross section where the filter cloth wire was tensioned

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The broken pipes were recovered from the pool and brought to the Mechanical Workshop for machining and manufacturing
Table 1. Recovery Process of Sensoring Pipe from the Feedstock Oil Pool


6.1.INTRODUCTION Apart from the Mechanical Seal Training Package, the author was also assigned to develop another training package, namely Marine Equipment Training Package, by his supervisor, Mr. Arni R Tharakaram. This training package mainly covered three equipments that were essential in the offsite operation, i.e. loading arms, hydraulic cranes, and gangways. The purpose of this training package was to provide a basic understanding of the three equipments for the new operators and technicians. Upon going through the training package, they were expected to know how to operate the equipments step by step, the equipments safety features, and the maintenance package developed for the equipments. Having limited knowledge on those equipments, the author obtained and went through vendors manuals and operating manuals from the engineers and mechanical

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library. Besides, he also went to the offsite berths and VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) to take the pictures of the equipments and he was explained along the way by Mr. Arni R Tharakaram and Mr. Hing Choon Haw. However, due to the time constraint from the industrial attachment, the training package was only developed halfway and will be continued by the next intern. Nevertheless, the author had obtained precious knowledge and experience on the marine equipment during the training package development. This chapter discusses about the functions, operating conditions, and some safety features of loading arms, hydraulic cranes, and gangways. 6.2.LOADING ARMS Loading arms serve the purpose of connecting the shore piping to the ship piping for the loading and unloading the crude oil from the offsite berth to the ship. Loading arms have a swivel system that allows the arm to move in 3D space so as to follow the movements of the ship as it rises and falls with change in tide, or when the ship moves perpendicularly away from the berth. Loading arms also have a counterweight system that balances the arm when it is empty, when otherwise it would need large forces to move the arm as it connects or disconnects the ship.

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Fig 51. Loading Arms at VLCC

6.2.1. Types of Loading Arms Manually Operated Due to the counterweight system, this type of arm can use guide ropes to pull the ship into position so as to connect it to the ship manifold. The size of this type is limited to 6 inches in diameter. Hydraulically Operated The arm is driven by hydraulic pistons which are controlled from a console on the berth or from a portable pendant controller. 6.2.2. Design Parameters Operating Envelope It is an envelope in space where the end of the loading arms can still move safely. Manifold Connection Criteria It consists of three important parameters :
Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Allowable Diameter and Rating of Ships Flange Maximum Allowable Manifold Cantilever Length Minimum/Maximum Allowable Manifold Spacing (when more than one arm are connected) Operating Wind Limit A typical loading arm is designed for an operating wind speed of 30-40 mph or 48-64 kph. Action Stop Cargo Transfer Disconnect Loading Arms Loading Arm Limit Speed mph kph 30 48 35 56 40 64

Table 2. Loading Arm Operating Limits

6.2.3. Loading Arm Safety System Electrical Insulation Joint This is installed to prevent electrical current from passing between the ship and shore. If not installed, during the disconnecting of the arm, electrical spark may be created that can lead to an explosion due to hydrocarbon vapours. Storm (Parking Lock) The arm needs to be engaged with a parking lock when returned to parked position so that it can withstand very high wind speeds. Range Monitoring System

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

This system sounds a warning when the arm is close to moving outside its operating envelope. Emergency Release System (ERS) When the transferred product is liquefied gas, the loading arm is fitted with ERS. It is designed to quickly release the arm if the ship is breaking away from the berth so as to avoid the release of a large quantity of liquefied gas, which can be hazardous. There are two ways that ERS can be activated : Emergency Release Button at the loading arm control console. Automatic release through a signal from 2nd stage loading arm Range Monitoring System.

6.3.GANGWAYS Gangways serve the purpose of bridging the berth to the ship, so as to facilitate personnel access. Offsite berths at PAC have automatic telescopic gangways. When the gangway is attached to the ship, it will be set to free wheel so as to follow the movement of the ship (within its operating envelope). 6.3.1. Components Hydraulic Power Pack Control Box It is mounted on top of the revolving platform. It has handles for:

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Slewing the gangway left or right. Sliding the gangway out and in. Raising the gangway up and down. Controlling flow position of hydraulic cylinders. Telescopic Access Gangway Rest Support In their entirely retracted position, gangways are turned to the left and placed on the support. Operating Conditions Maximum wind speed of 20 m/s Maximum wind pressure of 267 N/m2 Wind force of 8 beaufort.

6.3.2. Protection Devices Regardless of hydraulic valve leakage or power failure, the freewheel mode is retained. Excessive pressure in the hydraulic system (usually due to telescopic limit) triggers an audio/visual alarm at the top platform. Relief valves protect the installation from over pressure due to overload.

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Fig 52. Gangway in Berth 5

Fig 53. Gangway Control Box

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Fig 54. Schematic Diagram of Berth 6 Gangway Operating Envelope

6.4.HYDRAULIC CRANES 6.4.1. Introduction Crane is an equipment of lifting up a load to be transferred from one place to another. At the berth, it is normally used to transport hoses from the berth to the ship for their operation. When in operation, a crane has to be supported by metal platform, instead of its wheels, so as to ensure sufficiently strong and flat support.

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Fig 55. Crane in Operation

Fig 56. Lifting up the Wheel to Change the Support to Metal Platform

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Fig 57. Hoist

Another device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or liftwheel around which rope or chain wraps is called as hoist. 6.4.2. Loading Capacity for Cranes and Hoist a. Berth 1: b. Berth 2: c. Berth 3: d. Berth 4: e. Berth 5: f. Berth 6: 6.4.3. Lever Console Hydraulic Crane (3 Tons) Hydraulic Crane (5514 Kg) Hydraulic Crane Hoist (1,36 Tons) Hoist (1.5 Tons) Hydraulic Crane (1964 Kg at 12.5 M)

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Fig 58. Crane Console

Fig 59. Lever Controls

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

The author gained valuable experiences through out the 5 months period of industrial attachment, be it technical experiences, importance of safety in a refinery, management skills, or interpersonal communication experiences from people in ExxonMobil. Through out these five months, the author had assisted his supervisor, Mr. Arni R Tharakaram, in doing various assignments. When trying to accomplish the assignments, besides greatly facilitated his learning and study, the author was acquainted with various people, managers, engineers, technicians, administrators, vendors, and contractors. They were all being very helpful and had all shown excellent working attitudes and capabilities. Those experiences were essentially very valuable for the author when entering the working industry in the future. Some of the assignments were mentioned in this report, like generating Mechanical Seal Training Package and Mechanical Seal Training Package, and updating pumps plot plan. The author believed that they would be very beneficial for many people in ExxonMobil. The other assignments included creating presentation packages for numerous meetings and performance reports, for visitors from Power Seraya, and for innovation projects (Fin Fan Negative Draft Braking System and Pump Stand Project), updating MOC (Management of Change) for various equipments, creating databases for various equipments, checklists, and GRS (Global Reliability System), and updating bidding prices for contracts. In every assignment given, the author put his best efforts to get it done nicely

Industrial Attachment Report


School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

and effectively, and the author believed that his supervisor was very satisfied with his working performance. In addition, the author would like to give recommendations for this industrial attachment experience. The author suggests that either NTU or ExxonMobil can provide a two-week course for the intern to familiarize with the working environment and equipment which they would encounter so that the intern can adapt and involve in the work more effectively in shorter time. The course may introduce the refinery, its equipments and basic working principles, etc. Finally, the author realized that he had been given one of the best opportunities to study at NTU, join the Industrial Attachment Programme, and attach to ExxonMobil. These experiences have been those in which he can never get from any other places, and he really appreciates them. The author hopes that the Industrial Attachment Programme can continue to benefit many more students in the future, like how ExxonMobil had nurtured the author.

Industrial Attachment Report