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3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University

,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

TSUNAMI RUN-UP INDUCED SCOURING


Budianto Ontowirjo1 and Velly Asvaliantina2
1

BPDP BPPT , Jakarta, Indonesia

ABSTRACT The Tsunami bore phenomenon produces dramatic overturning waves, strong adverse pressure gradient on the seabed and transport of high suspended sediment concentration. Evaluations of the physical structure of Tsunami bore as the major source of turbulence and affected bottom conditions are equally important for an accurate predictions of sediment transport. In this study, a coupled Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) k turbulent closure and sediment transport model are developed to evaluate turbulent flows, sediment transport and evolution of seabed in the run-up swash zones. The RANS VOF turbulent model will estimate the boundary layer thickness to provide accurate phase-resolving hydrodynamic quantities including velocity profiles and bottom shear stress. A reasonable phase-resolving total load sediment transport model based on more physical grounds is employed to estimate the suspended sediment concentration as well as sediment fluxes. A stable Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) scheme is utilized to calculate the sediment scouring. Severe beach erosion is observed when a typical Tsunami bore up-rushed the beach slope and results are compared with experimental and field data. The applicability of the new method for Tsunami Run-up induced sediment transport modeling in the surf and swash zones are discussed.

1.

INTRODUCTION

During the propagation from the deep ocean to the shore, Earthquake generated Tsunami undergo many changes in respond to the changing depth. When the water is sufficiently deep, the propagating waves are unaffected by the presence of the bottom. As the depth decreases, the wave shoal, skew and pitch forward until it breaks and continues to run-up far inland in a form of a bore. This Tsunami bore phenomenon produces dramatic overturning waves, strong adverse pressure gradient on the seabed and transport of high suspended sediment concentration. Evaluations of the physical structure of Tsunami bore as the major source of turbulence and affected bottom conditions are equally important for an accurate predictions of sediment transport. RANS-VOF k- turbulent flow models developed by Lin and Liu (1997) is selected in this study to produce accurate representation of Tsunami bore up- rushed as well as turbulent flow quantities. Sediment transport formulation for waves or combined waves and currents, up to present date are mostly based on the quasi-steady assumption. Among sediment transport formulas recently developed for total load sediment transport (bed load plus suspended load), formulation from Van Rijn (2005) is selected for validation of the present model. The sediments on the bottom feel the shear stress exerted by waves instead of the orbital velocity of waves. Due to the viscous nature of fluid and turbulence

3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University ,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

within a bottom boundary layer thickness, the shear stress has a significant phase difference with the wave motion. The phase lag will decrease significantly as the turbulence viscosity increases. Recently, in a small-scale two-phase sheet flow model, Hsu et al. (2003) and Hsu and Hanes (2004) demonstrated that the instantaneous sediment transport rate under unsteady forcing follows the instantaneous bed shear stress closely. As is pointed out by recent work in Hsu et al. (2004), major transport of sediments occurs within a very concentrated layer near the bed so that applicability of total load transport can be examined further. Long and Kirby (2003) have used Boussinesq model predictions to drive an instantaneous transport model, allowing a stable Weighted Essentially NonOscillatory (WENO) morphology model to accumulate on a wave by wave basis. Qualitatively accurate representation of onshore bar migration movement was achieved. Motivated by the work of Long and Kirby (2006) the objective of the present work is to utilize a more appropriate turbulence flow model for the local boundary layer structure and total sediment transport in order to provide a profile evolution model. Specific tasks include: 1. Couple the RANS VOF turbulent model with a boundary layer model to provide accurate phase-resolving hydrodynamic quantities including velocity profiles and bottom shear stress 2. Propose a reasonable phase-resolving total load sediment transport model based on more physical grounds 3. Model the WENO morphology change due to sediment transport induced scour and deposition in space 4. Couple the morphology change with the RANS VOF hydrodynamic model in order to calculate evolution over extended time periods. 2. 2.1 TURBULENT FLOW AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL Turbulent Flow Model

The governing equations for the computation of unified sediment transport and bed morphology under plunging breaker are given in the following section. The governing equations for incompressible turbulent flow are the Reynolds-Averaged NavierStokes equations, for continuity equation written in tensor notation: u Af i = 0 (1) xi and momentum equation may be written as follows,
A f u i u i 1 p 1 A f ij +uj = + t V f x j xi V f x j + gi
(2)

where ui is mean velocity, i = 1,2,3 indices in the x, y and z direction respectively; j = 1,2,3 is a repeated indices in the x, y and z direction, gi is the gravitational

3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University ,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

acceleration, ij is the shear stresses or Reynolds stresses. Af is the fractional open area open to flow in the x and z direction and Vf is the fractional volume open to flow. Af and Vf are VOF fractional function. The closure equation for turbulent kinetic energy, k and turbulent energy dissipation rate, are given by:
k k +uj = t x j x j
+uj = t x j x j

t k u i + x + ij x k j j

(3) (4)

t u i 2 + x + C1 k ij x C 2 k j j

where ui is the mean velocity, ij the Reynoldsstress, is kinematic viscosity and k2 t = Cd is eddy viscosity, respectively. The total stresses ij in equation (3) and (4) related to k , and ij in the following relationship 2 ij = 2( + t ) ij k ij (5) 3 where ij is the Kronecker delta and ij is the mean strain rate tensor and defined as follows, u j 1 u ij = i + (6) 2 x j x i The expressions for all the above coefficients and the detail description of turbulent flow model RANS-VOF can be found in (Lin and Liu 1998a) and Lin and Xu [2006]. 2.2 Suspended Sediment Transport Model

The distribution of suspended sediment concentration c is determined from the following advection diffusion equation:
A c A c A f t c c + ui f + ws f = V f xi V f z V f xi c x j t

(9)

where c is the suspended sediment concentration, ws is the settling velocity of sediment and c is the turbulent Schmidt number relating the turbulent diffusivity of sediment to the eddy viscosity t . For practical application in this study the turbulent Schmidt number is taken as unity, c = 1.0 . The settling velocity is computed by using formulation from Rubey [1933]. On the seabed, rough bed condition is assumed. Bottom boundary layer model for computational points adjacent to the

3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University ,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

bottom solid boundary is derived from the logarithmic law profile for stream velocity. Assuming that the grid cell velocity is half a grid away from the point where the boundary condition is defined. The shear velocity and bottom shear stress are calculated from the following equations,
u 1 z = ln u z0 1 b = u* u* 2
(10) (11)

where u is near bottom velocity, u* is the shear velocity, z0 is roughness height and z is height of velocity point grid, is von Karman constant = 0.4 and b is turbulent shear stress. For non cohesive sediment, a reference height is calculated based on the bed roughness. Net erosion and deposition for suspended sediment is calculated as source and sink in one grid cell above the seabed. The source of sediment is computed by the references concentration formulation according to the formulation from (van Rijn 1984),
C C Ca = ws z t t 1.5 d (T ) C a = 0.015 s 50 a 0.3 a(D* )
g D* = d50 s 2 cr Ta = b
1/ 3

(12) (13) (14) (15)

cr

in which: s is density of sediment, cr = critical shear stress, Ca is the suspended concentration of the sediment at the reference height a, Ta and D* are the dimensionless bed shear stress and dimensionless particle diameter respectively. The sink of suspended sediment leaving one grid cell is calculated by.
C C = ws t z

(16)

3.

COMPUTATIONAL MODEL SETUP

The benchmark tests consist of two laboratory experiments: test 1: Plunging breaker on a mild slope, Ting and Kirby [1995], test 2: seabed morphology on steep slope, Ikeno and Shimizu [1997]. Selected laboratory experiments with complete sets of velocity fields, free surface profiles, turbulent transport quantities, eddy viscosity and subsequent seabed profiles are chosen in this study to verify the numerical model performance. The experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional wave tank with

3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University ,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

variable depth, slope, design wave and type of breaking wave condition as tabulated below: The problem setup for case study plunging breaker and eddy viscosity were set according to the definition given in experiment data of Ting and Kirby [1995]. The origin is set on the slope where the still water depth d = 0.40 m. The internal wave-maker is located at x = 6.7 m. The left boundary is made to be a radiation boundary that is behind an artificial sponge layer with a length of xs=1.5, where is the wavelength. The fine non-uniform mesh of dx = 0.01, 0.05 m and dz = 0.006 m are used for plunging breaker case. In addition, = 1000 kg/m3 and = 1.3 x 10-6 m2/s were used in all simulations. The computational domain was 46.9 m long and 1.0 m high. The problem setup for case study seabed morphology is set according to the definition given in experiment data of Ikeno and Shimizu [1997]. The origin is set on the slope where the still water depth d = 0.80 m. The internal wave-maker is located at x = 4.0 m. The fine uniform mesh of dx = 0.01 m and dz = 0.01 m are used for plunging breaker case. The computational domain was 16.0 m long and 1.6 m high and divided into 1600 cells in the x-direction and 160 cells in the z-direction. Bottom roughness is set to mean diameter of sediment size d50 of 0.6mm.

4.

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Evaluation of phase averaged free surface elevations , horizontal velocity u, turbulent kinetic energy k and evolution of seabed profile related to turbulence closure and net erosion-deposition of total (bed and suspended) sediment load properties will be presented in this chapter. Figure 3 shows the phase averaged free surface elevation over one wave period for four different measurement stations for test 1. Local wave height H is 19.1 cm, wave set-up is -0.25 cm, and mean water depth h is 15.4 cm. The design waves, wave period T = 5 s and wave height H = 0.128 m, a cnoidal waves were specified and generated. The implementation of sponge layer and internal wave generator [Lin and Liu, 1999] eliminates influences from reflected waves and allows simulation to run much longer time. The computation was run for 40 wave cycles, which consider the quasy steady state condition has been reached. The initial conditions for this case were u = w = 0 m/s, k = 8.3 x 10-6 m2/s2, and = 5.789 x 10-6 m2/s3. (x-xb)/hb is a non dimensional distance between breaking and measurement points to water depth at breaking point. h/hb is dimensionless local depth to breaker depth. With regards to the phase averaging and non dimensional process as described in the experiment, values are taken from different time and depth according to the limitation of the grid sized. For the phase averaging experimental data were taken 20 minutes after waves are already in steady state condition where as in the computation data are phase averaged from available from 30 to 40 waves cycles with the assumption that waves are already in steady state conditions. The model predicted values of near the surface and near bottom well in the outer surf zone.

3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University ,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

Table 1. Selected experiment for model verification Wave Hight Wave Period Case Study Slope (meter) (second) Turbulent flow 0.128 5 1:35 Morphology 0.24 1.35 1:10
1 0.75 0.5 (y-)/h 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 0 0.2 0.4 t/T 0.6 0.8 1
LES SPH EXP RANS VOF

d50 (mm) 0.0 0.6

1 0.75 0.5 (y-)/h 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.5 0 0.2 0.4 t/T 0.6 0.8 1
LES SPH EXP RANS VOF

Fig. 1. Phase averaged free surface elevations at (a) (x-xb)/hb=3.571, h/hb= 1.0; (b) (x-xb)/hb =6.494, h/hb = 0.857;
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 u/C 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 0 0.2 0.4 t/T 0.6 0.8 1
-0.4 0 0.2 0.4 t/T 0.6 0.8 1 u/C 0.6

EXP RANS VOF

0.4

EXP RANS VOF

0.2

-0.2

Fig. 2. Phase averaged horizontal velocities at (a) (x-xb)/hb =3.571, h/hb = 1.0, (z-)/h = -0.2867; (b) (x-xb)/hb =6.494, h/hb = 0.857, (z-)/h = -0.4023
0.05 0.04 k/(C*C) 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.2 0.4 t/T 0.6 0.8 1 LES SPH EXP RANS VOF

0.05 0.04 k/(C*C) 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.2 0.4 t/T 0.6 0.8 1 LES SPH EXP RANS VOF

Fig. 3. Phase averaged turbulent kinetic energy at (a) (x-xb)/hb =3.571, h/hb = 1.0, (z-)/h = -0.2867; (b) (x-xb)/hb =6.494, h/hb = 0.857, (z-)/h = -0.4023

3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University ,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 51 101 151 201 251

Fig. 4. Seabed morphology after 3.6 hours of simulation case study 2

5.

CONCLUSIONS The accuracy and capability of the model is verified by comparing the simulated results with the available experimental data for both turbulent flow and suspended sediment transport. The model is capable to capture the run-up phenomena in the swash zone. The new model has resolved the limitation of the existing turbulent bore and suspended sediment transport model. The calculation shows better agreement with the experimental data on the surface profile, mean velocity, turbulent energy and suspended sediment concentration for a plane beach as well as barred beach. In conclusion, given the fact that, the proposed models can describe both turbulence flow and suspended sediment transport, it is anticipated that the new model can be useful tools in the study of surf zone dynamics. For the extension of the present study, the result suggests the applicability of the new approach to the swash zones where eroded beach becomes the source of suspended sediment. 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study results present here is supported by the Japan Society for Promotion of Science JSPS Fellowship. The writer would like to thank Dr. Lin Peng Zhi for his turbulent model source code and extensive technical discussion regarding the numerical model. We would also like to thank Dr. Francis K. Ting for his plunging breaker experimental data.

7.

REFERENCES

Hirt, C.W. & Nichols, B.D.(1981) Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries, J. Computational Physics 39: 201-225 Ikeno, M. & Shimizu T. (1997) Characteristics of Suspended Sediment Transport in the Surf Zone of Irregular Waves and their Reproduction by a On-Off shore Beach Deformation Model, CRIEPI Abiko Lab. Rep. no. U96037, pp.5-40 (in Japanese). Lin,P. & Liu, P.L.-F. (1998a) A numerical Study of Breaking Waves in the Surf Zone, J. Fluid Mechanics. 359: 239264

3rd Annual International Workshop& Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2008 Syiah Kuala University ,NAD, Indonesia, December 17-19, 2008

Lin,P. & Liu, P.L.-F. (1998b) Turbulence Transport, Vorticity Dynamics, and Solute Mixing Under Plunging Breaking Waves in Surf Zone, J. Geophysical Research 103 (C8): 1567715694 Lin,P. & Liu, P.L.-F. (1999) Internal wave-maker for NavierStokes equations models, J. Waterways Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering 125, 4: 207215 Lin, P. & Xu,W. (2006) NEWFLUME: a numerical water flume for two-dimensional turbulent free surface flows, Journal of Hydraulic Research 44, 1: 7993 Rubey, W.W.(1933) Settling velocities of gravel, sand and silt particles, American J. Science 225: 325338 Ting, F.C.K. & Kirby, J.T. (1995) Dynamics of surf-zone turbulence in a strong plunging breaker, Coastal Engineering 24: 177204 Ting, F.C.K. & Kirby, J.T. (1996) Dynamics of surf-zone turbulence in a spilling breaker, Coastal Engineering 27: 131160 Van Rijn, L.C. (1984) Sediment transport, Part II: Suspended load transport, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 110: 14941502 Van Rijn, L.C. (1993) Principles of sediment transport in rivers, estuaries and coastal seas, Aqua Publications, The Netherlands. Van Rijn, L.C. (2006a) Principles of sediment transport in rivers, estuaries and coastal seas (update 2006), Aqua Publications, The Netherlands.