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Preface

Pressure indicating was used as long ago as in the development of steam engines and is therefore at least as old as the internal combustion engine itself. Whereas purely mechanical indicators were employed in the early days of internal combustion engines, today it is mainly piezoelectric transducers that are used to measure combustion chamber pressure and pressure curves in intake, exhaust and injection systems. Specially grown crystals are virtually the only things used nowadays as the piezo-materials (e.g. quartz, gallium orthophosphate, etc.). Apart from their excellent dynamic behaviour, their high measurement quality, their high stability and very good linearity, the metrological properties of these transducers above all are largely independent of temperature, which is of special importance in measurements on IC engines. The cyclic temperature drift in particular can be kept small with these transducers, which very often represents the decisive error factor in accurate thermodynamic observations of the engine phenomena. State-of-the art development methods, such as FE simulation especially, must also be used to ensure low error using modern piezoelectric pressure transducers. Not least because of the extensive possibilities of digital signal conditioning has pressure indicating become a standard development tool that, in addition to accurate thermodynamic analysis, also permits wide-ranging evaluation on the engine test bed itself. Despite, or rather because, of this sophistication in indicating technology, users need highly specialised know-how. This manual is intended to provide such basic know-how and to be used as a reference work in practical applications with piezoelectric engine instrumentation. I wish you every success in your measurement tasks.

Graz, January 2002

O.Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Rudolf Pischinger Head of the Institute for Combustion engines and Thermodynamics, University of Technology Graz

Preface

Engine Indicating

Contents
Preface 1 Pressure Indicating in IC Engines
1.1 High Pressure Indicating 1.1.1 Indicating Parameters 1.1.2 Indicating Parameters Available on the Test Bed 1.1.3 Thermodynamic Analysis 1.2 Low Pressure Indicating 1.2.1 Gas Exchange Analysis 1.2.2 Development Work Based on Gas Exchange Analysis

I 1-1
1-3 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-6 1-7

2 The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System


2.1 The Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer 2.1.1 The Piezoelectric Measuring Principle 2.1.2 Piezoelectric Measuring Element Designs 2.1.3 Piezoelectric Materials for Using Pressure Transducers 2.1.3.1 Quartz (SiO2) 2.1.3.2 Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4) 2.1.3.3 Other Piezo Materials 2.1.4 Construction of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers 2.1.4.1 Water-cooled Pressure Transducers 2.1.4.2 Uncooled Miniature Pressure Transducers 2.1.5 Pressure Transducer Cooling 2.1.5.1 Pressure Transducer Cooling Systems 2.1.5.2 Influences of the Cooling System on the Pressure Signal 2.2 Charge Amplifier 2.2.1 Operating Principle 2.2.2 Electrical Drift 2.2.3 Counteracting Electrical Drift 2.2.4 Electrical Filters 2.3 Measurement Cabling 2.4 Preventing Electrical Interference Signals 2.4.1 Ground Loop 2.4.2 Interference due to Electromagnetic Fields

2-1
2-3 2-3 2-4 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-11 2-12 2-12 2-14 2-14 2-15 2-15 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-20 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-24 2-25

3 Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System


3.1 Characteristics of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers 3.1.1 Operating Conditions 3.1.2 Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer Parameters 3.1.2.1 Permissible Operating Conditions

3-1
3-1 3-1 3-3 3-3

Contents

3.1.2.2 Transmission Behaviour 3.1.2.3 Temperature and Heat Flow Influences 3.1.2.4 Acceleration Influence 3.1.2.5 Deformation impact 3.1.2.6 Chemical Influence and Deposits 3.2 Properties of the Charge Amplifier 3.3 Properties of the Measurement Cabling

3-4 3-7 3-15 3-16 3-16 3-18 3-21

4 Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers


4.1 Measurement Task 4.1.1 Test Engine and Operating Conditions 4.1.2 Requirements of the Measurement Task 4.1.2.1 Accuracy 4.1.2.2 Type of Evaluation 4.1.2.3 Stability 4.1.2.4 Installation Effort and Costs 4.2 Influence of the Transducer Installation 4.2.1 Glow Plug/Spark Plug Adaptors 4.2.2 Installation Using a Suitable Installation Bore 4.2.2.1 Site of the Measuring Position in the Combustion Chamber 4.2.2.2 Design of the Measuring Position 4.2.2.3 Access to Measuring Point 4.3 Pressure Transducers 4.3.1 Categories 4.3.2 Measurement Properties 4.4 Guidelines for Pressure Transducer Selection

4-1
4-3 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-12 4-17 4-18 4-18 4-20 4-22

5 Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers


5.1 Pressure Indicating with no Intervention in the Test Engine 5.1.1 Glow Plug Adaptation 5.1.2 Spark Plug Adaptation 5.2 Pressure Indicating with Intervention in the Test Engine 5.2.1 Installation Variations 5.2.1.1 Direct Installation 5.2.1.2 Installation Using Adaptor Sleeve 5.2.2 Instructions for Machining the Mounting Bore 5.2.2.1 Example of Direct Installation 5.2.2.2 General examples of Installation Using Adaptor Sleeves 5.2.2.3 Inclined bore axis single sealing sleeve 5.2.2.4 Perpendicular bore axis multiple sealing sleeves

5-1
5-1 5-1 5-2 5-5 5-5 5-5 5-6 5-9 5-9 5-12 5-13 5-15

6 Calibration
6.1 General 6.2 Type of Calibration 6.3 Calibration Using Dead Weight Tester

6-1
6-1 6-2 6-3

II

Engine Indicating

6.3.1 Construction and Function of Dead Weight Testers 6.3.2 Interference during Calibration 6.4 Important Instructions

6-3 6-5 6-7

7 Zero-line Detection
7.1 Reference Method 7.1.1 Fixed Point (Empirical) 7.1.2 Measured Pressure Curve in the Intake Pipe 7.2 Thermodynamic Zero-line Coefficient 7.2.1 Assumption of a Constant Polytropic Exponent 7.2.2 With the Aid of the Integral of the Heat Release 7.2.3 Comparison of Measured and Calculated Pressure Curve 7.3 Comparison of Methods

7-1
7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5

8 Maintenance, Repair and Cleaning


8.1 Insulation resistance 8.1.1 Maintaining High Insulation Resistance 8.1.2 Restoring High Insulation Resistance 8.2 Descaling Cooling Water Galleries 8.3 Cleaning the Outside of Pressure Transducers 8.4 Repairing Pressure Transducers

8-1
8-1 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-4

9 Crank Angle Encoder


9.1 Digital Signal Recording 9.2 Function Principle and Construction of Crank Angle Encoders 9.2.1 Principles of Signal Generation 9.2.1.1 Optical Sensors 9.2.1.2 Inductive Sensors 9.2.2 Mounting Position of Crank Angle Encoders 9.2.3 Crank Angle Encoder Designs 9.2.4 Influence of Angle Encoder on Engine Behaviour 9.3 Crank Angle Encoder Characteristics 9.4 Crank Angle Errors and their Causes 9.5 Choice of Measuring Site and Mounting Instructions 9.6 Assigning Angle Mark Trigger to Engine TDC 9.6.1 Influence of TDC Errors on Evaluation Accuracy 9.6.2 Methods for TDC Determination 9.6.2.1 Static Top Dead Centre Determination 9.6.2.2 Top Dead Centre Determination Based on the pressure curve of a motored engine 9.6.2.3 Mathematical TDC Determination 9.6.2.4 TDC Determination with TDC Sensor 9.6.2.5 Comparison of TDC Determination Methods

9-1
9-1 9-4 9-4 9-4 9-4 9-5 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-11 9-16 9-17 9-17 9-18 9-18 9-19 9-20 9-21 9-23

10 Trouble shooting

10-1

Contents

III

10.1 Pressure Transducer 10.2 Measurement Cabling 10.3 Charge Amplifier 10.4 Crank Angle Encoder 10.5 Data Acquisition and Evaluation (Indicating Equipment) 10.6 Calibration

10-4 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-8 10-8

11 LINK List 12 Bibliography 13 List of Figures 14 List of Tables 15 Index

11-1 12-1 13-1 14-1 15-1

IV

Engine Indicating

1 Pressure Indicating in IC Engines

I
Before Nikolaus August Otto first put his engine into operation, he already calculated the anticipated pressure chart and expected work based on the gas laws. He was then later able to confirm them by measuring the cylinder pressure on his test engine. The mechanically recorded pressure traces were called indicator charts. Figure 1-1 shows an indicator chart of the first four-stroke engine recorded on 18 May 1876.
Indicator chart

Figure 1-1: Indicator chart recorded by Nikolaus August Otto (from Friedrich Sass: Geschichte des deutschen Verbrennungsmotoren-baus von 1860-1918") [22]

Although engine instrumentation has changed considerably since then, the concept of engine indicating has remained. In the old days the term engine indicating was applied to the measurement of in-cylinder pressure only. Today, however, the term is generally taken to mean the measurement of crank angle-based parameters, such as in-cylinder pressure, pressure in the intake and exhaust system, rapidly changing temperatures, and needle lift and line pressure, to name but a few. The one thing all these measurement parameters have in common is the fact that they create a direct reference to the instantaneous position of the piston, which permits assignment to the relevant cycle phase of the engine.

Concept of engine indicating Classic

Advanced

Pressure Indicating in IC Engines

1-1

Subject of the manual

The special significance of indicating technology for engine developers is that it allows excellent insight into the instantaneous events inside the engine at an acceptable cost The pressure inside the cylinder is still the central parameter that describes the incylinder phenomena. This manual therefore deals almost entirely with combustion chamber pressure measurement.
Tuning EGR Abstimmung AGR Limit Grenzwertberwachung value monitoring Efficiency determination Wirkungsgradbestimmung Combustion noise Verbrennungsgerusch Misfire detection Aussetzererkennung Engergy balance Energiebilanzen Friction mapping Reibungskennfeld Automatic eng. mapping automat. Kennfeldoptimierung Knock detection Klopferkennung
Schwingungsanregung Vibration excitation Einspritzverlaufuntersuchung Injection analysis mechanische stress Mechanical Beanspruchung

Combustion parameters Verbrennungskennwerte Residual gas verification Restgasermittlung

Figure 1-2: Application areas of indicating technology

Over recent years, high and low pressure indicating has developed into a valuable, highly sophisticated analysis method for combustion optimisation. Both the sensors used and the computer-supported data acquisition have reached a sophistication today that not only allows us to use indicating as an operational measurement technology but also satisfies the accuracy demands that make it possible to obtain extensive information from the analysis of measured pressure curves (see Figure 1-2).

Indicating is the development tool for quick and high-quality optimisation of the engine combustion sequence. No other measurement procedure delivers so much information about the in-cylinder phenomena. When applied properly, indicating is a reliable and repeatable measurement procedure and can therefore be used as standard measurement technology on development test beds. [20]

1-2

Engine Indicating

1.1 High Pressure Indicating


High pressure indicating measures the combustion chamber pressure in the cylinder of an IC engine, see Figure 1-3. The measurement range generally includes the complete engine cycle but can also be restricted to a limited crank angle range depending on the measurement task.
70 60

Pressure[bar] Druck [bar]

50 40 30 20 10 0 -180 BDC UT -90 0 90 180 270 360 450 540

ZOT Ignition TDC

BDC UT

LOT Gasexchange TDC

UT BDC

Kurbelwinkel [KW] Crank Angle [CA]

Figure 1-3: Cylinder pressure curve over an engine cycle

High pressure indicating in the combustion chamber is usually carried out with piezoelectric pressure transducers, which are either installed in the combustion chamber direct or in a spark or glow plug adaptor.

1.1.1 Indicating Parameters


The analysis of pressure curves measured in the combustion chamber allows us to make various comprehensive judgements of the in-cylinder phenomena. A whole range of important data can be calculated on the basis of the measured pressure curve. These results are generally known as characteristic indicating parameters, which can basically be divided into two categories:

direct and indirect indicating parameters.


Direct indicating parameters are determined straight from the curve of the cylinder pressure (p) over the cycle.
Direct indicating parameters

Pressure Indicating in IC Engines

1-3

Indirect indicating parameters

Indirect indicating parameters are values that need other parameters (e.g. braking torque, crank gear geometry, etc.) for calculation in addition to the basic pressure curve. Before the start of combustion can be calculated, for example, the heat release (burn rate) curve first has to be calculated from the pressure curve. Table 1-1 shows a selection of direct and indirect indicating parameters.
Table 1-1: Indicating parameters Indirect indicating parameters - Indicated mean effective pressures IMEP IMEPHP, IMEPGE - Friction mean effective pressure FMEP - Start of combustion - Duration of combustion - Energy conversion - Mass burned fractions - Combustion noise Direct indicating parameters - Peak pressure pmax - Position of peak pressure pmax - Pressure rise dp/d - Position of max. pressure rise dp/dmax - Speed of the pressure rise dp/d2

The indicating parameters determined from high pressure indicating provide a basis for direct assessment of the engine.

1.1.2 Indicating Parameters Available on the Test Bed


State-of-the-art indicating systems are now able to calculate certain indicating parameters in real-time (i.e. during the engine cycle). Such values are then available for closed loop control of the next cycle (e.g. knock control and misfire detection).[5].
Real-time/closed loop control On-line/fast optimisation

Other indicating parameters will be calculated after the measurement has finished so that the engine developer can access them together with other measurement parameters on the test bed data acquisition system (i.e. on-line). That means that it is now possible to set up comprehensive automatic engine optimisation for

Enleanment tuning Exhaust gas recirculation tuning Combustion noise etc.

1-4

Engine Indicating

1.1.3 Thermodynamic Analysis


One very comprehensive and computer-intensive application area for high pressure indicating is thermodynamic analysis of the pressure curve. It is based on the calculation of the rate of heat release which describes the instantaneous released heat energy from the chemical energy of the fuel per degree C.A.. This allows important conclusions about the process of combustion. There is a whole range of calculation models for thermodynamic analysis. Todays evaluation programs usually offer numerous options. Important results of thermodynamic analysis are:

Efficiency Rate of heat release and thus ignition delay, start of combustion, duration of combustion and mass burned fractions Gas condition and thus the basis for pollutant formation
For a detailed description of the basic equations required for thermodynamic analysis, see for example [21].

Pressure Indicating in IC Engines

1-5

1.2 Low Pressure Indicating


Low pressure indicating is generally used to describe the crank angle-related acquisition of pressures in the intake manifold and exhaust pipe of IC engines, see Figure 1-4. As in high pressure indicating, the measurement is usually carried out over a complete cycle. In some cases, the term low pressure indicating is also used for measurements of the low pressure range of the combustion chamber pressure with a special transducer of adaptors.
6 5

Combustion chamber Brennraum

Pressure [bar] Druck [bar]

4 3 2 1 0 -180 BDC UT -90 0 Saugrohr Intake 90 180 270 360 450 540

Exhaust
Auspuff

Ignition TDC ZOT

BDC UT

Gasechange TDC LOT

BDC UT

Kurbelwinkel [KW] Crank Angle [CA]

Figure 1-4: Low pressure curves over one cycle

1.2.1 Gas Exchange Analysis


The base parameters for gas exchange analysis are

the measured pressure curves in the intake manifold, combustion chamber and exhaust the exact valve lift curves and flow coefficients.
It is important for gas exchange analysis that low pressure indicating is carried out together with high pressure indicating. In other words, three pressures are measured simultaneously on each cylinder: the intake manifold pressure, the combustion chamber pressure and the exhaust pressure. Only with such a configuration can complete heat release and gas exchange analysis of the engine be carried out.

1-6

Engine Indicating

1.2.2 Development Work Based on Gas Exchange Analysis


The gas exchange analysis is used as the basis for:

the design of the gas exchange devices (intake manifold, exhaust), the design of the control devices (valve timing, cam shapes), the assessment of the gas exchange work, and the analysis of the intake and outlet mass flows (charge, residual gas, backflows).
If the gas-dynamic processes in the intake manifold/combustion chamber/exhaust system are not taken into consideration by the calculation routines used for the gas exchange analysis, it is important for the low pressure transducers to be placed as close as possible to the valves. Piezoresistive and piezoelectric pressure transducers are used for low pressure indicating. [13]

Pressure Indicating in IC Engines

1-7

1-8

Engine Indicating

2 The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System


As Figure 2-1 shows, the piezoelectric pressure measurement system basically consists of the following components:
Analogue Display Transducer Druckaufnehmercooling khlung
Anzeige Ladungsverstrker Charge amplifier
2222 2222

Indicating system Indiziergert


Daten- Data Auswertung erfassung Darstellung acquisition evaluation A/D CDM-C RAM

Transducer Druckaufnehmer Measurement Meverkabelung cables Combustion Verbrennungsengine motor

Angle Encoder Winkelaufnehmer

Figure 2-1: Structural diagram of the piezoelectric pressure measurement system with additional devices

Piezoelectric pressure transducer


Piezoelectric pressure transducers work on the principle of electrostatic charge output of certain crystals under mechanical load. They therefore represent an active measuring element with the output charge being proportional to the load, i.e. to the pressure applied.

Charge amplifier
The charge generated by a piezoelectric pressure transducer is converted to a voltage signal by means of a charge amplifier. The signal is then fed to the data acquisition and evaluation equipment (Indicating System) for further processing.

Measurement cabling
The measurement cabling is used to transmit the charge and voltage signals. Due to the low electrical charge output of pressure transducers, the connection between the transducer and the charge amplifier is of critical importance.

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-1

Very high insulation values and low noise are required both for the measurement cabling and the charge amplifier. The following equipment is also required before measurements can be carried out on the IC engine:

Crank angle encoder

+ Chapter 9

A crank angle encoder mounted on the crankshaft of an IC engine delivers the time/angle basis for crank angle-related acquisition of the pressure curve.

Indicating equipment
Information: [9] Indicating Technology

+ AVL Product

The analogue output voltage signal of the charge amplifier is digitized and recorded by means of a so called indicating equipment. Indicating equipment comprises at least an Analogue/Digital converter (ADC), a data acquisition unit based on the crank angle (CAM-C Crank Angle Marker Control Unit) and a fast memory for temporary storage of the raw data. The data is taken from the memory and the indicating parameters calculated, stored, and displayed by means of a computer that, in some systems, is already integrated. Other equipment that may be required includes:

Pressure transducer cooling


Water-cooled pressure transducers are often used for precision pressure measurements. They have to be continuously cooled during operation and therefore require an appropriate cooling system to be installed.

Display
The measurement signals can be visually checked on the indicating equipment itself or, if the indicating equipment has no display, via an oscilloscope.

2-2

Engine Indicating

2.1 The Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer


Piezoelectric pressure transducers are characterized by the fact that their transducer element is made of a piezoelectric material whereby the pressure is transmitted to it via a diaphragm. Piezoelectric pressure transducers are eminently suitable for dynamic measurements. Because of their inherent working principle, however, they cannot be used for static pressures.

2.1.1 The Piezoelectric Measuring Principle


Generally speaking, piezoelectricity denotes an interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state in certain types of crystal [16], [23]. As shown in Figure 2-2, a distinction is made between the reciprocal and the direct piezoelectric effect relevant to the pressure measurement.
Piezoelectricity: in 1880 Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered first of all the direct piezoelectric effect on tourmaline crystals. They established that the pressure applied in certain directions to opposing crystal faces produces reverse-poled electric charges on the surfaces, which are proportional to the applied pressure. Later they found the same effect on quartz and other asymmetric crystals. The reciprocal electrical effect was first predicted by Lippmann based on thermodynamic considerations and also later discovered by the Curie brothers in experiments.

Direct piezoelectric effect Description A mechanical deformation of a piezoelectric body causes a change in the electric polarisation that is proportional to the deformation.
F
++++++++++++++++++ ------------------

Reciprocal piezoelectric effect An external electrical Field E causes mechanical stresses proportional to the field, which alter the size of the piezo-crystal.
E E

For measuring mechanical parameters, especially of forces, pressures and accelerations Figure 2-2: Piezoelectric effects

Application

In ultrasonic and telecommunications engineering

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-3

The phenomenon of the direct piezoelectric effect can described for the electrically free state of a piezo-crystal (achieved in experiments most easily by short-circuiting the transducers electrodes) by Equation 2-1.
Flow density

Di = di . T Di (i = 1 to 3) di Vector of the electric flow density

(2-1)

Tensor of the piezoelectric coefficient according to Equation 2-2

d11 d12 di = d21 d22 d31 d32

d13 d23 d33

d14 d15 d24 d25 d34 d35

d16 d26 d36

(2-2)

T ( = 1 to 6) Tensor of the mechanical stresses (with T1 to T3 for normal stresses x, y, z and T4 to T6 for tangential stresses yz, xz and xy) Each piezoelectric coefficient (dI) determines the relationship of a specific stress tensor coordinate (T) with a specific vector coordinate of the electrical flow density.
Charge output

Equation 2-3 then applies to charge output (Q) of the face of the crystal element covered by the electrodes. Q = A . D i . ni A ni face area (i = 1 to 3) components of the normal vector of the face (2-3)

2.1.2 Piezoelectric Measuring Element Designs


We make a distinction between different types of piezoelectric effect depending on the direction of the piezoelectric polarisation in relation to the direction of the applied force. The longitudinal and transversal effects are primary used for pressure transducers.

2-4

Engine Indicating

Longitudinal Effect
The measuring elements are usually disc-shaped and the charge output occurs on the face itself where the force is applied, see Figure 2-3. If the crystallographic x-axis and the direction in which the force is applied are the same, the charge output is as shown in Equation 2-4 assuming a uniaxial stress condition.

Q = A . d11 . x = A . d11 .

F = d11 . F A
x

(2-4)

F r

Charge output

Figure 2-3: Measuring element for the longitudinal effect

The charge output resulting from the longitudinal effect does not therefore depend on the geometry of the measuring element but purely on the force (F) applied. Several discs can be connected force-wise in series and electrically parallel to increase the charge output (sensitivity), see Figure 2-4. One advantage of this design is that it permits a compact and resistant measuring element. Not only that but the charge is output straight from the pressed faces so that contact problems in the charge pick-up are virtually excluded.
Figure 2-4: Increasing the charge output with the longitudinal effect
F
+ + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + +

Q+

Q-

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-5

Transversal effect
The measuring elements are bar-shaped and the charge is output perpendicular to the faces to which the force is applied, see Figure 2-5. Assuming a uniaxial stress condition, the charge output can be determined using Equation 2-5 for a purely transversal cut (i.e. the longitudinal axis of the bar lies in exactly the direction of the crystallographic y-axis, one side face is perpendicular to the z-axis and the charge is picked-up on the faces perpendicular to the x-axis).

Q = A . d12 . y = l . b . d12 .
z
Charge output

F l = d12 . F . a. b a

(2-5)

F a

b y

Figure 2-5: Measuring element for the transversal effect

In addition to the electrical properties of the piezo material used, the charge yield is determined in particular by the thinness of the measuring element (l/a). With a favourable edge ratio (l/a), greater polarisation charges can be achieved with the transversal effect but the dimensional design constitutes a practical limit due to the limited mechanical strength of the piezo material.

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Engine Indicating

2.1.3 Piezoelectric Materials for Using Pressure Transducers


Materials used for piezoelectric measuring elements (i.e. piezo materials) in pressure transducers must above all have the following properties:

Good measuring behaviour

High output signal The piezoelectric sensitivity, which is determined by piezoelectric coefficient (di), is decisive for the amplitude of the output signal. The coefficients relevant to the generation of the measurement signal in the transducer should be as large as possible.

Good linearity There should be the best linear ratio possible between the measurement parameter (i.e. pressure) and the charge output.

High natural frequency High natural frequencies require high mechanical rigidity. Good insulation A high electrical insulation resistance is essential for low electrical drift and allows similar-to-static measuring with piezoelectric transducers.

+ Chapter 2.2.2

Good resistance

High mechanical strength High mechanical strength is essential when large forces, pressures and accelerations are to be measured and for the transducer to be resilient to mechanical impact.

High temperature resistance

Stability of the measuring properties and their immunity against external influences

Temperature and mechanical load Achieving a piezoelectric sensitivity that does not depend on temperature and mechanical load is a very difficult task. The choice of material and the orientation of the piezoelectric elements in relation to

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-7

the crystallographic axes can help to find the solution. Basically no pyroelectric effect should occur with the piezo materials used.

Pyroelectric effect: denotes the effect of the charge output of piezo materials under the influence of temperature.

Low price

Low material costs Easy machining

2.1.3.1 Quartz (SiO2)


The classic piezoelectric material for pressure transducers is quartz (SiO2), see Figure 2-6. Quartz occurs in several modifications based on siliciumz oxygen-tetrahedons. Its low temperature modification known as -quartz (lowquartz), which occurs below 573 C is used for piezoelectric applications. When the temperature is increased above 573 C a phase change occurs and the resultant modification is called -quartz (highquartz).
Figure 2-6: Quartz crystal

Because of the unavoidable flaws and impurities in naturally grown quartz, nowadays we only use cultured quartzes (using hydrothermal synthesis) to obtain consistently high quality.

Hydrothermal synthesis: using this process quartz crystals are created in thickwalled steel autoclaves at pressures between 0.3 and 1.3 kbar and temperatures of around 400 C. Water with small additives of Na2CO3 or NaOH is used as the solvent. The material is transported primarily by convection. Large quartz crystals with a mass of more than 1kg take several weeks to grow.

Temperature significantly influences the piezoelectric properties of quartz. Figure 2-8 shows piezoelectric constant (d11) as a function of the temperature. (d11) already starts to significantly decrease in the most frequently used temperature range up to about 250 C and finally disappears completely at the conversion temperature of 573 C. In

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Engine Indicating

addition, the load limit decreases with rising temperature due to twin formation.
Twin formation: in -quartz so called Dauphin twins (i.e. secondary twin formation) can form at high loads in certain areas of the crystal where the mathematical sign of the piezoelectric coefficients sometimes changes resulting in lower sensitivity. Whereas twins form at room temperature only at pressures of approx. 5.108 to 9.108 Pa, as the temperature increases, twin formation starts to occur at lower loads, and twin formation can be observed even in unloaded quartz just below the conversion temperature of 573 C. It has been found that twins, which formed under load can completely disappear again when the load is removed. But if the mechanical load is applied for a longer period, stable twins can also develop which result in a permanent reduction of the piezoelectric sensitivity.

Conventional measuring elements made of quartz can therefore only be used up to temperatures of about 200 to 250 C, which means that the measuring element requires appropriate cooling for applications in IC engines where temperatures much higher than 400 C can occur at the measuring position. To improve the thermal behaviour with the transversal effect may be utilized (by contrast to the longitudinal effect) by defining the cut of the crystal in such a way that the effective piezoelectric coefficient remains relatively independent of the temperature within a certain temperature range. At the same time, such crystal cuts do not usually have a strong tendency to form twins. They can therefore be used to make measuring elements suitable for temperatures up to approx. 350 C.
Thermally stable cut quartz

2.1.3.2 Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4)


In recent years the piezo material Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4) has been developed especially for high temperature applications. It has distinguished itself in particular with its high piezoelectric sensitivity that is largely independent of temperature. The crystal structure of Gallium Orthophosphate can be derived from -quartz by replacing silicium alternatively with gallium and phosphorus, see Figure 2-7: Crystal structure of Gallium Orthophosphate. -Gallium Orthophosphate is stable up to a temperature of 933 C and above that changes into the high cristobalite type.

+ AVL Product
Information: [7] Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4)

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-9

Figure 2-7: Crystal structure of Gallium Orthophosphate

6 5

Galliumortophosphate

d11[pC/N]

4 3 2 1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 933 1200

Quartz

Temperature [C]

Galliumorthophosphat Quartz -Quartz

-GaPO4 -Quartz
573 870

Highcristobalit

Tridymit

Figure 2-8: Temperature dependency of piezoelectric constant (d11) for quartz and Gallium Orthophosphate

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Engine Indicating

The following properties Orthophosphate

represent

the

main

advantages

of

Gallium

temperature-resistant up to more than 900 C almost twice the sensitivity of quartz which remains virtually unchanged up to far in excess of 500 C (see Figure 2-8) high electrical insulation resistance up to high temperatures stable against stress-induced twin formation no pyroelectric effect
The excellent thermal behaviour and high sensitivity of Gallium Orthophosphate have made great advances over quartz possible especially when building uncooled miniature pressure transducers [24].

+ AVL Product

Information: [6] Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation

2.1.3.3 Other Piezo Materials


In addition to quartz and Gallium Orthophosphate, there is a whole range of other piezo materials that, however, have various disadvantages that make them only suitable to a certain extent for use in piezoelectric pressure measurements. They include:

Tourmaline
Tourmaline is an aluminium borosilicate. Tourmaline crystals have the advantage that they cannot form twins, but have a relatively strong pyroelectric effect.

Langasite
The disadvantage of langasite is that its piezoelectric sensitivity depends relatively heavily on the temperature.

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3)


The disadvantage of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate is above all the fact that the electrical resistance decreases with rising temperature.

Piezoceramics (barium titanate, etc.)


In piezoceramics the material properties also depend to a relatively large extent on the temperature.

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-11

2.1.4 Construction of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers


2.1.4.1 Water-cooled Pressure Transducers
Information: [6] Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation

+ AVL Product

A wide range of piezoelectric pressure transducer designs is available for use in IC engines. We will illustrate the basic construction first by using the example of a water-cooled quartz pressure transducer using the longitudinal effect, shown in Figure 2-9.

Cooling water nipples

Connector

Insulator Electrode
-

Measuring element

Compensation Disk Pressure Plate Diaphragm Pressure

Figure 2-9: Construction of a piezoelectric pressure transducer based on the longitudinal effect (from AVL) Mounting thread M14x1.25

The pressure (p) to be measured acts via a pliable diaphragm and a short, rigid pressure plate on the piezoelectric measuring element. The function of the pressure plate is to create as even a mechanical stress state as possible in the measuring element. The compensation disc between the measuring element and pressure plate compensates for differences caused by thermal expansion. The measuring element and the diaphragm are surrounded by a water jacket and

2-12

Engine Indicating

intensively cooled during operation. That ensures that the measuring element only becomes a little warmer than the cooling water when used in the engine (typically up to about 10C, in extreme cases 20 C above the cooling water temperature). To increase the charge output the measuring elements usually comprise several disc-shaped elements. Each disc (here made of quartz) is coated with metal so that the electrical parallel connection is guaranteed by bridges with contact tongues and insulation zones (Figure 2-9 right). The pressure transducer housing is electrically connected to the positive electrode of the measuring element and thus represents the electrical ground. For the electric charge output, the negative electrode is connected to a connector, which is highly insulated against the Cooling housing. water Figure 2-10 shows by comparison a crosssection of a water-cooled quartz pressure transducer based on the transversal effect. Since with the transversal effect, the polarisation charges occur on the unloaded lateral faces, those faces are fitted with vapour-deposited electrodes contacted by a spiral spring.
nipples

+ Chapter 2.1.2

Electrode

Measuring Element

Diaphragm

Figure 2-10: Construction of piezoelectric pressure transducers based on the transversal effect (from Kistler) Mounting thread M14x1.25

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-13

2.1.4.2 Uncooled Miniature Pressure Transducers

+ Chapter 5

With the compact designs of modern IC engines the use of multiple valve technology, less and less installation space is available and miniature pressure transducers are now playing a more and more significant role in engine indicating. These transducers can also be installed on test engines without requiring any mechanical interventions (i.e. spark or glow plug adaptors). Figure 2-11 shows the construction of such a miniature pressure transducer (transversal effect). Miniature pressure transducers usually have to manage without watercooling which places extremely high demands on the piezo materials (i.e. use of GaPO4) and on the transducer design.
Measuring element

Figure 2-11: Uncooled miniature pressure transducer (from AVL) Mounting thread M5x0.5

2.1.5 Pressure Transducer Cooling


Generally speaking, cooling increases the stability and heat flow load-bearing capability of pressure transducers. The direct water cooling of the diaphragm and measuring element mean the following advantages for the pressure transducer:

Overheating of the measuring element is avoided

+ Chapter 3.1.2.3

The temperature has less influence on the sensitivity (quartz) and thermal drift The insulation resistance is not decreased by high temperatures Direct water cooling permits the pressure transducer to be installed flush with the combustion chamber even in measurement positions subject to high thermal load

2-14

Engine Indicating

2.1.5.1 Pressure Transducer Cooling Systems


Pressure transducer cooling systems usually have a closed cooling circuit with a tank, pump and return cooling. The pressure transducer should be cooled with distilled or de-ionised water because deposits can form in the transducer if calcium-containing water is used which can result in blocked cooling channels. The latest cooling systems have temperature control and flow rate monitoring.

+ AVL Product

Information: [6] Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation

2.1.5.2 Influences of the Cooling System on the Pressure Signal


It is important that the cooling of the pressure transducer is constant and free from pulsations, i.e. that no vibrations are transmitted to the cooling medium either from the coolant pump itself or from external devices (e.g. movement of pumps, hoses, etc.). Any change in the cooling water pressure is superimposed on the measuring signal. The term cooling water crosstalk is often applied to water-cooled pressure transducers in this context, which is a measure of the change in the pressure transducers output signal as a function of fluctuation in the cooling water pressure.

+ Chapter 3.1.2.2

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-15

2.2 Charge Amplifier


The charge output from the pressure transducer is converted to a voltage signal in the charge amplifier (see Figure 2-12).

Figure 2-12: Charge amplifier (e.g. from AVL)

2.2.1 Operating Principle


As can be seen from the circuit diagram shown in Figure 2-13, a charge amplifier basically consists of an amplifier (V) with very high inner voltage gain and a negative feedback capacitor (CG).

RFG R

Long

Short Reset

CF CG
I I IIso INS

III

A V VO UA

UEI U

PT DA

C CCK

R INS RISO

Charge Amplifier Ladungsverstrker Figure 2-13: Circuit diagram of a charge amplifier

2-16

Engine Indicating

When a charge is delivered from a piezoelectric pressure transducer (PT), there is a slight voltage increase at the input of the amplifier (A). This increase appears at the output substantially amplified and negative in other words, the output voltage has a negative polarity as opposed to the input voltage. The thus negatively biased negative feedback capacitor (CF) correspondingly taps charge from the input and therefore keeps the voltage rise small at the amplifier input. At the output of the amplifier (A) precisely the voltage (VO) sets itself that picks up enough charge through the capacitor to allow the remaining input voltage results in exactly (VO) when amplified by (A). Because the gain factor of A is very large (up to about 100 000), the input voltage (VI) remains virtually zero. The charge output from the pressure transducer is not used to charge, i.e. to increase the voltage at the input capacitances, but is drawn off by the feedback capacitor. Changes in the input capacitance - e.g. due to different cables with different cable capacitance (CC) therefore have virtually no effect on the measurement result. The output voltage (VO) of the amplifier is directly proportional to the charge output (Q) of the transducer and inversely proportional to the capacitance of the negative feedback capacitor (CF,), see Interrelationship 2-7: VO - Q / CF (2-7)

By activating appropriate capacitance values many measurement ranges (RANGE setting) may be realized.

2.2.2 Electrical Drift


If the measurement parameter stays constant, i.e. if the pressure on the transducer stays constant, we would expect a constant voltage at the amplifier output. In the piezoelectric measurement system, however, there is always an inherent drift in the output signal due to the working principle of the system. If the cause of the drift is electrical, we call it electrical drift (see also Temperature drift).

+ Chapter 3.1.2.3

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-17

Reasons for electrical drift are basically:

Discharge of the negative feedback capacitor


The full output voltage (VO) is applied to the negative feedback capacitor. A leakage current is caused due to the only finitely high insulation value of the capacitor, which results in the gradual discharge of the capacitor, see Figure 2-14 which shows the discharge curve of a capacitor. The discharge process is determined by the time constant (). The time constant is an important yardstick for assessing the capability of a piezoelectric measurement system for so-called similar-to-static measuring, i.e. for permitting the measurement of very slow phenomena without any significant errors due to the discharge of the capacitor.

Time constant: denotes the characteristic time period for an RC unit (i.e. combination of resistor - capacitor) in which the capacitor would just be fully discharged if the discharge current stayed at its initial value (see Figure 2-14). In practice the voltage at the capacitor is still always the eth part of the initial value after the time constant () has expired.

The time constant can be determined mathematically from the product of resistance (R) responsible for the discharge and the capacitor capacitance (C). The time constant is 1000 s for typical values for the insulation resistance of 1013 and a capacitance (C) of 100 pF. The time constant can be increased to 10000 s at the same capacitor capacitance (C) by increasing the insulation resistance to a value of 1014 .
U V U0 VO

~0.37 U0 ~0.37VO Utt V t= =R.C t t

Figure 2-14: Definition of the time constant when discharging a capacitor

Input offset voltage


A certain input offset voltage (VE) and an input current (II) occur at the input of the amplifier (A) due to its non-ideal properties. The input offset voltage also acts on the terminal resistor (RINS) (see Figure 2-13) and causes the insulation current (IINS). The total current (I) made up of the input

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Engine Indicating

current (I) and insulation current (IINS) causes a drift in the output voltage signal. The result can be an inflow or outflow of charges depending on the polarity of the input offset voltage. The consequence of the individual drift effects can best be illustrated by means of a simple pressure jump, see Figure 2-15, top. In an ideal situation, the curve of the voltage at the amplifier output labelled would be produced in response to the pressure jump, which represents an analogue mapping of the pressure curve. However, the discharge process of the negative feedback capacitor that is due to the insulation resistance not being infinite, means that the result is a drift curve that looks like curve . The voltage at the output drops towards zero in accordance with an exponential function.
p

t U VO A Sttigung Saturation 5

Input-offset <0

Input offset < 0

Input-offset <0 and RF (Short)

6 1

Input offset < 0 Input-Offset >0 and RG (Short)


Discharge CF

Ideal Ideal

Input offset > 0 2 Endladung CG


t

Figure 2-15: Electrical drift effect

Linear drift curves like curves and occur when input currents at the amplifier input and/or leakage currents flow through the terminal insulation resistors of the cable and/or pressure transducer due to an input offset voltage. Without suitable countermeasures, such as Short mode, drift compensation etc. (see Chapter 2.2.3), the output voltage signal will drift in both cases until the amplifier is saturated (see for example).

+ Chapter 2.2.3

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-19

The output voltage can then only be returned to zero by closing the reset switch (see Figure 2-13) that effectively discharges the negative feedback capacitor. In practice, the drift effects described above rarely occur on their own but are usually superimposed on one another.

2.2.3

Counteracting Electrical Drift

Basically the following measures can be taken to counter electrical drift:

High insulation values


Both the amplifier input and the pressure transducer and measurement cable including the connectors must be highly insulated (insulation values at room temperature in the order of 1013 ) otherwise unacceptably high leakage currents can flow and it is impossible to obtain meaningful measurement results.

SHORT operating mode

/ Source of errors

By connecting an additional resistor for negative feedback in parallel (RF) (SHORT mode - see Figure 2-13), the drift due to input offset can be restricted to a certain value and drifting into saturation can be prevented, see curve in Figure 2-15. This means that measurements are also possible in SHORT mode even when the insulation is not so good. It is usually only suitable, however, for monitoring purposes because the pressure signal is phase-offset due to the resultant dramatically reduced time constant depending on speed and RANGE setting and has a smaller amplitude. To illustrate this influence, Figure 2-16 shows the pressure differential curves determined using a reference transducer on a test engine at a speed of 2000 rpm. The signal from the transducer being tested was first acquired in SHORT mode and then in LONG mode - i.e. without connecting the negative feedback resistor, under the same load conditions. Measurements in SHORT mode cause errors similar to those due to cyclic temperature drift. Precision measurements are thus only possible in LONG mode and when maintaining the required insulation values.

+ Chapter 3.1.2.3

2-20

Engine Indicating

Cylinder pressure Zylinderdruck [bar][bar] 60


50 40 30 20 10 0 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270

2
ZOT Ignition TDC UT BTC

Differential Pressure Druckdifferenz [bar] Ignition TDC [bar]


0.4 0 -0.4 -0.8 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 SHORT 150 180 210 240 270 LONG

ZOT Ignition TDC

UT BTC

Crank Angle [CA] Kurbelwinkel [KW]

Figure 2-16: Typical effect of SHORT mode on the measurement result at low speed and with low transducer sensitivity

Drift compensation
Some charge amplifiers on the market have an activatable electronic drift compensation. One possible type of drift compensation is implemented by feeding a compensation current to the input of the operation amplifier which is as large as the current discharged via the insulation resistors. The drift compensation must be deactivated during calibration of the piezoelectric pressure measurement system.

+ AVL Product
Information: [11] 3066A02 Piezo Amplifier

/ Source of errors

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-21

2.2.4 Electrical Filters


Electrical filters are used to eliminate certain frequencies from the measurement signal:

High pass filter


With high pass filters, high frequencies are transmitted unchanged, while low frequencies experience attenuation and phase lead (i.e. skew). A typical application example for high pass filters is in the analysis of knock phenomena where the knock oscillations themselves are of primary interest without the superimposed cylinder pressure signal.

Low pass filter


With low pass filters, low frequencies are transmitted unchanged, while high frequencies experience attenuation and phase lag (i.e. skew). Low pass filters are used mainly to remove high frequency, interference signal content from the measurement signal, e.g. structure-borne noise signals from the engine that are transmitted to the transducer. What are known as Bessel filters are often used for this purpose in engine instrumentation applications.

Bessel filter: the major advantage of the Bessel filter is its linear phase shift-to-frequency ratio. That means that any signal only experiences a single skew (apart from the desired amplitude attenuation of high frequencies). The signal shape is not then distorted. A Bessel filter is ideal for engine measurements because a skew can be compensated by shifting TDC.

/ Source of errors

When using electrical filters, it should be borne in mind that a certain skew will always result, which can cause errors. For example, a skew has a negative effect on the accuracy of the IMEP determination when a low pass filter is used. The higher the engine speed, the higher the lowest permitted filter frequency (rule of thumb: the main frequency of the cylinder pressure signal should not be more than 1 % of the filter frequency to avoid unacceptable skew).

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Engine Indicating

2.3 Measurement Cabling


The charge produced by piezoelectric pressure transducers is very low which is why special demands are made on the connection cable between the pressure transducer and the charge amplifier:

+ Chapter 3.3

High insulation resistance


The piezoelectric measurement system as a whole requires a very high insulation resistance in the pressure transducer/cable/connector system and at the charge amplifier input in order to avoid excessive electrical drift. A value > 1013 at room temperature is a guideline.

+ Chapter 2.2.2

Good screening
Adjacent cables and devices may cause interference signals in the measurement lines. Measurement cables should therefore never be placed near mains supply lines or other sources of interference and they should be kept as short as possible.

+ AVL Product

Information: [8] IFEM Indicating Front End Module

Freedom from "motion noise"


When subject to vibration, conventional coaxial cables generate friction electricity due to relative motion between the screen mesh and the insulation material (i.e. triboelectrification). The "useful charge" is then superimposed by an "interference charge" generated by vibration in the cable. Low-noise cables are necessary therefore that have an additional conductive layer of carbon or conductive plastic.

Short cable length


The cable length basically has little effect on the measurement signal when a charge amplifier is used. Very long cables, however, have the effect of reducing the upper cut-off frequency, see Figure 2-17. Also, the longer the cable, the lower the insulation resistance. We recommend therefore that cables no longer than 15 m should be used. If a longer cable is unavoidable, you should check the effect it has.

/ Source of errors + AVL Product


Information: [11] 3066A02 Piezo Amplifier

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-23

Figure 2-17: Basic effect of cable length on the upper cut-off frequency

2.4 Preventing Electrical Interference Signals


Experience has shown that interference signals occur mainly due to ground loops and the effect of electromagnetic fields. The more favourable the signal/noise ratio, the less effect there is from this type of interference, which can above all be achieved by using pressure transducers with high sensitivity.

2.4.1 Ground Loop


Piezoelectric pressure transducers are usually a single-pole design, i.e. one of the two poles is electrically conductive with the transducer housing and thus connected to the engine block. Each potential difference between the engine block and the measurement ground therefore drives a current through the shield of the input cable and can cause interference signals. Experience has shown that ground loop problems occur more significantly when more than one pressure transducer is connected to the same engine and same evaluation unit. Remedies include:

Laying a low-ohm connection between the engine block and evaluation unit (the best way is with copper mesh of at least 10 mm2 cross-section) Inserting a differential amplifier (or isolated amplifier) between the charge amplifier output and the evaluation unit. The intermediately connected amplifiers must then be operated with their own, electrically segregated

2-24

Engine Indicating

power supplies. With some amplifiers available on the market, such differential amplifiers are already installed with appropriate supplies.

2.4.2 Interference due to Electromagnetic Fields


Possible sources of electrical and magnetic fields on the test bed are the engines ignition system, the electric dynamometer or other current-conducting systems. Interference occurs primarily when there are interference sources near the input circuit of the charge amplifier. Remedies include:

Using shielded input cables Laying the input cable separated from AC voltage-conducting lines and other interference sources Keeping the input cable as short as possible

The Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

2-25

2-26

Engine Indicating

3 Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System


This chapter deals with the characteristics of the various components of the piezoelectric pressure measurement system, which on the one hand form the basis on which they are selected and on the other allow us to assess the effects of influences during operation.

3.1 Characteristics of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers


3.1.1 Operating Conditions
The external influences that act on the piezoelectric pressure transducer when in use can substantially affect the measurement result. Figure 3-1 shows the main influences. Apart from the pressure itself, these primarily include:

Temperature and heat flow


Due to the very high working gas temperatures (approx. 2400 C) during combustion, pressure transducers are subject to very high heat flow loads during operation. In extreme cases, cyclic heat flows occur with an amplitude of more than 1000 W/cm2 (for example, during knocking combustion) and average heat flows occur at up to 50 W/cm2. The very high heat flow load produces very high temperatures in the transducer. In uncooled pressure transducers, temperatures of up to 500 C in the front area, up to 400 C at the measuring element and up to 200 C at the connector are not unusual. In cooled transducers, the temperature level is by their very nature substantially lower. If the cooling is sufficient, the temperatures in the front area are usually about 100 C, the temperatures at the measuring element are about 20 C higher than that of the coolant temperature of the pressure transducer cooling system and the connector reaches about the coolant temperature.

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-1

Temperatur in the transducer


cooled / uncooled

Vibration / Shock
1000g

Tcool / 200 C

Deformation Stress

Tcool + max. 20C/ 400 C

Heat Flux Chemical / soot deposits


500 W/cm2 permanent 1000 W/cm2 - cyclic

Figure 3-1: External influences on the pressure transducer

Accelerations
Structure-borne noise and also general vibrations of the engine cause accelerations at the pressure transducer. Acceleration values from engine vibrations can reach up to 1000 g at the transducer (or in extreme cases even up to 2000 g).

Deformation stresses
Gas and mass forces, and the thermal load result in deformation stresses of up to 200 N/mm2 at the pressure transducer mounting position.

Chemical influence and deposits


Combustion products occur in the engine, which can damage the pressure transducer due to corrosion.

3-2

Engine Indicating

In addition, deposits occur on the surface of the combustion chamber in both petrol and diesel engines and therefore also on the pressure transducer. That can also affect the measurement result.

3.1.2 Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer Parameters


To be able to predict the reaction to the influences described in Chapter 3.1.1 and their effect on the measurement, a whole series of other parameters apart from the basic properties are specified for piezoelectric pressure transducers that are to be used in IC engines, such as permissible operating conditions and transmission behaviour. Special test methods have been developed for some of these parameters. The main piezoelectric pressure transducer parameters are described below.

3.1.2.1 Permissible Operating Conditions


O Measurement range [bar]

The measurement range defines the pressure range in which the pressure transducer fulfils the defined specifications (see Figure 3-2).

Q [pC]
1000 800 600

FSO

400 200 0 25 50
Measuring range Mebereich

75

100

125

150

Overload range berlastbereich

Figure 3-2: Measurement and overload range O Overload range [bar]

Druck [bar] Pressure [bar]

The specification limits may be exceeded in the overload range but that must not have any lasting effect on the measurement properties of the pressure transducer (see Figure 3-2). In the overload range, however, no clear relationship can be expected between the pressure and the output quantity.

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-3

O Operating temperature range [C]

Temperature range in which the pressure transducer fulfils the defined specifications. Connection cables lead to components that remain cool during operation. They therefore have a lower operating temperature range, as do transducer parts that only serve the purpose of signal transmission in cooler ranges (e.g. measurement probes).
O Lifetime [ ]

Number of load cycles over which the transducer retains its technical measurement properties. This represents a purely comparative number that is achieved on highly loaded engines. Favourable installation conditions prolong a transducers lifetime while extreme operating conditions, e.g. combinations of very high temperatures, pressure rises, deformations of the mounting position and corrosive environment, can shorten it.

3.1.2.2 Transmission Behaviour O Sensitivity [pC/bar]


Ratio of the change in the output signal (i.e. charge) to the associated change in the measurement quantity (i.e. pressure).
O Linearity deviation [% FSO]

Deviation of the pressure transducer characteristic from the best straight line with forced zero point.

+ Chapter 6

Sensitivity and linearity are quantities, which are determined by means of calibration. The sensitivity and linearity values always depend on the method used to determine them. Piezoelectric pressure measurement technology usually uses the best straight line with forced zero point method. This is the centre line which travels through the zero point and lies between two parallel straight lines that enclose the pressure transducer characteristic as closely as possible, see Figure 3-3.

3-4

Engine Indicating

FSO [%]
100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 -A
best straight line beste Gerade with forced zeromit Zwangsnullpunkt point

+A Qmax

3
60 80 100

Measuring range [%] Mebereich

Figure 3-3: Sensitivity and linearity

The mean sensitivity is defined as the gradient of the best straight line with forced zero point. The linearity (deviation) is specified in accordance with Equation 3-1 as a percentage of the full-scale signal (% FSO - Full Scale Output). Linearity deviation [% FSO] = A .........

A . 100 Q max

(3-1)

Distance of the straight lines enclosing the characteristic from the best straight line with forced zero point

Qmax ....Maximum value of the output signal (FSO) Piezoelectric pressure transducers show sensitivity scatter due to the way they are manufactured. The sensitivity specified for the individual types of pressure transducer represents a mean value, or what is called the nominal sensitivity. Before being despatched, each pressure transducer is calibrated by the manufacturer and the result (characteristic, sensitivity, linearity) documented on a calibration sheet. It should be borne in mind that running-in processes at very high temperatures and pressures can result in changes in sensitivity of the order of about 1 %.
O Natural frequency 1st order [kHz]

The lowest frequency of free (non-forced) oscillations in the measuring element of a fully assembled transducer. By contrast with the natural frequency, the basic resonance frequency defines the frequency of the measurement quantity at which the pressure

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-5

transducer outputs the output signal with the greatest amplitude. Where there is little attenuation, as is generally the case in piezoelectric pressure transducers, the basic resonance frequency is the same as the natural frequency 1st order. Figure 3-4 shows the result of a resonance frequency determination measurement of an uncooled miniature pressure transducer as an example.
Amplitude
AR

A0 100 200 300 400

Frequency[kHz] Frequenz

Figure 3-4: Resonance frequency spectrum

A high natural frequency is important in particular for measurements at high speeds or knock measurements. The frequency of the measurement quantity or the parts of the signal of the measurement quantity that have to be acquired with great accuracy, should not be more than 20 % of the natural frequency of the pressure transducer used.
O Insulation resistance []

This is the ohmic resistance between the connection for picking up the electric charges and the pressure transducer housing, which represents electrical ground.

+ Chapter 2.2.2

The insulation resistance should be as high as possible (> 1013 at room temperature) to keep the influence of the electrical drift as low as possible.

3-6

Engine Indicating

O Natural capacitance [F]

Piezoelectric pressure transducers have a natural capacitance due to their construction that is primarily due to the electrodes of the measuring element and the capacitances of the connector and the line to the measuring element. This natural capacitance can be ignored when a charge amplifier is used. When an electrometer amplifier1 is used, on the other hand, not only the natural capacitance of the pressure transducer but also the cable capacitance and the input capacitance of the amplifier itself have to be taken into account.
Electrometer amplifier: in an electrometer amplifier, the voltage that occurs in the transducer as a result of the charge transfer is measured direct. The total capacitance in the transducer circuit is decisive for the output voltage. An electrometer system is therefore influenced by the cable length between the transducer and the amplifier. Because of its greater universality, however, the charge amplifier has become standard equipment in laboratory applications. But with its simplicity the electrometer amplifier has the advantage that it fits in the smallest spaces and is therefore integrated, for example, in many piezoelectric accelerometers.

O Cooling water crosstalk


The cooling water crosstalk is a yardstick of the change in the output signal from the pressure transducer as a function of the cooling water fluctuation. A positive pressure fluctuation in the cooling water pressure results in a reduction in the measured pressure. A value (factor) of 0.35 cooling water crosstalk indicates that a change of +0.1 bar in the cooling water pressure causes a change of 0.035 bar in the pressure display.

+ Chapter 2.1.4

3.1.2.3 Temperature and Heat Flow Influences


O Change in sensitivity over the temperature [%/C]

Temporary change in sensitivity when the operating temperature changes within the specified range. The change in sensitivity in piezoelectric pressure transducers is usually described by the temperature coefficient of the sensitivity which indicates

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-7

the actual change in sensitivity as a percentage of the nominal sensitivity per C within a specific temperature range. With small temperature changes, e.g. when water-cooled pressure transducers are used, the change in sensitivity is negligible or allowed for by the mean temperature coefficient. Otherwise the effect of temperature can be allowed by calibrating the pressure transducer at operating temperature, i.e. at the mean measuring element temperature that occurs during operation.
O Temperature drift

By temperature drift we mean the "pressure indicating" that is caused solely by the temperature changes at the pressure transducer and mounting position.

+ Chapter 4

Temperature drifts represent critical measurement errors in many measurements. In addition to the design of the pressure transducer, the temperature drift is mainly caused by the magnitude and sequence in which the pressure transducer is heated which also strongly depends on the installation position of the pressure transducer. In pressure indicating on IC engines, a clear distinction can be made between two temperature drift phenomena:

the cyclic temperature drift and the load change drift.


O Cyclic temperature drift (short term drift, thermoshock) [bar]

The maximum error pressure reading within a cycle related to a point at the start of the heating phase caused by the cyclic heating of the pressure transducer. This problem is more severe at low speeds. In other words, this is the errored pressure reading that occurs due to cyclic heating of the pressure transducer within a cycle. To illustrate the cyclic temperature drift, Figure 3-5 shows the result of an FEM simulation of an uncooled miniature pressure transducer. The temperature distribution and deformation of the transducer is resulting from the cyclic heat flow load is illustrated for three different points in the cycle
1

Electrometer amplifiers are virtually no longer used nowadays for measurements with piezoelectric pressure transducers on IC engines.

3-8

Engine Indicating

(25 CA before ignition TDC as well as 25 CA and 180 CA after ITDC). Pronounced deformations in the vicinity of the pressure transducer diaphragm can clearly be seen at the 25 CA after ITDC point. The loads on the measuring element due to the deformation finally result in the cyclic temperature drift shown at the bottom of the figure. [4]

Cyclic Temperature Drift

Ignition TDC

Crank Angle [CA]

Gasexchange TDC

Figure 3-5: Temperature distribution and deformation of a pressure transducer and curve of the cyclic temperature drift with cyclic heating at the front face (result of an FEM simulation)

Since in many cases the cyclic temperature drift acts over a large crank angle range, the influence on quantities that are integrated over a cycle (e.g. the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)) is considerable. Figure 3-6 shows the effect of a characteristic cyclic temperature drift curve on the determination of the indicated mean effective pressure and the energy

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-9

balance. By contrast, the effect of a pressure-proportional error of the same magnitude, as caused by a change in sensitivity, is much smaller.
Zylinderdruck [bar] Cylinder pressure [bar] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -90 -60 -30 0 ZOT 30 60
[%] 80 60 40 20 0 Abweichung im indizierten Mitteldruck Deviations in indicated mean effective pressure Deviations in the energy balance Abweichung in der Energiebilanz

ITDC

Pressure difference [bar] Druckdifferenz [bar]


0.4 0 -0.4 -0.8 -90 -60

pressure Druckproportionaler proportional Fehler error

Cyclic Zyklische Temperature TemperaturdriftDrift

-30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 BDC Ignition TDC ZOT UT Crank Angle [ CA] Kurbelwinkel [KW]

240

270

Figure 3-6: Deviations in indicated mean effective pressure and in the energy balance due to an error that is proportional to the pressure and due to cyclic temperature drift

Characteristic values to describe the cyclic temperature drift are determined firstly by unpressurised, cyclic heating of the transducer in a special tester and secondly in real engine operation by comparative measurement with a reference transducer.

Determination by unpressurised, cyclic heating


Here, the tester [18] shown schematically in Figure 3-7 is used which allows the unloaded pressure transducer to be exposed to a cyclic heating of a similar magnitude and frequency to that which occurs in the engine. Opposite the transducer being tested is a radiant heating surface, which is alternately covered and uncovered by a rotating chopper wheel so that a heat flow as shown in Figure 3-8 is produced at the transducer. The radiant heat surface is electrically heated to temperatures of over

3-10

Engine Indicating

2000 C, which means that heat flows of more than 100 W/cm2 can be produced. The pressure transducer is inserted in a solid, cooled steel plate, flush with the plate surface.
Angle Encoder Winkelaufnehmer

Power Supply Stromversorgung Speed (n) Drehzahl (n) I U Chopper Wheel Blendenrad Graphite radiant heater Graphitheizflche N2 2Atmosphere N - Atmosphre Water cooled wassergekhlt

Transducer Aufnehmer

Chopper wheel Graphite heating surface

Transducer
Figure 3-7: Tester for determining the cyclic temperature drift (diagram)

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-11

Chopper Blende offen orifice open


. qo

Chopper Blende geschlossen orifice closed

Surface Heat Flux

q
. qm . qu

30

60 90 120 Rotation Angle [] Drehwinkel

150

180

Figure 3-8: Curve of heat flow density in the tester

The maximum pressure deviation of the pressure transducer that occurs in a cycle (in relation to the value of the measurement signal immediately before the heating phase) at a specific frequency of the chopper wheel and at a specific radiant heating is used as the characteristic value for the cyclic temperature drift.

Determination in real engine operation


The characteristic value for the cyclic temperature drift of a pressure transducer can be determined in real-life engine operation by simultaneous measurement with a reference transducer and determination of the difference between the pressure curve of the transducer being tested and the reference transducer. The reference transducer must satisfy very high accuracy requirements. Usually used for this purpose are water-cooled transducers with very low thermoshock sensitivity. The diaphragm of the reference transducer is furthermore coated with silicone rubber, which means that the heat flow into the diaphragm (caused by the combustion) is significantly reduced. The maximum pressure deviation (in relation to a pressure value before the start of heating) within an engine cycle at a specific load state of the engine is specified as the characteristic value for the cyclic drift.

3-12

Engine Indicating

O Load Change Drift

This denotes the slow drift of the pressure signal after a load change, i.e. a change in the heating over a series of cycles. The load change drift manifests itself as a relatively slow pressure level shift, which is caused by a temperature change in the entire pressure transducer. This shift in level will only stop when the mean temperature in the pressure transducer no longer changes. The characteristic value for the load change drift is determined in real engine operation, by first running the engine at a specific load point and then changing to motored mode by shutting off the fuel supply thus producing a quick change in the mean heating effect on the pressure transducer (by a sudden load change), see Figure 3-9.
[bar] 50
Cylinder pressure

Zylinderdruck

40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time [sec] Zeit

[bar] Niveauverschiebung
Level shift

Load change Lastwechsel

Connecting line of one point each per cycle at same Crank Angle position in the low pressure range Permanent Zero-line Deviation bleibende Abweichung des Druckniveaus

1.0 0 -1.0 -2.0 0

Max. Zero-line max. NullpunktsGradient dp/dt gradient

Load Change Drift Lastwechseldrift


2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Zeit [sec] Time [sec]

Figure 3-9: Load change drift


2

The load change drift is called long-term drift or long- and medium-term drift in older publications.

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-13

The following characteristic values may be derived from the measurement signal thus acquired as shown in the bottom half of Figure 3-9:
O Maximum Zero-line Gradient dp/dt [mbar/ms]

Describes the change in the pressure level per time unit caused by the heat flow, i.e. the maximum drift gradient after the load change.. The Zero-line Gradient causes a clear incline in the pressure curve of the single cycle which is noticeable in the evaluation (IMEP, rate of heat release, etc.) just like other distortions of the pressure curve (e.g. cyclic drift, electrical interference, etc.).
O Permanent Zero-line Deviation [bar]

Zero point deviation 20 s after the change in heat flow. In this range, the load change drift has virtually no gradient any more the individual cycles are thus only shifted in level. Since zero-line determination is in any case necessary in piezoelectric measurements, this deviation has no effect. [3]

3-14

Engine Indicating

3.1.2.4 Acceleration Influence


O Acceleration sensitivity [bar/g]

Pressure transducer output signal due to accelerations affecting the transducer. The acceleration sensitivity denotes the apparent pressure change that appears to take place at an acceleration of 1 g. The acceleration sensitivity of water-cooled pressure transducers is also influenced by the mass of the cooling water in the pressure transducer and feed hoses and is usually significantly higher than in non-cooled mode. For pressure measurements at measuring positions with high acceleration load, such as in intake or exhaust lines or in racing engines at high speed, pressure transducers with low acceleration sensitivity should be used. The extent of the influence of acceleration also depends to a large extent on the installation site, on the direction of the accelerations that occur in relation to the pressure transducer axis, and on the engine speed. Pressure measurements on revving racing engines often reflect a strong influence of structure-borne noise over the entire cycle. Figure 3-10 shows an example of the influence of acceleration. The highfrequency oscillations superimposed on the pressure signal are caused in this specific measurement arrangement by the impact of the intake and outlet valves on the valve seat and transmitted by structure-borne noise.

+ AVL Product

Information: [6] Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation

Zylinderdruck [bar] Cylinder pressure [bar] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Kurbelwinkel [KW] Crank Angle [CA]
Exhaust valve closes Inlet valve schliet Einlassventil closes

Auslassventil schliet

Figure 3-10: Influence of structure-borne noise in the measured pressure signal

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-15

3.1.2.5 Deformation impact


O Deformation sensitivity

Deformation stresses at the measuring position result in load on the pressure transducer (and measuring element), which can produce errors in the pressure signal. The decisive thing for deformation sensitivity, apart from the design, is also the installation principle used for the pressure transducer. Plugin type pressure transducers are usually less sensitive to deformation than threaded types. [2]

3.1.2.6 Chemical Influence and Deposits


Corrosion

Depending on the fuel used, various combustion products form in the engine which can result in corrosive damage to pressure transducers. Thanks to the use of corrosion-resistant materials and special coatings, such problems occur with todays state-of-the-art pressure transducers under very unfavourable conditions only (e.g. when the fuel used has a very high sulphur content). Deposits build up on the combustion chamber walls of both petrol and diesel engines. Combustion residues (soot particulate etc.) tend to form deposits on cooler surfaces in particular. Sooting occurs to a varying extent on the transducer diaphragm depending on the operating conditions and type of pressure transducer. The diaphragm becomes particularly rapidly sooted in measurements in the exhaust system using cooled pressure transducers. These deposits can have negative effects on the measurement result depending on the type of pressure transducer used. In particular when pressure transducers with heat shield are in operation for longer periods, the gap between the heat shield and diaphragm can be filled up with combustion residues, which changes the rigidity in the diaphragm area and thus the sensitivity. In extreme cases an IMEP error of 10% or more can occur. Information about the sensitivity of pressure transducers to sooting can be gained from the characteristic value: IMEP stability.

Deposits

/ Source of errors

3-16

Engine Indicating

O IMEP Stability [%]

Percentage of change in the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) over a defined runtime. IMEP stability is the percentage of the change in the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) over a defined runtime in relation to values determined with a reference pressure transducer. The engine is operated at a constant speed and load and the IMEP values derived from the pressure transducer being tested and a simultaneously operated reference transducer are then compared to determine the IMEP stability. The reference transducer is cleaned and calibrated at regular intervals to verify the continuity of the peripheral conditions.

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-17

3.2 Properties of the Charge Amplifier


The essential properties for the application and choice of charge amplifiers are:
O Polarity

Positive or negative sign of the output voltage with reference to the input charge

+ Chapter 2.2.1

Charge amplifiers have an inverting action, i.e. a negative input charge produces a positive output voltage.
O Sensitivity [mV/pC]

Ratio of the change in the output signal (voltage) to the associated change in the input quantity (i.e. charge). Especially when the output signal is to be digitized a sensitivity range should be selected that allows if possible the full input range of the A/D converter to be used.

+ Chapter 2.2.1

Different sensitivity ranges can be implemented in most charge amplifiers by activating different capacitance values for the negative feedback capacitor (i.e. RANGE setting). There are usually 4 measurement ranges (10, 100, 500 and 1000 bar). Charge amplifiers are usually designed in such a way that when the sensitivity of the pressure transducer used is set at the amplifier in pC/bar, a pressure change corresponding to the chosen measurement range (RANGE) produces a 10 V change in the output voltage. That means that the output voltage of the charge amplifier can be directly assigned to the pressure to be measured without separate calibration of the measurement system. The resulting error, however, can be up to one per cent which is why this method cannot be used for precision measurements.
O Sensitivity error [%]

/ Source of errors

Deviation of the actual transfer factor from the measurement value set at the charge amplifier in % of the measurement value.

+ Chapter 6

This error can be avoided by calibrating the entire measurement system using a dead weight tester.

3-18

Engine Indicating

O Linearity error [%]

Deviation from the ideal straight charge-voltage characteristic in relation to the maximum output voltage The linearity error of charge amplifiers is minimal (in the order of 0.01%) and therefore usually negligible.
O Lower cut-off frequency [Hz]

3
+ Chapter 2.2.2

-3 dB cut-off frequency of the charge amplifier in SHORT mode. The lower cut-off frequency essentially depends on the time constant of the amplifier. It is determined by the value of the negative feedback capacitor and the resistor connected in parallel to it. The lower cut-off frequency (fl) for -3 dB drop is calculated in accordance with Equation 3-2.

fl =

1 2 R F C F

(3-2)

RF ......... Resistance of negative feedback resistor CF ......... Capacitance of negative feedback capacitor The longest time constant and therefore the lowest possible lower cut-off frequency is given when the parallel resistance consists only of the insulation resistance of the negative feedback capacitor (LONG mode).
O Upper cut-off frequency [kHz]

+ Chapter 2.2.3

The upper frequency at which the amplitude is decreased by 3 dB for a sinusoidal signal. The upper cut-off frequency of modern charge amplifiers is in the order of about 100 kHz. Although higher values can be achieved, they are not necessary due to the limitation set by the usual values for the natural or resonance frequency of piezoelectric pressure transducers. The upper cut-off frequency can be limited by a plug-in low pass filter to defined, lower values.

+ Chapter 3.1.2.2 + Chapter 2.2.4

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-19

O Ripple and noise [mV RMS] or [mVpp]

Interference signal that occurs at the output without an input signal. The ripple and noise of the charge amplifier superimpose on the wanted signal and should be as small as possible. Values for ripple and noise are specified either as a root-mean-square value [mV RMS] or as a peak-to-peak value [mVpp].

3-20

Engine Indicating

3.3 Properties of the Measurement Cabling


The following properties and parameters are relevant for V:
O Insulation resistance []

Resistance between the inner conductor and the shield of the input circuit (cable) As for the pressure transducer and amplifier input, very high insulation values are required for the measurement cables used in the input circuit (> 1013 ), see Chapter 2.2.2.
O Capacitance [F]

Capacitance between the inner conductor and the shield of the input circuit (transducer including input cable) The capacitance affects the upper cut-off frequency of the measurement system (see Chapter 2.3). The influence of the pressure transducer capacitance is nearly always negligible and the influence of cables that are less than 15 m long is also insignificant.
O Noise charge [pC]

The noise charge in the cable caused by movement For the cables directly connected to the transducer and thus being subject to substantial movement special low noise versions must be chosen (values in accordance with MIL C17: < 2pC).
O Screening

Protective sleeve around the signal lead Screening is used to prevent electromagnetic interference (the braided screen normally used in standard coaxial cables is usually sufficient).

Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Pressure Measurement System

3-21

3-22

Engine Indicating

4 Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers


Pressure transducers for high and low pressure indicating are available in different designs and sizes. The wide variety of transducers available underscores the fact that no transducer is usually capable of providing all the properties demanded by users, such as:

very small, no measurement error, resistance to all external influences and very long lifetime.
Range of transducers available

As shown in Figure 4-1: Interrelation between measurement task, pressure transducer and installation , the pressure transducers available are basically distinguished by the type of cooling, the design, the installation possibilities and of course, their technical measurement characteristics. The decisive thing for users is to select a pressure transducer which meets the requirements for the relevant measurement task in terms of accuracy, stability, costs, etc. An important criterion in pressure indicating is the correct installation of the transducer on the test engine (defined by the type of installation, design and location of the measuring position) because it defines the operating conditions during the measurement (heat flow and temperature load, accelerations, etc.) and any effects on the measurement object itself (e.g. change in combustion chamber volume, change relating to the cooling situation, etc.). Since different transducers also permit different installations, the selection of a pressure transducer is in fact a complex weighing up of the influencing factors shown in Figure 4-1. On the whole, the aim when selecting or defining a pressure transducer and its installation is to find the best possible compromise to meet the measurement requirements.

Measurement task

Installation

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-1

Measurement task
Test engine Operational conditions Requirements regarding Accuracy Type of evaluation Stability/meas. duration Possibility and cost of installation

Pressure transducer

Cooling Fluid cooling Heat conduction Transducer design Plug-in sensor Scew-in sensor Probe Adaptation/component integratability

Installation
With mounting bore Position Design Access Glow plug /spark plug adaptors Design

Measurement properties Measurement range Sensitivity Linearity Natural frequency Lifetime Cyclic Temperature drift Stability ...

Figure 4-1: Interrelation between measurement task, pressure transducer and installation

4-2

Engine Indicating

4.1 Measurement Task


Before the right pressure transducer and type of installation can be selected, the measurement task and measurement requirements must be formulated in detail. In this context, it is vital to determine the operating conditions that occur during the measurement as accurately as possible because that is what definitively affects the selection.

4.1.1 Test Engine and Operating Conditions


The operating conditions during the measurement are determined in particular by the test engine itself and the engine operating states in which the measurement is to be carried out. As described in Chapter 3.1.1, this includes information about

the anticipated pressure range, the temperature and heat flow load, the expected accelerations forces and any chemical loads.
The test engine also determines the possibilities for the installation of the pressure transducer. Engine manufacturers rarely allow for the mounting situation of pressure transducers in the design of cylinder heads because they are usually only used during the development phase and ought not to affect the optimum shape of the series product. That is why the compact design of modern engines often makes compromise decisions regarding the site of the measuring position and type of installation necessary. Because the installation position has a major influence on the quality of the measurement, the user should pay due regard to this fact (see also Chapter 4.2.).

4.1.2 Requirements of the Measurement Task


4.1.2.1 Accuracy
Different demands are made on the accuracy of the pressuring indicating depending on whether the measurement task involves determining direct or indirect indicating parameters.

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-3

Determining direct indicating parameters


Measurement tasks, such as peak pressure measurements for determining the mechanical load or the determination of the pressure gradient for noise analysis are easy to carry out on the basis of the pressure curve only. The definition of the accuracy requirements in these cases is usually no problem or only a relatively small problem.

Pressure curve: pressure curve means that the pressure is measured over a time base or, as is customary in pressure indicating, over the corresponding crank angle position. That allows correct correlation of the instantaneous pressure values. The accuracy of the pressure curve measured in this way over the crank angle depends, of course, on the two measurement parameters, pressure and crank angle position.

Determining indirect indicating parameters


As described in Chapter 1, the indirect indicating parameters are distinguished by the fact that they can only be determined from the pressure curve when other parameters are available and often require comprehensive evaluations. When defining the accuracy requirements, the methods for determining these additional parameters should also be considered accordingly. For example, the accuracy when determining the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is decisively influenced how reliable the determination of the top dead centre position (TDC position) is. The pressure indicating therefore only represents a part of the measurement task in the determination of indirect indicating parameters. The requirement for a specific accuracy of the result cannot therefore be described simply by the accuracy of the pressure indicating.

Indicated mean effective pressure: the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is determined pressure from the integral of the volume change work done the relevant pressure multiplied by the change in the work volume in relation to the swept volume. In addition to the influence that the accuracy of the determination of the TDC position has, it should also be noted that relatively small errors in the pressure curve can result in large errors in the indicated mean effective pressure (e.g. 0.1% error in the pressure results in an error in the IMEP of approx. 1% - depending on the engine load state). The mean effective pressure (MEP) has to be determined first before the friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) can be determined. Determining the FMEP to an accuracy of 10% requires not only the accurate determination of the mean effective pressure but also the determination of the indicated mean effective pressure depending on the load state to an accuracy of up to 12% because the proportion of the frictional power is only a fraction of the indicated power.

4-4

Engine Indicating

4.1.2.2 Type of Evaluation


The type of evaluation, i.e. the criteria that are necessary to derive the required information from the pressure signal, plays a significant role in defining the requirements for the pressure measurement. Table 4-1 shows the necessary evaluation criteria for important measurement tasks and the additional measurement parameters required [19].
Table 4-1: Important measurement tasks with evaluation criteria and additional measurement parameters

Task area

Noise analysis Monitoring

Direct (TDC determination) (TDC determination) TDC determination, mean effective pressure MEP TDC determination, p-intake pipe, p-exhaust TDC determination, wall heat, leakage, fuel and air volume, ... Indirect

Mechanical engine load

Friction analysis

Measurement task Combustion chamber pressureevaluation Peak pressure pmax Maximum, minimum, amplitude (cycle) Pressure gradients dp/d derivation Misfire detection Qualitative curve before and after TDC Knock detection Frequency amplitude of high-frequency oscillations Friction mean IMEP effective pressure FMEP Charge mass, Pressure curve, residual gas, gas IMEP-gas exchange exchange work, ... Combustion chamber pressure, start of combustion, ignition delay, end of combustion, centre of gravity Energy conversion points Internal work over crank angle

Additional measurement parameters

Gas exchange analysis

Combustion analysis

Integrated internal work versus crank angle

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-5

The effects of the pressure transducer properties and the influences at the measuring point on the quality of the measurement result vary depending on the evaluation criterion, see Chapter 4.3.

4.1.2.3 Stability
The term stability is taken to mean quite generally the ability of a transducer or a measurement system to maintain its metrological properties over a relatively long period of time. Measurement tasks that place high demands on the stability are, for example, long-term monitoring and control of the work process based on the pressure curve or the use of pressure indicating as part of automatic engine optimisation. Where high demands are made on the stability of the measurement signal, cooled transducers should preferably be used and the transducers should only be used in the lower load range. Unfavourable installation positions should also be avoided. The characteristic value of the IMEP stability gives an important indication of the stability of the pressure transducer behaviour, especially its response to the effect of deposits on the diaphragm of the transducer, see Chapter 3. In the case of piezoelectric pressure measurement systems in particular, stability is also determined by the properties of the amplifier and measurement cabling. In addition to ensuring that the fewest possible changes occur in the metrological properties during very long measurements, the operational reliability in particular (e.g. certainty that the cooling system will not fail in cooled sensors) must be guaranteed. Here uncooled pressure transducers have advantages if they are installed in a correspondingly cool position.

4.1.2.4 Installation Effort and Costs


The pressure indicating costs are mainly determined by the time and effort required for installation of the transducer. As shown in Table 4-2, a pressure transducer installation using glow plug or spark plug adaptors requiring no machining of the test engine represents a cost-efficient and at the same time, space-saving solution. It should be taken into account, however, that this predefines the measuring point. In addition, you should also check whether the requirements regarding accuracy, stability etc. can be met with the

4-6

Engine Indicating

uncooled pressure transducers that have to be used in such an adaptation principle.


Table 4-2: Adaptation with and without intervention in the test engine

Intervention in test engine Installation time and effort substantial Costs high Possible to select yes measuring position Accuracy high

No intervention in engine little low no medium high

4.2 Influence of the Transducer Installation


Not only is the pressure transducer important for reliable operation and high measurement accuracy but also the type of installation and the site of the measuring position (influence of measuring position) are decisive factors. Basically it should be noted that the pressure in the combustion chamber is not the same at any position (due to divisions in combustion chambers, squish areas, etc.). The installation position must therefore be selected somewhere where a representative pressure prevails for the sought quantity . Furthermore, the pressure transducer is subject to different loads at different places in the combustion chamber (i.e. temperature, heat flow, deformation, acceleration) which are in effect interference influences that can cause measurement errors. The choice of the installation position and the design of the mounting position must also always ensure that
The right pressure

Requirements for the installation

the very pressure is measured that is decisive for the measurement task, errors due to the installation are kept to a minimum (e.g. pipe oscillations, etc.), the permissible operating temperature and heat flow load of the pressure transducer are not exceeded, the temperature fluctuations in the pressure transducer are kept as low as possible and the engine behaviour remains unaffected.

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-7

4.2.1 Glow Plug/Spark Plug Adaptors


Basically the question has to be answered as to whether it is acceptable to mechanically modify the test engine and if so, whether such a modification is possible in terms of time and/or costs. As mentioned above, the advantages of being able to mechanically modify the engine are the fact that you can choose the measuring position and that highly accurate pressure indicating is achievable.

+ AVL Product Information: [7] Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4)

Although by comparison an installation using a glow plug or spark plug adaptor involves lower costs, the site of the measuring position cannot then be chosen freely and the measuring accuracy is usually lower. This is mainly due to the fact that the measuring position is often located in a highly thermally loaded environment so that the usual quartz pressure transducers can only be installed at a significant clearance from the combustion chamber (with the associated problems of pipe oscillations, overheating of the measuring elements, etc.). Significant improvements can only be achieved here with state-of-the-art piezo-materials (e.g. Gallium Orthophosphate).

4.2.2 Installation Using a Suitable Installation Bore


4.2.2.1 Site of the Measuring Position in the Combustion Chamber
The ideal measuring position

The ideal measuring position is a place where the local pressure is representative for the measurement task and where the interference influences are minimal. Installation positions above the squish gap, above the impact site of the injection spray and in highly thermally loaded positions should be avoided if possible. Cool installation positions (for example, near the intake valve etc.) are preferable. Since in practice it is often impossible to fully achieve the ideal measuring position, resulting influences of unfavourable measuring position arrangements usually have to be taken into account.

Installation above the squish gap


The gases in the squish gap are substantially accelerated by the motion of the piston around top dead centre (TDC). Resulting from these gas flows

4-8

Engine Indicating

are substantial differences in pressure in the squish gap, which can result in errored information when a pressure measurement is evaluated. Generally speaking, the following can be said about the installation of the pressure transducer in the squish gap:

Gas oscillations The strength of the squish gap flow varies in terms of time and space in particular if the position of the piston bowl is eccentric and if the crosssection increases in the area of the valve reliefs. The gas in the combustion chamber recess and the gas in the squish gap can manifest a coupled gas oscillation under excitation (e.g. start of combustion). Depending on the site of the measuring position therefore, the pressure transducer can be subject to gas oscillations of differing frequencies and amplitudes which can then significantly develop if the combustion has a high pressure rise speed.
Pressure [bar] Druck [bar]

65
Piston Kolbenbowl mulde Piston Kolbenrand edge

Kolben- edge Piston rand

60

Piston Kolbenmulde bowl

kurzer Short Quetschspalt squish gap KolbenPiston mulde bowl

langer Long Quetschspalt squish gap KolbenPiston rand edge

55

50

0 ZOT Ignition TDC

5 10 15 Crank Angle [CA] Kurbelwinkel [KW]

20

Figure 4-2: Influence on the measured pressure curve of a measuring position arrangement in the squish gap

To illustrate these influences, Figure 4-2 shows the pressure curves measured on a DI diesel engine at measurement positions above the piston bowl and piston edge. Significant gas oscillations are recognizable at the measuring position above the piston edge. Basically an arrangement whereby the pressure transducer is installed at the side with the short squish gap is advantageous in eccentric piston bowls.

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-9

Heat flow load When the pressure transducer is installed in the area of the piston bowl, a much higher heat flow load can occur due to the effect of the combustion than when the pressure transducer is installed at the piston edge, which results in higher cyclic temperature drift. If on the other hand, the pressure measurement error from the squish gap flow is acceptable, a pressure transducer can be installed at the outer edge of the cylinder head so that it remains in the shadow of the combustion radiation for longer. Installing the transducer recessed from the piston surface is advantageous in both arrangements because this can reduce thermoshock errors [4].

Installation near the valve


Arranging the measuring position near the valve affects the measurement result as follows:

Marginal local pressure differences occur due to the high flow rates in the gas exchange phase and it is not the pressure that is representative of the total combustion chamber that is then measured. This can slightly distort the low pressure loop. High flow rates occur on the surface of the pressure transducer diaphragm especially in the immediate vicinity of the outlet valves resulting in an increase heat flow load (cyclic temperature drift). The cylinder head ceiling is usually hottest near the outlet valve. Figure 4-3 shows the temperature distribution in the cylinder head of a direct injection diesel engine calculated using the FE method. The temperature maximum occurs in the vicinity of the outlet valve seat. If the measuring position is selected somewhere here, the pressure transducer also reflects a high temperature, which can cause a change in sensitivity and a reduction in the pressure transducers loadability.

4-10

Engine Indicating

Figure 4-3: Temperature distribution at the cylinder head of a 2-valve DI diesel engine

Installation above the impact site of the injection spray


When the measuring position is arranged directly above the impact site of the injection spray, the impact of cold fuel (which changes the heat flow load) can cause errors due to cyclic temperature drift. That is why such measuring position arrangements should be avoided.

Pressure measurement in the prechamber and swirl chamber


For various reasons in some chamber-type engines indicating can only be carried out in the prechamber or swirl chamber, even though the pressure curve in the main combustion chamber is the curve that is of interest. Such measurements only permit a rough estimate of the thermodynamic phenomena in the main combustion chamber (for accurate information the transducer must be installed in the main combustion chamber).

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-11

4.2.2.2 Design of the Measuring Position


When designing the measuring position care should be taken to ensure that the combustion chamber is not unacceptably modified by the adaptation of the pressure transducer in the test engine and that no measurement errors are created. Errors due to the design of the measuring position can include:

Dead volume when the transducer is installed in an inclined position or recessed, Pipe oscillations when the transducer is installed recessed, Interference to the gas flow, Fuel deposits in the combustion chamber, Creation/machining of the measuring position, or Cool/hot positions due to cooled/uncooled transducers.

There are various types of transducers and adaptors that can be used to keep these influences to a minimum.
The ideal design

In general, the pressure transducer diaphragm should follow as far as possible the contour of the cylinder head ceiling (flush or approx. 0.5 mm recessed). The longitudinal axis of the pressure transducer should if possible be at right-angles to the cylinder head ceiling.

Flow recess
Usually however, it is only possible to install the pressure transducer in an inclined position due to the design of the cylinder head. A very inclined position is associated with the following negative effects due to the flow recess it generates:

a slight increase in the combustion chamber volume interference to the flow conditions at the installation site danger of fuel collecting (influence on emissions)

Indicating channel

4-12

Engine Indicating

When used in conjunction with a spark plug or glow plug adaptor, it is often necessary to recess the pressure transducer to keep the temperature and heat flow load at the transducer as low as possible. Figure 4-4 shows the heat flow load (top) and the cyclic temperature drift (bottom) at the piston bowl and piston edge measuring positions for two different installation depths.
Ignition TDC
Installation position Bowl-Flush Bowl 35 mm Edge flash Edge 35 mm

Heat Flux

Crank Angle [CA]

Ignition TDC

Differential pressure

Installation Depth

Crank Angle [CA]

Figure 4-4: Heat flow load and cyclic temperature drift as a function of installation position and depth

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-13

The indicating channel resulting from recessed mounting can, however, have the following negative effects on the measurement result:

Change in engine behaviour The increase in the dead volume produces slight changes in the compression ratio, which can affect the engine behaviour. Fuel can also collect in these areas, which has a negative effect on the emissions (HC in particular).

Pipe oscillations The indicating channel represents an acoustic resonator, which is excited by changes in pressure and produces oscillations. This effect is illustrated in Figure 4-5 where the measured pressure curves relate to indicating channels of different lengths. Five pressure curves from single cycle measurements are shown for each indicating channel length. They have been shifted in level to provide a clearer overview.

Druck [bar] Pressure [bar]


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
LChannel > 37 mm >37 mm L
Kanal

LLKanal = 25 mm Channel >25

LChannel=>2,7mm LKanal 2,7 mm

-20

0 20 40 60 ZOT Ignition TDC Crank Angle [CA] Kurbelwinkel [KW]

-20

0 20 40 60 ZOT Ignition TDC Crank Angle [CA] Kurbelwinkel [KW]

-20

0 20 40 60 ZOT Ignition TDC Crank Angle [CA] Kurbelwinkel [KW]

Figure 4-5: Influence of the length of the indicating channel on the measured pressure curve

The frequency of this interference depends not only on the length of the indicating channel but also on the gas state, which makes the use of frequency filters for eliminating pipe oscillations difficult. Furthermore it is not easy to distinguish pipe oscillations from combustion chamber oscillations.

4-14

Engine Indicating

As shown in Figure 4-6, for design reasons there is usually an additional volume (V) in front of the pressure transducer in an installation with an indicating channel. This arrangement can be regarded as a simple Helmholtz resonator. In simplified terms, the following equation can be specified for the frequency of the pipe oscillation (f) [kHz]:

f=
R T cV r l V

RT 2

r2 V l

(4-1)

Isentropic exponent Gas constant [J/kg K] Gas temperature [K] Specific thermal capacity at constant volume [J/kg K] Radius of the indicating channel [m] Length of the oscillating gas column (in indicating channel) [m] Volume [m3]

Pressure Transducer Druckaufnehmer Volume Indicating channel (r,l)

Combustion Chamber

Figure 4-6: Indicating channel with additional volume

Figure 4-7 illustrates the relation to the length of the indicating channel and to the gas temperature (500, 1000 and 2000 K) for estimating the level of the frequency of pipe oscillations. The displayed values relate to an indicating channel radius (r) of 1.5 mm and a volume (V) of approx.11.8 mm3, which corresponds to the volume for a miniature pressure transducer installed front-sealed (mounting thread M5x0.5).

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-15

120 100

Frequency [kHz]

Fre qu 80 enz [k 60 Hz] 40

2000 K

1000 K

20
500 K

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of des Indizierkanals [mm][mm] Lnge indicating channel


Figure 4-7: Pipe oscillation frequency as a function of indicating channel length and gas temperature

Delays in the pressure signal This effect occurs because the pressure wave first has to propagate through the indicating channel before it reaches the pressure transducer. However, it is only relevant in extremely long indicating channels (e.g. ships engines with indicating cock).

Increased temperature load In an unfavourable indicating channel arrangement, an increased heat flow load on the pressure transducer can occur due to high flow rates at the diaphragm.

Creation and design of the measuring position


In pressure indicating, the optimum design and workmanship quality of the adaptor is a vital part of the measurement accuracy (e.g. in glow plug adaptors: gap around the glow element, access bores to the sensor, replication of the exact geometric shape of the glow element, etc.; or in spark plug adaptors: access bores to the sensor, etc.), see Chapter 5. The instructions provided by the (glow plug) manufacturer relating to the permissible plays/gaps and roughnesses, and the requirements for the geometrical accuracy must be complied with exactly.

4-16

Engine Indicating

4.2.2.3 Access to Measuring Point


When making the mounting bores for pressure transducers in cylinder heads ensure that

when transversing oil and water jackets, the oil and coolant flow is not interfered with (i.e. the cooling function is not affected), no component is diminished in strength and the leakproofness of the adapted engine is guaranteed.
A detailed study of the cylinder head design is indispensable and technical manufacturing criteria should also be taken into account. See Chapter 5 for instructions on creating mounting bores and examples of installations.

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-17

4.3 Pressure Transducers


4.3.1 Categories
Information: [6] Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation

+ AVL Product

Pressure transducers can be evaluated on the basis of their metrological properties. Moreover it is useful to make a distinction between typical categories of pressure transducers with specific characteristics, see Table 4-3. A sensible preselection can therefore be made if the characteristics specific to each category are taken into account.
Table 4-3: Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation
Heat conduction (uncooled) GaPO4 Screw-in M5 x 0.5
Mounting principle Type of cooling Piezo material Design

Fluid cooling SiO2

Probe 4.3

Plug-in 6.2

Plug-in 9.9

Screw-in M 10 x 1 M14 x 1.25

Direct (in cylinder head or components) or using an adaptor Spark plug/glow plug Requires extra space

Metrological characteristics

as per specifications in the data sheets

Below is a summary of points pertinent to the selection of pressure transducers:

Type of cooling/piezo material


As shown in Table 4-3, pressure transducers for engine instrumentation can basically be divided into two categories.

One group is made up of the water-cooled transducers. They include the widely used M10 and M14 pressure transducers with their screw-in design and the 9.9 mm plug-in models. The measuring elements of these transducers only reach temperatures of 20 C to 80 C during operation. The other group comprises the uncooled pressure transducers, which are much smaller so that they can fulfil measurement tasks even in the tightest of spaces. This group includes in particular pressure transducers with M5 thread design, 6.2 mm plug-in models and miniature pressure probes ( 4.3 mm) which are used mainly in glow plug and spark plug adaptors. Using GaPO4 technology means that these transducers can be

4-18

Engine Indicating

used at temperatures up to 400 C at the measuring element. Tests have even been successfully carried out at up to 500 C. Cooled pressure transducers are normally larger than uncooled ones and usually have a higher sensitivity, i.e. a better signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the very restricted space for mounting sensors in modern multiple valve engines, however, uncooled pressure transducers with good thermodynamic properties are being used more and more. Using GaPO4, which has about twice the sensitivity of quartz has now made it possible even with small uncooled pressure transducers to achieve similarly high sensitivities as previously achieved in larger transducers, and thus adequate signal-to-noise ratios.
ratio: Signal-to-noise ratio the lower the sensitivity is, the smaller the signal-to-noise ratio. In extreme cases, the wanted signal can be superimposed on by the same magnitude of interference so that the pressure curve cannot be evaluated. Generally speaking, it can be said that transducers with a sensitivity >10 pC/bar are unproblematic in measurement operations.

Uncooled pressure transducers usually have higher natural frequencies due to their design and size and are therefore more suitable than cooled transducers for certain measurement tasks (e.g. knock detection, measurements at high speeds etc.).
frequency: Natural frequency: the frequency (frequency spectrum) of the measuring signal, that has to be acquired with great accuracy, should be less than 20 % of the natural frequency of the pressure transducer used. The natural frequency of a typical pressure transducer for combustion chamber indicating is between 50 and 200 kHz depending on the model.

Uncooled transducers generally have a higher cyclic temperature drift and above all a higher load change drift than cooled transducer. Furthermore, greater changes in sensitivity can be expected due to the higher operating temperatures for uncooled pressure transducers despite the use of GaPO4 as the piezo material. Cooled pressure transducers are more stable in their behaviour in terms of load and operating duration.

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-19

Design
As mentioned above, a distinction is made between pressure transducers with plug-in and threaded design, and the special designs. Plug-in transducers have the basic advantage that the achievable measurement accuracy is largely independent of the tightening torque and of thermomechanical stresses in the cylinder head during operation. The disadvantage of plug-in transducers, however, is that they are more timeconsuming to mount and remove.

Mounting principle
Pressure transducers are mounted either directly in the test engine or by means of an adaptor. Uncooled pressure transducers with threaded design and the miniature pressure measurement probe designs have the particular advantage that they can be used in spark plug or glow plug adaptors. A detailed description of the installation principles is given in Chapter 5.

4.3.2 Measurement Properties


The manufacturers specifications given in the data sheets should be used for detailed pressure transducer selection. To make the choice easier for the user, Table 4-4 shows an evaluation of the metrological properties of pressure transducers and how their measuring position influences the measurement task (characterised by the type of evaluation, see Table 4-1).

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Table 4-4:

Effect of pressure transducer properties and installation on signal evaluation

Type of evaluation (measurement task) Qualitative curve before and after TDC Integral values (energy conversion, mean Different. values (heat release, dp /d Frequency, amplitude of high-frequency oscillations. Maximum, minimum, amplitude (cycle)

Installation Pressure transducer property

Effect of Measurement range Lifetime (cycles) Sensitivity Linearity Natural frequency Acceleration sensitivity Shock resistance Temperature resistance (transducer) Change in sensitivity over temperature Cyclic temperature drift (heat flow pulse) Zero-line gradient (load/heat flow change) Zero point deviation (load change) IMEP stability (behaviour in continuous operation) Deformation Indicating channel Gas flow Key No effect
W

W W C W C W W C

W W W W W W W W W W

W W C W C W W C

W W C

W W C

C W W C

W W C

W W

Warning! Effect only avoidable through careful choice of transducer, measuring position design, handling etc. Calculable effect (e.g. 1% change in property means 1% change in pressure signal) Significant effect Substantial effect

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-21

4.4 Guidelines for Pressure Transducer Selection


This chapter finishes with a summary of the pressure transducer selection procedure based on the flow chart shown in Figure 4-8. As mentioned above, the right way to start selecting a pressure transducer is with a detailed formulation of the measurement task and the requirements for accuracy, stability, etc. that derive from it. The next important step is the decision as to whether the measurement is to be carried out with or without intervention in the test engine. The main criteria for the decision are the accuracy requirements, the availability of a test cylinder head and the availability of time and funds.
With no intervention in the test engine

If the decision is taken not to make any intervention in the test engine, only uncooled miniature pressure transducers or pressure measuring probes can be used which are installed by means of spark plug or glow plug adaptors depending on the type of engine (petrol or diesel engine). No or very little choice of measuring position and pressure transducer is then possible. Such an arrangement can fulfil the measurement requirements, the measurement can be carried out. If not, one conceivable approach is to reduce the requirements. If that is not possible, it should be reconsidered whether installation via a mechanical intervention in the test engine might not after all be possible which permits much better results. Otherwise, a measurement is not possible.

With intervention in the test engine

If the decision is in favour of an intervention in the test engine, it is sensible first of all to select a pressure transducer from one of the categories shown in Chapter 4.3. All the transducers of that category can then be considered for the detailed selection based on pressure transducer properties. The next step is to define the type of installation, the measurement site, the design of the measuring position, etc. which very considerably determine the operating conditions and thus the effects on the pressure transducer.

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The information about the extent of the effects and the metrological properties of the selected transducer should be used to check whether the requirements can be fulfilled and, if so, the measurement can be started. If the requirements cannot be met, other optimisation loops have to be implemented for the selection of pressure transducers and their installation until a suitable combination is found. If that is not possible, the measurement requirements should be reconsidered. Otherwise, accurate measurements are just not possible.

Selection of Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

4-23

Measurement task

Define requirements resp. accuracy, stability, costs etc.

nein no

Intervention Eingriff am in Versuchstrger the test engine ?

yes ja

Preselection according pressure transducer category (kind of cooling, design etc.)

Small uncooled pressure Transducer

Transducer according the choosen category

Spark plug - or Glow plug adaption

Operation conditions (kind of Install., measuring position, shaping of the measuring position ...)

Anforderungen Requirements erfllt? fullfilled?

yes ja

yes ja

Anforderungen Requirements fullfilled? erfllt?

nein no Vernderung der Change of Anforderungen requirements mglich? possible? nein no Mglichkeit of Possibility mechanischer mechanical Intervention? Eingriff? nein no No Measurement possible

nein no Andere Other combination Kombination of Transducer Ein Aufnehmer /install.? bau? nein no Vernderung der Change of Anforderungen requirements mglich? possible? nein no No Measurement possible

yes ja

ja yes

yes ja

yes ja

Performing of measuremnt

Figure 4-8: Flow chart for pressure transducer selection

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5 Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5.1 Pressure Indicating with no Intervention in the Test Engine


Modern combustion chamber indicating is carried out, if possible, in bores that already exist in the cylinder head. Adaptors are used which for space reasons contain uncooled miniature pressure transducers or pressure measurement probes and are inserted in the place of original components, such as glow plugs or spark plugs. This makes it possible to minimize the adaptation work and thus costs.

5.1.1 Glow Plug Adaptation


Glow plug bores are the preferred measuring position in diesel engines with glow plugs. The adaptation type of is then primarily determined by the geometric dimensions of the bore. If possible, a position should be aimed for where the pressure transducer diaphragm is close to the combustion chamber in order to minimize any pipe oscillations.

+ Chapter 4.2.2.2

G M12D AG 0 1

Figure 5-1: Glow plug adaptor with pressure transducer

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-1

Long, thin glow plugs are best catered for specially developed pressure measuring probes to achieve a position close to the combustion chamber and thus an undistorted measurement signal (see Figure 5-2). If the diameter of the bore is so small (< 4.3 mm) that the pressure measuring probe has to be recessed behind the sealing surface, specially designed damping volumes in the adaptor ensure that possible signal distortion due to pipe oscillations in the gas channel are significantly reduced.
Temperatures at the pressure transducer

The highest measurement quality can only be achieved with optimally matched adaptors. The gap between the glow plug bore and the adaptor is of great significance in terms of the thermal load on the transducer. The larger the gap, the greater the temperature increase in the area of the transducer and the greater the effect on the measurement signal. That is why glow plug adaptors are manufactured to customer specifications to the exact dimensions of the glow plug bore. Even with adaptors optimized in this way, temperatures of 400 C or more can still occur at the transducer, which makes it necessary to use suitable piezo materials (Gallium Orthophosphate ).
Figure 5-2: Glow plug adaptor with pressure measuring probe

Cold start

Glow plugs improve cold start characteristics in diesel engines. Problems can arise during cold starts when a glow plug adaptor is installed instead of the original glow plug. The start characteristics are hardly affected, however, at normal ambient temperatures. [15]

5.1.2 Spark Plug Adaptation


Indicating measurements can be carried out in petrol engines without intervention in the cylinder head if a spark plug adaptor is used. Spark plug

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Engine Indicating

adaptors fulfil a dual function. On the one hand, like standard spark plugs they ignite the mixture in the cylinder, and on the other, they hold the pressure transducer. The requirement to bring the diaphragm of the transducer (Pressure Measuring Probe) as close as possible to the combustion chamber necessitates a very slim insulator. The assembly of the adaptor / transducer unit and the subsequent mounting to the engine should be carried out by engineers familiar with handling / mounting sensitive pressure transducers

GU12P GM12D

Figure 5-3: Different designs of spark plug adaptors

There are basically two designs for spark plug adaptors:

Spark plug adaptor with miniature pressure transducer


A still widely used method is to install standard uncooled miniature pressure transducer recessed in the spark plug head at the level of the hexagon

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-3

Figure 5-3, left). The combustion chamber is connected to the pressure transducer by a relatively long connection channel.

Advantage: low cyclic temperature drift due to low heat flow load Disadvantage: pipe oscillations

Spark plug adaptor with pressure measuring probe


Since the advent of GaPO4 technology, a pressure measuring probe can now be mounted flush in the spark plug adaptor (Figure 5-3, right).

Advantage: minimum pipe oscillations even at high engine speeds Disadvantage: cyclic temperature drift is greater than with recessed installation (corresponding to the usual pressure transducer installation close to the combustion chamber)

When using spark plug adaptors, ensure that the suitable Heat range is selected for the engine. That is why spark plug adaptors are available with different heat values.

Heat range: the spark plug should be so hot during operation that deposits on parts that protrude into the combustion chamber burn without self-ignition occurring (i.e. selfcleaning). The heat range is a measure of the heat conductivity of the spark plug. We make a distinction between so-called cold and hot spark plugs. Cold plugs are used primarily for high-performance engines and for ranges close to full load whereas hot spark plugs are used mainly in engines that are predominantly operated in partial load state. Different heat values can be achieved by suitable selection of design and materials.

Furthermore, the Spark position (particularly in direct-injection petrol engines in stratified partial load operation) and the electrode gap of the spark plug adaptor must be the same as the values for the original spark plug.

Spark position: spark position is taken to mean the position of the electrode in relation to the plug face.

Spark plug indicating is used especially for knock tests, engine map optimisation and for monitoring mode (e.g. peak pressure monitoring).

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Engine Indicating

5.2 Pressure Indicating with Intervention in the Test Engine


This type of installation offers many possible ways of combining transducers and installation variations at different measuring positions. The right choice of transducer, installation variant and measuring position is, however, highly complex due to the mutual dependencies. Many potential sources of error (e.g. indicating channel, high heat flow loads, etc.) must be taken into account in order to obtain meaningful measurement results.

+ Chapter 4

5
The ideal installation position

5.2.1 Installation Variations


The ideal installation position of a pressure transducer is almost flush with the cylinder head ceiling, i.e. slightly recessed. A distance of 0.5 to 1 mm between the pressure transducer diaphragm and cylinder head ceiling should prevent the piston from hitting the diaphragm, when being coated with deposits,. A distinction is made between direct installations and installations using an adaptor sleeve. Adaptor sleeves are primarily required when an existing cooling water jacket and/or oil channel has to be traversed for the pressure transducer installation.

5.2.1.1 Direct Installation


If the installation position permits, we recommend that transducers be installed straight into the cylinder head of an IC engine, see Figure 5-4. That guarantees easy installation and removal of the transducer. As mentioned above, the aim is to install the transducer fairly flush with the combustion chamber. Experience has shown, however, that a slightly recessed transducer installation with an oscillation-optimized indicating channel can have advantages over a flush installation. This applies in particular when the transducer is subject to high thermal loads (e.g. in diesel engines). The diameter of the indicating channel should be the same as or greater than its length in order to prevent undesirable pipe oscillations (see Figure 5-4, left). If two mounting principles are possible with a particular transducer type, the front-sealing option is preferable to the shoulder-sealing installation. This ensures that a minimum pressure transducer surface is heated and also the sensitivity to deformation is reduced.

+ Chapter 4.2.2.2

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-5

7 .5 min

1 4 min

G M12D 1 . 5 Sta hl 4 G G , Al

Q C 33D Q H33D

M 5 x0 . 5

0 . 5min

M 1 0 x1

Figure 5-4: Front and shoulder-sealing direct installation

5.2.1.2 Installation Using Adaptor Sleeve


If the requirements are not met for direct installation, the pressure transducer can be installed in an adaptor sleeve, which seals the transducer off from cooling water jackets or oil galleries. Often the camshaft cavity also has to be traversed, which may even necessitate further sealing with a second sleeve. Unlike a direct installation, a sleeve installation involves more time and effort for machining and adaptation. The machining of the mounting bore in particular requires very careful and exact workmanship. Adaptor sleeves are usually screwed in with high-temperature resistant bonding agent (e.g. LOCTITE 648, UHU-plus) and sealed off from the cooling water and oil channel with O-rings.

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1 0 .5 min

Figure 5-5 shows an installation with adaptor sleeve for a small uncooled pressure transducer and Figure 5-6 for a water-cooled one.

1 8 min

5
AH 0 1 2 1 0 ma x 11.5 Stahl . 5 steel 4 G G , Al G M12D 7 . 5 min M 7 x0 . 7 5 20

Figure 5-5: Example of the installation of an uncooled pressure transducer with adaptor sleeve

12

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-7

2 6 min

Adapter sleeve Ada pterhlse


M o nta sleeve Mountinggehlse

Q C 33C Q H3 3C

0 .5 min

7 min

Figure 5-6: Direct installation of a cooled transducer with adaptor sleeve

M 1 4 x1 . 2 5

If O-rings are used, the dimensions, tolerances and surface quality specified by the O-ring manufacturer must be observed when preparing the measuring position in order to ensure the necessary leakproofness. The function of the Oring seal is to compensate any possible inaccuracies that can occur when machining the cylinder head bore which is usually inclined. An O-ring also compensates changes in length due to the thermal expansion of the cylinder head and adaptor sleeve. As an alternative, a bond can be created using an elastic bonding agent (e.g. LOCTITE 290), but in that case, the gap between the cylinder head and the adaptor sleeve should be smaller than 0.05 mm.

5-8

20

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Once the installation is complete and the adaptor sleeve is sealed, the part that protrudes from the cylinder head into the combustion chamber should be machined or cut off to restore the contour and surface quality of the cylinder head ceiling. Before a cylinder head with an adaptor sleeve fitted can be used for measurements, the sleeve installation must always be checked for leaks. This is done in a water bath. The cooling water and/or oil channel of the cylinder head must be cleared out with compressed air before the sleeve is installed. Leakage problems can still arise later during measurements, however, which in extreme cases can cause damage to the engine due to Water slap.
Water slap: water gets into the combustion chamber due to leaks in the adaptor sleeve. If the volume of water entering the combustion chamber is greater than the compression volume, the forces that then occur can kink the conrod and thus irreparably damage the engine.

/ Source of errors
1

Water slap can also occur with a direct-installed water-cooled transducer if the transducers cooling water gets into the combustion chamber as a result of a faulty transducer.

Reasons for possible leaks of adaptor sleeves are:

Sealing surfaces have not been machined properly Damage to the O-rings during installation or removal of the sleeves Sleeve has worked loose due to improper installation or removal of the transducer Different thermal expansion coefficients between cylinder head and adaptor sleeve

5.2.2 Instructions for Machining the Mounting Bore


A series of special tools and accessories (e.g. stepped drill, screw tap, drill jig sockets, sealing kits, mounting tools etc.) is used to make creating the installation bore as easy as possible.

+ AVL Product

5.2.2.1 Example of Direct Installation


On the left of Figure 5-7 is an uncooled pressure transducer ready to be installed and on the right the machined bore ready for a front-sealing installation. If the external contour of the

Information: [6] Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-9

cylinder head is the same as in the example, i.e. at right-angles to the bore axis, the bore can be drilled centred at the defined measuring position.

Figure 5-7: Pressure transducer and bore ready for transducer installation

The bore is then finished in one go using a stepped drill (Figure 5-8 left). Special attention must be paid to the exit situation of the drill. If the measuring position is in a curvature or if the angle between the exit surface and the bore axis deviates significantly from 90 , material must be clamped to the combustion chamber end to stop the drill from running off centre as it exits. Figure 5-8 centre shows the next process, i.e. thread tapping, with a drilling socket being used so that the drill can be accurately guided. The bore has to be deburred and cleaned of all chips and shavings by means of the mounting tool before the transducer is installed as shown on the right of Figure 5-8.

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Figure 5-8: Work stages for installing a transducer

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-11

5.2.2.2 General examples of Installation Using Adaptor Sleeves


Figure 5-9 shows two uncooled pressure transducers installed in a cylinder head using adaptor sleeves, where one transverses the cooling water jacket only and the other transverses both the cooling water jacket and the oil channel. In a situation like this, it should be remembered that the cooling water circuit may be disturbed by the installation of transducers which may result in local negative effects on the cooling capacity due to altered flow conditions.

Figure 5-9: Cylinder head with two installed pressure transducers

The work stages necessary for the installation are shown in Figure 5-10 to Figure 5-14.

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5.2.2.3 Inclined bore axis single sealing sleeve

5
Arbeitsschritt 1 Workstage 1 Arbeitsschritt 2 Workstage 2

Arbeitsschritt 3 Workstage
Figure 5-10: Work stages for single sleeve and inclined bore axis

Workstage Arbeitsschritt 4

Because the surfaces of the material to be drilled are not at right-angles to the bore axis an initial centering must be machined with a single-lip drill, see Work Stage 1. If a single-lip drill is not available, a starter cut has to be made on the surface at right-angles to the bore axis to prevent the stepped drill from running off centre. Since the measuring position also lies in a curved surface, a piece of material shaped to the contour of the cylinder head has to be clamped to the head from the combustion chamber side before Work Stage 2 is carried out so that the stepped drill does not break or run off centre when it exits. In Work Stage 3 the thread is tapped for securing the adaptor sleeve. A drill socket is used to ensure that the screw tap is accurately guided. It is advisable to leave the counter piece clamped to the cylinder head for the tapping work as well because otherwise the tool can become damaged. Work Stage 4 shows

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-13

how a single-lip drill is then used again to re-drill the sealing surfaces. Afterwards the bore has to be deburred and cleaned of all chips and shavings. The quality of the O-ring sealing surface must also be checked.

Workstage 5 Arbeitsschritt 5
Figure 5-11: Work stages for installing the adaptor sleeve

Workstage 6 Arbeitsschritt 6

Work Stages 5 and 6 describe the installation of the adaptor sleeve. It consists of the adaptor itself in which the pressure transducer is later installed, and a separate sealing sleeve, which can be slipped over the adaptor. The next thing is to decide the correct position of the sealing sleeve on the adaptor. To do that, the adaptor is temporarily installed and the sealing sleeve pushed into the correct position. The position is marked so that the adaptor and sealing sleeve can be brazed or bonded together in exactly that position after removal from the bore. Next step is to shorten the part of the sleeve, which protrudes the hexagon. Before the finished adaptor sleeve is installed, the O-ring is inserted in the groove provided for it and the bonding area carefully cleaned of all grease ready for bonding. For perfect sealing the adhesive should be a high-temperature resistant, low-viscosity one-component adhesive (e.g. LOCTITE 648) or an appropriate twocomponent adhesive (e.g. UHU plus or ARALDITE). It has to be applied evenly to the thread and sealing surface of the cylinder head bore, and to the thread of the adaptor sleeve before the sleeve is mounted in the bore. When the adhesive has hardened, the part of the adaptor protruding into the combustion chamber has to be shortened and shaped to the contour of the combustion chamber. (Work Stage 6). Figure 5-12 shows how the pressure transducer is then installed using a suitable mounting tool.

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Special Box Spanner

Figure 5-12: Installing the pressure transducer

5.2.2.4 Perpendicular bore axis multiple sealing sleeves


Figure 5-12 and Figure 5-14 show the Work Stages from drilling the installation bore to installing the pressure transducer when cooling water jackets and oil channels have to be transversed perpendicular. In this example, the initial drilling with a single-lip drill is not necessary because of the favourable drilling angle. However, due to the pronounced curvature at the exit, a suitably shaped piece of material has to be clamped to the cylinder head at the combustion chamber end. Work Stage 1 involves drilling with a stepped drill. In Work Stage 2, the thread is tapped using a drill socket. Work Stage 3 shows how the two O-ring sealing surfaces are re-drilled.

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-15

Workstage 1 Arbeitsschritt 1

Workstage 2 Arbeitsschritt 2

Workstage 3 Arbeitsschritt 3

Figure 5-13: Work Stages for multiple seals and perpendicular bore axis

The bore is then deburred and cleaned of chips and shavings. The adaptor is temporarily installed and the correct positions of the sealing sleeves are marked. After the adaptor has been removed from the bore again, the sealing sleeves are brazed or bonded to the adaptor and the O-rings are fitted into the grooves provided for them. The bonding surfaces should then be meticulously cleaned before the adhesive is applied evenly to the thread and the sealing surface of the adaptor and cylinder head bore and the adaptor sleeve is screwed into the finished bore (Work Stage 4). Work Stage 5 involves cutting off the adaptor at the combustion chamber end. The cut has to be processed to match the contour and surface quality of the cylinder head ceiling. Finally in Work Stage 6, the pressure transducer is installed using a suitable mounting tool.

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Engine Indicating

Special Box Spanner

Workstage 4 Arbeitsschritt 4

Workstage 5 Arbeitsschritt 5

Workstage 6 Arbeitsschritt 6

Figure 5-14: Installing adaptor sleeve and transducer

Installing Piezoelectric Pressure Transducers

5-17

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6 Calibration

6.1 General
Calibration is used to determine the relationship between output and input parameters (i.e. transmission function). Known values for the input quantity are predefined for this purpose and the corresponding output signals are recorded. Each component of the piezoelectric pressure measurement system (i.e. pressure transducer, charge amplifier and A/D converter) has a certain transfer function, see Figure 6-1. Basically it is possible to determine the transfer function of the entire measurement system from the transfer functions of the individual components.
Pressure Transducer Druckaufnehmer
Druck Pressure [bar] [bar] Ladungsverstrker Charge Amplifier Spannung Voltage [V] [V] A/D-Wandler A/D Converter steps

Component calibration/ measurement system calibration

/ Display on

elektr. Charge Ladung [pC] [pC]

indicating equipment in V or bar (calculated from Step-values)

Transferfunction bertragungsfunktion der of the single components

Einzelkomponenten

pC / bar
Transferfunction bertragungsfunktion of Transducer and Charge Amplifier

V / pC

steps / V

Druckaufnehmer und Ladungsverstrker V / bar

Transferfunction bertragungsfunktion Transducer, Charge Amplifier and A/D converter

Druckaufnehmer, Ladungsverstrker und A/D-Wandler steps / bar

Figure 6-1: Calibration methods

/ Source of errors
Unfortunately, this procedure has the disadvantage that the individual errors can add up to a large sum error. Furthermore, possible changes in the characteristics

Calibration

6-1

(i.e. sensitivity, linearity) of the various components are not taken into account. In practice the situation where charge amplifiers or A/D converters are calibrated separately for lack of calibration devices hardly ever arises usually the manufacturers specifications tend to be used which can change during the operating time of the devices. For measurements with high accuracy requirements therefore, it is absolutely necessary to calibrate the entire measurement system.

6.2 Type of Calibration


A distinction is made between two types of calibration depending on the number of calibration points:

Multi-point-calibration
A multi-point calibration is always carried out when particularly high accuracy requirements are placed on the measurement or there is a suspicion that changes have occurred in the linearity (for example, in the pressure transducer due to overheating). The pressure transducer is subjected to a series of pressure values. The result of a multi-point calibration is the so-called characteristic from which a mean sensitivity and the linearity can be determined.

Single-point calibration
In most applications, however, a single-point calibration is sufficient because the linearity deviations of the pressure transducer and the other components of the pressure measurement system are minimal. Here the calibration is carried out at a value that is about 80 % of the maximum values (expected from the measurement).

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6.3 Calibration Using Dead Weight Tester


Defined pressure values (pressure jumps) are usually applied with what is known as a dead weight tester.

6.3.1 Construction and Function of Dead Weight Testers


The diagram in Figure 6-2 shows the basic construction of a dead weight tester. A dead weight tester essentially consists of the following components:
Construction

a hydraulic cylinder with weighted plunger a device for producing pressure (e.g. hand pump, hand wheel) a 3-way changeover valve for creating the calibration jump a (heatable) holder for mounting the pressure transducer a pressure gauge for visually checking the system pressure a system of hydraulic lines for connecting the above components a set of weights for loading the plunger
The primary plunger is actuated by a hand wheel and spindle or a hand pump to create pressure. As of a certain system pressure the movable secondary plunger with the weights on it is raised because the hydraulic system is completely sealed at one end by the pressure transducer and the 3-way changeover valve. The pressure in the system is determined only by the total secondary plunger mass plus the added weight. The pressure is usually displayed on a pressure gauge to provide a visual check.
Functioning principle

Calibration

6-3

belasteter loaded Zustand condition gewichtsbelasteter secondary piston Sekundrkolben DruckaufTransducer nehmer
Heatable beheizbare housing Aufnahme 3-way 3-Wege switch-over Umschaltventil valve weight loaded

discharged entlasteter condition Zustand

Manometer

HydraulikHydraulicsystem system
Primary Piston Primrkolben

Handrad mit Spindel Handwheel with shaft

Figure 6-2: Schematic representation of the construction of a dead weight tester design

The diaphragm of the pressure transducer is subjected either to the system pressure (Figure 6-2, loaded state) or ambient pressure (Figure 6-2, unloaded state) with the aid of a 3-way changeover valve. Each time the system is switched to ambient pressure, a little hydraulic fluid escapes into an expansion vessel (not shown in the diagram). This causes the secondary plunger to move downwards slightly longitudinally. When the transducer is then subjected again to system pressure, it is important to ensure that not too much hydraulic oil has escaped and that the secondary plunger is resting against the contact surface. If necessary, the level should be adjusted by pumping in more hydraulic oil using the hand pump or hand wheel. The secondary plunger is made to rotate during the calibration process in order to minimise the influence of friction between it and the cylinder.

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The calibration pressure (pk) is determined by Equation 5-1:

pK =

F g = (M SK + M Z ) A SK A SK
plunger force secondary plunger area, secondary plunger mass, added mass (weights) mean gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s)

(5-1)

F ............... ASK ........... MSK .......... MZ ........... g ..............

el 3.1.2.1

Some dead weight testers have a heatable receptacle for mounting the pressure transducer so that the calibration can be carried out at the probable operating temperatures and thus temperature-based changes in sensitivity can be taken into account.

Temperature calibration

6.3.2 Interference during Calibration


The top diagram in Figure 6-3 represents the perfect calibration jump in which the loading and unloading jump are exactly the same. In practice, however, an interfering overshoot occurs during the loading jump, which is caused by the oscillations in the hydraulic system, see bottom diagram in Figure 6-3. The unloading jump should therefore always be used for the calibration.
Pressure Druck

PK p Surrounding P Umgebung Zeit Time

Belastung Loading
Pressure Druck

Entlastung Relief

PK p Surrounding PUmgebung Zeit Time

Figure 6-3: Calibration jump

Calibration

6-5

/ Source of errors The effect of electrical drift during calibration is shown in Figure 6-4. When the
RESET switch on the charge amplifier opens, a significant drift in the output signal can be observed which is superimposed over the entire calibration process. If during the unloading jump not difference (AB) is determined exactly but difference AC is determined by time-offset acquisition, the error caused by the electrical drift is included in the calibration result. To prevent such errors, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow the calibration jump to be recorded exactly from which the calibration value can then be calculated.
A

Output signal Ausgangssignal

AB
RESET ffnen open B

AC

RESET close schlieen C

Error Fehler

Time Zeit

Belastung Loading

Entlastung Relief

Figure 6-4: Influence of electrical drift during calibration

/ Source of errors

Due to the leakage problems in the changeover valve, high pressure dead weight testers have an arrangement as shown in the top half of Figure 6-5 with (nonswitchable) needle valves for producing the pressure jump. The loading valve is closed before the unloading valve is opened. The pressure at the pressure transducer also changes in an undefined way due to the change in volume that occurs, see bottom half of Figure 6-5. To determine the calibration value correctly, it is imperative to ensure that the difference is used between the value displayed immediately before the loading valve closes which corresponds to the pressure defined by the load of the applied weights, and the value immediately after the unloading valve opens.

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Engine Indicating

Transducer Druckaufnehmer

Loading valve closes Belastungsventil schlieen

Unloading valve opens Entlastungsventil ffnen

Output signal Ausgangssignal

pK

Time Zeit

Belastung Loading

Entlastung Relief

Figure 6-5: Unloading jump in high pressure dead weight testers with loading and unloading valve

6.4 Important Instructions


The following points should be observed during calibration:

Calibration of the entire measurement system


The entire measurement system must be calibrated to achieve high accuracy (i.e. pressure transducer, cables used, charge amplifier and A/D converter).

Calibration pressure
Piezoelectric pressure transducers are usually calibrated at about 80 % of the anticipated measurement pressure (except in measurements in the gas exchange system where they are calibrated at 100 % of the expected measurement pressure). In any case, the selected calibration pressure must always be in the upper half of the measurement pressure range, otherwise the measurement accuracy will be too low, particularly in the peak pressure range.

Keep the electrical drift small


As during the measurement itself, it is also necessary during the calibration to keep the electrical drift as small as possible.

Calibration

6-7

Disable drift compensation


If a charge amplifier with drift compensation is used for the calibration, it is absolutely necessary to deactivate it during the calibration.

Use the voltage range of the A/D converter


The gain should be set on the charge amplifier so that the largest possible part (70 - 90 %) of the available voltage range of the A/D converter is used so as to keep the digitization stages as small as possible. A safety gap should be maintained, however, at both the lower and upper limit of the measurement range.

When is it sufficient to set the gain rather than carry out calibration?
If the quality requirements for the measurement result are not high or no dead weight tester is available, the assignment of pressure to output signal can be determined by setting the sensitivity value of the pressure transducer used on the charge amplifier. In that case, a pressure jump corresponding to the RANGE setting produces a voltage of 10 V at the charge amplifier output.

6-8

Engine Indicating

7 Zero-line Detection
Due to their working principle, piezoelectric pressure transducers can only measure the changing pressure content (pMeas), i.e. only the pressure changes in the cylinder, and not the physically correct absolute pressure (p). The measured pressure curve (pMeas) therefore has to be adjusted in accordance with Equation 7-1 by the amount (pn) (zero-line shift).

p( ) = pMess ( ) + pn (7-1) The technical literature features a whole range of methods for determining the zero-line level. They differ mainly only in terms of accuracy and necessary computational work. Since a correct pressure curve forms the basis of an accurate heat release calculation, correct zero-line detection is of central importance. The chapters below deal with the most frequently applied methods.

7.1 Reference Method


7.1.1 Fixed Point (Empirical)
Under this method, the measured cylinder pressure (pMeas) at a specific crank angle (Ref) (i.e. reference angle) is adjusted to a predefined pressure value (pFix ) (i.e. reference point). The signal for the measured pressure curve (pMeas) in the range of reference angle (Ref) is averaged to minimise the effect of interferencing signals/spikes on the measured cylinder pressure curve, see Equation 7-2.

pn = pFix
Ambient pressure

Re f 1 pMess ( ) N + 1 = Re f N / 2

+N / 2

(7-2)

Often the ambient pressure (e.g. 1 bar) serves as the reference value, which is set to the cylinder pressure at gas exchange TDC (GETDC). This approach, however, only provides adequately accurate zero-line detection in unthrottled naturally aspirated engines. In other types of engine and engine map points, this type of adjustment can cause errored results

Zero-line Detection

7-1

because the cylinder pressure at gas exchange TDC no longer corresponds to the ambient pressure.

Intake pipe pressure


Another way to adjust the fixed point quickly is based on the assumption that the cylinder pressure approximates fairly closely to the intake pipe pressure during the intake phase. The cylinder pressure in the range of the gas exchange bottom dead centre (GEBDC) can therefore be set to the mean pressure in the intake pipe. The accuracy of this method depends to a large extent on the quality of the intake pipe pressure measurement. The pressure in the intake pipe is usually measured with piezoresistive pressure transducers the accuracy of which varies heavily with temperature. In rare cases, U-tubes are still used for the intake manifold pressure measurement. The advantage of fixed point adjustment is that it is quick and easy to carry out.

7.1.2 Measured Pressure Curve in the Intake Pipe


The accuracy of zero-line detection using the intake pipe pressure can be significantly increased by using the crank-angle-based, cylinder-specific intake pipe pressure curve instead of the mean intake pipe pressure for zero-line detection. The pressure between the maximum inlet valve lift and the gas exchange BDC is then set to the same value as the intake pipe pressure curve measured in that range.

7.2 Thermodynamic Zero-line Coefficient


7.2.1 Assumption of a Constant Polytropic Exponent
Thermodynamic zero-line detection is based on a comparison of the measured and a calculated pressure curve. A relatively simple method for doing this is the method devised by Hohenberg [17] which assumes a constant polytropic coefficient in a certain crank angle range.

7-2

Engine Indicating

Equation 7-3 applies to the polytropic compression:

p2Mess + pn V1 = =C p1Mess + pn V2 This then produces Equation 7-4: C p1Mess p2Mess 1 C The following values are recommended as the polytropic coefficient (n): pn = for diesel engines and for petrol engines in motored operation: n = 1.37...1.40 for petrol engines with combustion: n = 1.32...1.33

(7-3)

(7-4)

The following ranges are recommended for the two crank angle values (1) and (2):

1 = 100 CA 2 = 70 CA

80 CA before Ignition TDC 60 CA before Ignition TDC

This type of zero-line detection is very often used in practice because it offers good accuracy, despite of its simplicity and quickness of calculation. The main uncertainty of this method is associated with the use of a constant polytropic coefficient (n) which in fact changes over the crank angle range. The crank angle interval should therefore not be too large in order to minimise this influence. Another weakness of this method is the fact that interference noise is often superimposed on the pressure curve in this crank angle range. In some cases, the interference signal from valve impact (structure-borne noise when the inlet valve hits the valve seat at inlet closes) or the effects of structureborn noise at very high speeds (e.g. in racing engine) affect thermodynamic zeroline detection so severely that the results can be fairly wrong.

7.2.2 With the Aid of the Integral of the Heat Release


This method is based on the assumption that no heat may be released in the compression area [21].

Zero-line Detection

7-3

dQ

d = 0

(7-6)

The zero-line shift has to be estimated first as initial value using one of the methods described above, before the necessary parameters can be calculated. The zero-line shift is then adjusted iteratively. This principle using the integral heat offers high accuracy but is not suitable for real-time zero-line detection due to the necessary computation times.

7.2.3 Comparison of Measured and Calculated Pressure Curve


This method is based on the calculation of the compression line. The pressure level is varied until the area between the measured and the calculated compression line is at a minimum [14]. The calculation is usually carried out in the range between inlet closes and ignition point or start of injection. The advantage of this method is that the compression ratio and angle position can also be adjusted. The relatively large calculation time and effort, however, means that the method is unsuitable for real-time applications. Its high accuracy, on the other hand, makes it highly recommendable for thermodynamic analyses with high accuracy requirements.

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7.3 Comparison of Methods


In addition to the system-based source of errors in each method, the result of zero-line detection is also affected by external factors, such as

short term drift/thermoshock in the pressure transducer interference signals due to acceleration excitation of the pressure transducer (at valve closes, high speeds) interference signals due to electrical effects (ignition voltage, injector control)
When deciding on the method, it should therefore be borne in mind that an apparently suitable one can easily lead to errored results (Table 7-1).
Table 7-1: Assessment of zero-line detection methods

Peak pressure pmax Duration of combustion Combustion delay Position of 50% energy conversion Energy balance Additional metrological effort Accuracy Method suitable for realtime

o no
moderate

o o o o o (yes)
moderate

+ o + + o yes
good

+ o + + o no
good

+ + + + + yes
very good

yes

yes

yes

yes

no

+ ...... suitable o ...... suitable to a limited extent -....... not sufficient

Integral of Heat Release / comparison measuredcalculated pressure curve

Fix point adjustment with ambient pressure

Fix point adjustment with mean intake pipe pressure

Fix point adjustment with CA-resolution-based intake pipe pressure

Constant polytropic coefficient

Zero-line Detection

7-5

7-6

Engine Indicating

8 Maintenance, Repair and Cleaning


Piezoelectric pressure transducers are precision devices. The manufacturers specifications can only be guaranteed if they are handled with care. The diaphragms and sealing areas of a pressure transducer must always be protected against mechanical damage. Apart from that, particular attention should also be paid to maintaining the insulation resistance. Furthermore, the cooling water should always be able to flow unimpeded in cooled pressure transducers (i.e. there should be no scaling).

8.1 Insulation resistance


Low insulation resistances in the pressure transducer, connector and cable and at the input to the charge amplifier cause significant measurement errors, especially during similar-to-static calibration of the measurement system. The following minimum insulation values are recommended depending on the charge output:

Q < 1000 pCRIns > 5x1012 Q > 1000 pCRIns > 1x1012
Charge (Q) is calculated from the product of the pressure transducer sensitivity in pC/bar and the pressure jump in bar.

8.1.1 Maintaining High Insulation Resistance


High insulation resistance can be maintained by observing the following points:

Take care to keep oil and water away from the connector. Do not touch the connector insulator with your hand and do not blow it out with compressed air (i.e. always place the cap on the connector before cleaning the cooling water galleries with compressed air). Pressure transducers and piezo-input cables should preferably be treated as a single assembly. The cap should always be placed onto the connector at the free end of the piezo-input cable to close it off. If the piezo-input cable is unscrewed from the pressure transducer, the cap should be screwed on to the connector of the pressure transducer to close it off.

Maintenance, Repair and Cleaning

8-1

The transducers cooling water gallery should be emptied after a watercooled pressure transducer is removed from its mounting position. At relative humidity levels higher than 50 %, pressure sensors and piezoinput cables should be kept in a moisture-proof container (desiccator) together with a drying agent (e.g. blue gel).

8.1.2 Restoring High Insulation Resistance


The following measures can be taken to restore high insulation resistance:

Clean the connectors of pressure transducer and connecting cable (they must be completely clean, free of grease and dry). Use purified petrol, isopropanol or ethanol, a fine-hair brush and a non-fraying cloth to clean them. Pulling them in an ultrasonic bath for about 10 minutes improves the cleaning effect, but the solvent should only ever be used once. If necessary, the pressure transducer should be dried without the piezo-input cable at 120C (normally for a period of 8 hours, or a maximum of 72 hours). If that does not restore the high insulation resistance, we recommend returning the pressure transducer to the manufacturer for inspection and/or repair. Piezo-input cables can be dried in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

8.2 Descaling Cooling Water Galleries


Follow the manufacturers safety and disposal instructions for the chemicals used.

/ Caution

Special attention should also be paid to the cooling water galleries of pressure transducers. If they become blocked by scaling, they can be cleaned by pumping a standard descaler solution through them (e.g. amino acid, ethanoic acid, formic acid) or leaving it in the galleries for a while to dissolve the scale (until the characteristic flow rate for the transducer is restored) and then rinsed out with distilled water. After rinsing, the cooling water galleries should be cleaned by centrifuging or blowing out as should also be done when a pressure transducer is removed from its mounting position.

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8.3 Cleaning the Outside of Pressure Transducers


In the various operating states of diesel and petrol engines, deposits occur on the surface of the combustion chamber and therefore also on the surface of the pressure transducer (i.e. soot, burnt-in oil) which can distort the measurement signal. Pressure transducers should therefore be cleaned of such deposits regularly but as carefully as possible. Chemicals should be used to clean them but if cleaned mechanically you should only use methods will cause no damage to the sensor surface. We recommend the following cleaning procedure: (1) First check whether the connector between the piezo-input cable and the pressure transducer is tight enough (manual check). (2) Spray the complete pressure transducer several times with iso-propanol in a spray bottle (from about 3 to 4 mm below the cable connector). Place the pressure transducer at an inclined angle to do this (with the end face pointing downwards). Ensure that no solvent gets into the connector/cable gap as it may contain residual impurities. (3) Then clean the pressure transducer as well as possible over the entire area described in (2) with a cloth soaked in iso-propanol. (4) This is followed by a 5 to 10-minute dip in a solution of 20% Deconex UV11 in distilled water or 20% Extran-alkal. in distilled water. Ultrasonic cleaning is not absolutely necessary but can be a good idea. (5) Rinse the pressure transducer once with distilled water and dip it twice in distilled water (for a minute each time). (6) The pressure transducer should then be rinsed with iso-propanol as described in (2) and (3) and wiped dry.
This cleaning procedure does not apply to connectors. Follow the manufacturers safety and disposal instructions for the chemicals used.

/ Caution

Do not treat the pressure transducer with iso-propanol in an ultrasonic bath.

/ Caution

Maintenance, Repair and Cleaning

8-3

8.4 Repairing Pressure Transducers


Indicating sensors are made of high-precision, mechanical components that are so well attuned and connected to each other during manufacture that it is not normally possible to replace any of the components. Such a repair would also be too time-consuming. Only very few types of damage can be remedied by a repair that would be of acceptable time and cost:

Decrease in the high insulation resistance (clean the transducer, see also Chapter 8.1) Rupture or damage to the cooling water nipple (replace the nipple)
Slight mechanical damage to the sensor housing (machine to restore the installation dimensions)

8-4

Engine Indicating

9 Crank Angle Encoder


Measurements of dynamic quantities, i.e. quantities that change over time, by their very nature require a time base. The virtually time-proportional crank angle is here the obvious answer and is more or less the only solution used in practice. In engine indicating therefore measurements are carried out on an angle basis. The reason for that is firstly that the angle assignment of pressure and other rapidly changing quantities to the position of the crankgear largely determines the behaviour of an IC engine, and secondly, the crank angle is relatively simple to pick up.

9.1 Digital Signal Recording


Only digital angle measurement principles can be considered due to the current type of data acquisition and processing:
Angle discretization

Absolute angle measurement


Digital angle measurement principles producing absolute values always deliver the absolute value of the current crank angle, for example, over a digital pattern (bit pattern) of the respective value. These relatively complicated, absolute-measuring principles must, however, be discounted because of their sensitivity to vibrations, high temperatures and electrical scatter.

Relative angle measurement


Crank angle encoders are usually based on relative, digital measurement principles and thus deliver just pulses. For this purpose, a trigger mark is used for the synchronisation (or triggering) after each revolution and a number of angle marks (usually 360 or 720 marks per revolution) for the angle information. In addition to discretization of the basis (i.e. time, crank angle ...), the amplitude of the signal also has to be discretized, i.e. divided into steps. The step width and therefore the number of steps used for the discretization represents a major influence on the quality of the signal obtained.
Signal discretization

Crank Angle Encoder

9-1

Figure 9-1 illustrates the principle of the discretization of analogue signals. The signal amplitude is represented by the next lowest discretization level at each discretization step of the basis (i.e. crank angle) (in the AVL scheme). If we compare the coarse crank angle and amplitude resolution with the fine one, we can see how important it is to choose an adequate resolution and sampling rate. Whereas at a coarse resolution the high-frequency parts of the analogue signal are not acquired, they can be rendered well when the signal is discretized at a fine resolution.
Analog signal Analogsignal coarse digital signal grobes Digitalsignal fine digital signal feines Digitalsignal

Coarse Amplitudenauflsung grobe amplitude resolution

Fine amplitude resolution feine Amplitudenauflsung

feine angle resolution Fine Winkelauflsung grobe angle resolution CoarseWinkelauflsung

Figure 9-1: Principle of signal discretization


Analog signal Analogsignal

grobes Digitalsignal coarse digital signal fine digital signal feines Digitalsignal

Coarse amplitude resolution grobe Amplitudenauflsung

Fine Amplitudenauflsung feine amplitude resolution

Fine angle resolution feine Winkelauflsung CoarseWinkelauflsung grobe angle resolution

Figure 9-2: Influence of angle and amplitude resolution on the discretization

Figure 9-2 shows that choosing an insufficient sampling rate can in extreme cases even result in completely distorted representation of the actual analogue signal and also of the integral value (e.g. indicated mean effective pressure). When a coarse sampling rate is used, only the local minima are acquired and the

9-2

Engine Indicating

analogue signal is then incorrectly discretized as a rising curve trace. At a fine resolution, however, the analogue signal is discretized correspondingly well. Figure 9-3 shows another example of the effects of an inadequate crank angle resolution when indicating measurements are carried out on knocking combustion cycles. Whereas the high-frequency pressure oscillations are clearly shown at a sufficiently fine resolution, (fig. at the left) they are only just discernible or completely unrecognisable at a crank angle resolution that is too coarse.
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -20 0 20 40 60 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

9
coarse angle resolution
-20 0 20 40 60

fine angle resolution

10 0

Figure 9-3: Influence of the resolution on the display of knocking combustion

In practice, a 12 bit resolution (4096 steps) or a 16 bit resolution (65536 steps) is usually used to discretize the signal amplitude. High-frequency parts of the signal (e.g. pressure oscillations due to knocking combustion) require sampling rates of 0.1 CA for discretization of the basis.

Crank Angle Encoder

9-3

9.2 Function Principle and Construction of Crank Angle Encoders


9.2.1 Principles of Signal Generation
Different signal-generating principles are applied to produce the angle signal, depending on the requirements:

Optical sensors Inductive sensors Other: Hall-type sensors, capacitive sensors, etc.
9.2.1.1 Optical Sensors

+ AVL Product

Information: [12] Crank Angle Encoder

The measurement principle is based on light barriers. The backlighting or reflection lighting method is used depending on the configuration. Optical crank angle encoders satisfy high accuracy requirements (even with small dimensions) due to the possibility of highly accurate structuring of specially developed marker disks. Another advantage is that they are less susceptible to interference, especially when using optical fibres working in the vicinity of large electrical interference fields. The crank angle resolution is usually less than 1CA.

9.2.1.2 Inductive Sensors


Inductive sensors comprise at least a permanent magnet and a coil. If you move a magnetically conductive mark carrier (e.g. toothed wheel) in front of the sensor as shown in Figure 9-4, a voltage is induced in the coil. The output voltage of inductive sensors, depends very much on the speed, low speeds are therefore difficult to detect. Inductive sensors (but also Hall-type and capacitive sensors) are usually used in conjunction with toothed wheels that already exist in the engine. The achievable accuracy and crank angle resolution tends to be low, which is why this type of transducer is mainly used for monitoring purposes and/or speed measurements, not least because relative movements between sensor head and mark carrier affect the signal.

9-4

Engine Indicating

Inductive

Optical

Figure 9-4: Inductive and optical transducers

9.2.2 Mounting Position of Crank Angle Encoders


The task of the angle encoder is to measure as accurately as possible the crankshaft rotational motion in relation to the crankcase. Figure 9-5 shows the two mounting positions that are basically possible for angle encoders:

Free crankshaft end Crankshaft end at the drive output

Figure 9-5: Possible mounting positions for sensor head and marker disk

Crank Angle Encoder

9-5

The following mounting principles may be derived therefrom:

Crank angle encoder with integrated sensor


The sensor head sits floating via a bearing arrangement on the same shaft as the marker disk and is usually supported by a long arm to the engine block, see Figure 9-6 left. The direct mounting of the angle encoder housing (secured so that it cannot rotate towards the crankcase) on the free end of the crankshaft minimises any relative movements between the marker disk and the sensor head. Possible crank angle errors in this case depend not on the marker disk diameter but on the support radius. The advantage of this design is that it allows very small marker disks.

Crank angle encoder with no integrated sensor


The marker disk in this case is mounted on the crankshaft and the sensor is fixed to the engine block by a support. This mounting principle is usually used for the drive shaft side of the engine because it allows the shaft to be fed through to the dynamometer. Relative movements between the marker disk and the sensor head have a disadvantageous effect. A marker disk with the largest possible diameter should therefore be used to minimise the resultant crank angle error, see Figure 9-6 right. In view of possible relative movements (X), the diameter of the marker disk should be the same as the support radius of the angle encoder with integrated sensor to obtain the same crank angle error ().
sensor Sensorhead kopf

SensorSensor head kopf

X1 R1 R
Marker disk Markenscheibe

Marker disk Markenscheibe

with integrated sensor

without integrated sensor

Figure 9-6: Crank angle encoder with and without integrated sensor

9-6

Engine Indicating

9.2.3 Crank Angle Encoder Designs


The two basic mounting options result in two generally different angle encoder designs, as shown in Figure 9-7.
Supporting arm

Arm

Marker disk Markenscheibe

(Glass)

Sensor head

Sensorkopf

Sensor head Sensorkopf Bearing Lagerung Marker disk (Steel) Markenscheibe (Steel)

Housing Gehuse
with integrated sensor mit Eigenlagerung without integrated sensor ohne Eigenlagerung

Figure 9-7: Examples of crank angle encoder designs with and without integrated sensor (from AVL)

Angle encoders are more or less sensitive to soiling depending on their design. Angle encoders without integrated sensor are generally more sensitive to soiling because of their open design. To prevent measurement errors with such encoder versions therefore, the background lighting method is used for scanning the slots in the marker disk. With regard to the material for the marker disk, steel is virtually the only material that can be considered for manufacturing and strength reasons (because large disk diameters are necessary for sufficient accuracy). Crank angle encoders with integrated sensor generally use the reflection method in which marks lithographically applied to a glass disk are scanned. The small glass disk with this encoder version can easily handle even the severest loads at the angle encoder mounting site.

Crank Angle Encoder

9-7

9.2.4 Influence of Angle Encoder on Engine Behaviour


It should be borne in mind that a mounted angle encoder has some effect on the engine operation. In small engines in particular, the angle encoder can affect the engine behaviour due to:

weight, friction and moment of inertia.

9-8

Engine Indicating

9.3 Crank Angle Encoder Characteristics


O Speed range

The speed range within which the angle encoders specifications are guaranteed. Crank angle encoders can normally be used for speeds up to 20,000 rpm or more for special applications (e.g. racing engines).
O Crank angle resolution

Crank angle resolution means the smallest step width to be represented in the discretization of the crankshaft motion. High-frequency parts of the signal require a crank angle resolution 0.1CA.
O Accuracy

The accuracy is a measure of the extent to which the measurement value deviates from the reality. The achievable accuracy without taking into account errors relating to mounting or the engine itself is better than 0.05CA in dynamic mode.
O Lifetime

Describes the number of revolutions over which the specified characteristics are maintained. The lifetime is purely a comparative parameter, which can be exceeded if the operating conditions are favourable. Conversely extreme operating conditions can shorten a devices lifetime. However, a lifetime of more than 106 revolutions can be expected, even under unfavourable conditions.
O Thermal resistance

Resistance of the angle encoder to thermal loads at the mounting surfaces and in the environment without affecting its function. Crank angle encoders have to have the following thermal resistance capabilities to cope with their mounting site:

Crank Angle Encoder

9-9

Temperature at the mounting surfaces: (determined by the sensor) Ambient temperature: (determined by the converter electronics)
O Vibration resistance

-30C to 120C -30C to 60C

Resistance to sensor accelerations in an axial and/or radial direction without impairing the angle encoders function. Typical values are 250 g, with peaks of 1000 g.
O Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

Defines the interference environment in which a device can still be operated without impairment to its functions. Crank angle encoders usually have to satisfy the interference immunity requirements specified in Standard EN1326
O Contamination resistance

Resistance to functional impairment due to contamination from external components. A device must be resistant to all standard operating materials (i.e. fuels, coolants and lubricants) and cleaning agents.
O Leakproofness

Resistance to media penetrating the device and impairing its function under the conditions stated in the Standard. The relevant Standard is Degree of Protection IP54.

9-10

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9.4 Crank Angle Errors and their Causes


Errors and inaccuracies can occur during the manufacture, mounting and operation of crank angle encoders. To minimise those errors, it is important to understand their possible causes.

Manufacturing errors (XM)


Manufacturing errors relate to the position of the angle marker track in relation to the centre of the marker disk (XM1), the quality of the allocation of the marks division (XM2) and any possible eccentricity of the marker disk centre to the angle encoder axis (XM3 only in angle encoders with integrated sensor). Such errors are usually beyond the control of the user, see Figure 9-8.
XM1 XH1 XM2 XH2
Desired-position Soll-Lage

XM3

XH3

Mitte of the Center der Markenscheibe Marker disk (connection) (Anschluss)


Center of thethe marks Center of marks trace

Actual position

Center of the der Mitte Marker disk Markenscheibe (connection)

(Anschluss)

Angle Encoder Axis Winkelaufnehmerachse

Angle encoder with integral bearing X = XH1H2H3 M2 Winkelaufnehmer mit Eigenlagerung: X=X+X+X +XM3 M1+X Angle encoder without Winkelaufnehmer ohneintegral bearing X=X+X M2 Eigenlagerung: X = XM1+X H1H2

Figure 9-8: Manufacturing errors

Installation errors (XI)


Installation errors are within the control of the user. They occur due to deviations in the marker disk axis from the crankshaft axis. The influence of this error becomes smaller with rising support radius or marker disk diameter, see Figure 9-9.

Crank Angle Encoder

9-11

Xi

Figure 9-9: Installation error

Engine-based error
Engine-based errors occur due to geometric and positional deviations of the crankshaft, due to crankshaft torsion or due to relative motion in the stabilising support or sensor head in relation to the crankcase. These types of error can be limited by selecting the measuring site accordingly.

Geometric and positional deviations of the crankshaft (XG) These are radial deviations of the marker disk axis from the ideal engine axis at the mounting point of the angle encoder or marker disk, see Figure 9-10. In angle encoders without integrated sensor, this error can be influenced by the choice of mounting position for the sensor head (pick up). Only in sensor head position 2 do relative motions of the marker disk in the direction shown by the arrow result in angle errors, see Figure 9-10. The same motion produces no errors in sensor head position 1. Axial shifts within the specified limits are unimportant. Causes of possible deviations may be a crankshaft that is already deformed, a sag in the crankshaft caused by the combustion pressure or a displacement of the crankshaft in the main bearings. This error should be borne in mind in particular in long or flexible crankshaft ends.

9-12

Xi

Engine Indicating

R
ideal ideale engine axis Motorachse
deformed crank

verformte shaft axis Kurbelwellenachse


with integrated sensor

XG

9
R XG
without integrated sensor

Figure 9-10: Errors due to geometric and positional deviations of the crankshaft

Crankshaft torsion Torsion in the crankshaft has a direct effect on the crank angle error. To minimise this error, it is advisable to mount the crank angle encoder as close as possible to the cylinder where the indicating measurement is to be done. Crankshaft torsion results in the same crank angle error in both angle encoders with and without integrated sensor.

Crank Angle Encoder

9-13

Relative movements of the stabilising support or sensor head (XV) in relation to the crankcase In a similar way to the geometric and positional deviations of the crankshaft, relative movements of the stabilising support or the sensor head in relation to the crankcase also result in measurement errors and in extreme cases, in synchronization errors (Figure 9-11). These occur among other things when the oscillation velocity is greater than that of the marker disk and thus one or more angle marks are detected more than once. Vibrations at the mounting site of the stabilising support or the sensor head are the commonest cause of such errors.
Xv Xv
Sensor window shifted due to vibration Sensor window in correct position

R
Xv

Figure 9-11: Error due to relative movement of stabilising support or sensor head in relation to the crankcase

Figure 9-12 shows how angle error depends on positional error (X) for different marker disk diameters. The positional error is made up of installation errors (XI), errors due to geometric and positional deviations of the crankshaft (XG) and errors due to relative movement of the stabilising support or sensor head (XV). The major advantage of angle encoders with integrated sensor is obvious. This encoder design obtains the large support radius necessary for good accuracy by means of a supporting arm of appropriate length (with an angle encoder that can be as small as you like). On the other hand, in an angle encoder without integrated sensor, the diameter of the marker disk determines the accuracy, which means that the disk diameter has to be very large for good accuracy.

9-14

Engine Indicating

0.5 Wi 0.4 nk elf 0.3 ehl er 0.2 [K W] 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Position error X [mm] Positionsfehler X [mm]

X=XI +XG+XV

D=140mm
D

Angel error [CA]

D=220mm D=280mm R=225mm


R

Figure 9-12: Effects of positional errors on the accuracy of crank angle encoders

Furthermore, the crank angle error resulting from crankshaft torsion has to be added to this crank angle error. This additional angle error is identical for both angle encoder versions.

Crank Angle Encoder

9-15

9.5 Choice of Measuring Site and Mounting Instructions


The following points must always be observed when mounting crank angle encoders:

Where possible always use an angle encoder with integrated sensor


A crank angle encoder with integrated sensor should be used where possible due to its lower sensitivity to mounting and engine-based errors.

Mounting position as close to the indicated cylinder as possible


Another important point is to mount the angle encoder as close as possible to the cylinder where the indicating measurement is to be done. That is the only way to minimise crankshaft torsion and thus to keep the crank angle error small. This requirement can, however, conflict with the point above, namely always try to use a crank angle encoder with integrated sensor. If that is the case, choose a mounting position for which the expected sum of angle errors caused by positional errors (dependent on the magnitude of the positional error and the type of angle encoder, see Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden werden.) and by crankshaft torsion is minimal.

Low-vibration support of the stabilising support or sensor head


In order to further minimize measurement errors, you should ensure that the stabilising support (crank angle encoder with integrated sensor) or the sensor head (crank angle encoder without integrated sensor) is secured to the engine block in a position that is subject to as little vibration as possible and that it is mounted as rigidly as possible.

Mounting the angle encoder on the camshaft


An angle encoder mounted on the camshaft or an intermediate drive shaft can only render the angle position of that shaft correctly and is unsuitable for representing the exact crankshaft position because of deformations and play.

9-16

Engine Indicating

9.6 Assigning Angle Mark Trigger to Engine TDC


In order to correctly correlate the angle based measuring values to the top dead centre of the engine, angle encoders provide a trigger mark in addition to the crank angle marks, the position of which must be precisely assigned to the TDC.

9.6.1 Influence of TDC Errors on Evaluation Accuracy


The exact determination of top dead centre is of vital importance especially in conjunction with the thermodynamic evaluation of pressure curves in internal combustion engines. (e.g. for determining IMEP). Figure 9-13 shows the effect of a crank angle error on the energy balance and the friction mean effective pressure of a diesel engine.
Q B [%] LL ... idle LL ... Leerlauf VL ... Volllast VL ... full load 30 25 20 15 10
OT too late TDCliegt zu spt

=22,LL =14,LL =22,VL =14,VL


TDC toozu frh OT liegt early TDC too late OT liegt zu spt

pf [bar] 2 1.5 1 0.5 -0.2 =22 -0.1 0.1 =22


TDC too early OT liegt zu frh

=14

5 -1 -5 -10 -15 1

-2 =14,22

2 [CA] [KW]

-0.5 -1 -1.5

0.2 [KW] [CA]

=14

=22

-20 =14

-2

Figure 9-13: Effect of an angle error on the energy balance and friction mean effective pressure (diesel engine)

If the TDC position is too early, which means a shift to the right in the cylinder pressure curve, it has the effect that there is too low a pressure as the piston rises and too high a pressure as the piston descends. An apparently longer afterburn phase and a higher energy conversion (QB) are the result. The converse occurs when the TDC position is too late. The effects of angle shifts are also felt in the indicating work (i.e. indicated mean effective pressure IMEP), which is greater when TDC is too early and vice versa. This results also in larger (smaller) friction mean effective pressures ( pf ).

Crank Angle Encoder

9-17

9.6.2 Methods for TDC Determination


Various methods are known for assigning the trigger to the top dead centre.

9.6.2.1 Static Top Dead Centre Determination


A flagging mark is first applied to the engine block, which continues over a rotating part of the engine with the largest diameter (e.g. flywheel), see Figure 9-14. The crankshaft is then cranked until the crank throw and the conrod of the cylinder being measured, are approximately at right-angles (position a). The height of the piston is measured in this position by placing a micrometer feeler (2) on the piston surface through the spark plug bore, for example. This position is marked on the flywheel (A) facing the flagging mark. The piston is then lowered and raised again by turning the crankshaft further until the same reading as appeared before is registered on the micrometer (position b). This position, too, is marked on the flywheel (B). The distance between the two marks on the flywheel is then halved. When the crankshaft is turned until the half-way point stops exactly at the flagging mark, the piston is at top dead centre.
2

Stellung b
90
Position a

Position b

Stellung a

Figure 9-14: Method for static TDC determination

The statically determined top dead centre deviates from the TDC that prevails during engine operation (i.e. dynamic TDC) because the mechanical structure of IC engines is not ideally rigid. Therefore, dynamic TDC determination methods are to be preferred.

9-18

Engine Indicating

9.6.2.2

Top Dead Centre Determination Based on the pressure curve of a motored engine

This dynamic TDC determination method is based on the cylinder pressure curve measured in the motored engine mode with subsequent angle determination of the curve maximum. Due to the flat signal curve in the vicinity of TDC, however, and also because of the limited resolution steps of the ADC, this cannot be done simply by taking the pressure maximum. Mathematical methods must be applied for more precise determination of the angle position of the curve maximum in order to achieve an acceptable accuracy. A well functioning algorithm for this purpose is described in chapter 9.6.2.4, Figure 9-18 (AVL algorithm).

Influence of the thermodynamic loss angle


In a real engine, the pressure maximum in a motored engine comes before the real top dead centre because of heat and leakage losses, Figure 9-15. This differential angle between the pressure maximum and TDC is known as the thermodynamic loss angle. In addition to the fact that the loss angle depends on heat losses and leakage as already described, it also significantly depends on the speed. The loss angle rises at low speeds due to the longer time available for heat loss and leakage.
Thermodynamic loss Verlustwinkel thermodynamischer angle
motored pressure [bar] Schleppdruck [bar]

verlustfreier corrected pressure curve Schleppdruckverlauf

measured pressure curve (with Schleppdruckverlauf mit heat and leakage losses)

Wrme- und Leckageverlusten

-10

-5

10

Crank Angle [CA] ] Kurbelwinkel [KW Figure 9-15: Thermodynamic loss angle

Taking the thermodynamic loss angle into account


When the loss angle is known, TDC determination can be corrected by adding to the relevant angle value to the pmax position of the (motored)

Crank Angle Encoder

9-19

pressure curve, thus shifting the pressure curve until the distance between the pressure maximum and the engine TDC corresponds to the thermodynamic loss angle.

Determination of the thermodynamic loss angle


The accuracy of the above procedure depends primarily on how the loss angle was determined. The specifications given in the technical literature for the loss angle of typical engines are usually imprecise. Once the loss angle of a particular engine has been determined reliably, however, (e.g. by top dead centre determination using a TDC sensor) it can then be used in the future to determine the TDC position quickly and reliably for the same type of engine.

Application in prechamber engines


If indicating measurements are carried out in the main combustion chamber of prechamber engines, the distance between the pressure maximum and TDC is increased further. Measured prechamber pressure curves of pre-chamber and swirl chamber engines are not suitable for TDC determination using the thermodynamic loss angle because of the flow conditions between the main combustion chamber and the pre-chamber.

9.6.2.3 Mathematical TDC Determination


The measured curve can be assigned to TDC by comparing the angle position of the compression line of a measured combustion chamber pressure with that of a calculated pressure curve [14]. To do this the area between the two curves in a certain crank angle range is minimised (iteration) by shifting the measured curve and thus determining the TDC position, see Figure 9-16.

9-20

Engine Indicating

100 90 80 70 Pressure [bar] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -150

Alignement range

measured cylinder pressure

calculated motored pressure

Intake valves closes

-100

-50

50

100

Crank Angle [CA]

Figure 9-16: TDC determination by means of thermodynamic adjustment

Heat transfer, leakage and the mass in the cylinder have to be taken into account in the calculation of the pressure curve in the compression phase. The accuracy of the angle adjustment depends on how accurately these quantities are taken into account. Commercial programs for pressure curve analysis offer plenty of ways to determine the TDC position using this approach.

9.6.2.4 TDC Determination with TDC Sensor


A particularly accurate way of determining top dead centre in IC engines is to use a TDC sensor, see Figure 9-17. That is mainly because the sensor measures the piston motion directly and can thus achieve accuracy levels of better than 0.1CA. TDC determination is carried out in motored engine mode. In multi-cylinder engines, the determination can also be carried out in fired-engine mode in a non fired cylinder.

+ AVL Product
Information: [10] TDC sensor

Crank Angle Encoder

9-21

Elektronics Sensor Clamping Adaptor

min. distance 1.5mm in the Gas Exchange TDC

Figure 9-17: Construction and mounting of a TDC sensor

Measurement principle
The functional principle is based on a capacitive measurement procedure in which the sensor measures the changes in capacitance between the piston and the sensor head. The capacitance changes in inverse proportion to the distance between the piston and the sensor head.

TDC sensor mounting


The TDC sensor consisting of the adaptor, clamping piece, the actual sensor and evaluation electronics is mounted in the cylinder head, see Figure 9-18. It is installed in existing spark plug, injection nozzle or pressure transducer bores.

Evaluation of the TDC signal (AVL algorithm)


For a 4-stroke engine, the output signal of the TDC sensor indicates a maximum both at gas exchange TDC and at ignition TDC. Because of the play in the friction bearings and the low cylinder pressure at gas exchange, the signal of the gas exchange TDC will be higher. Despite the higher signal at gas exchange TDC, the signal of the ignition TDC should be used for maximum accuracy. For one thing, this is so that the deformations that occur in real operation can be allowed for, and for another, because the

9-22

Engine Indicating

valve motions during gas exchange can affect the capacitance between engine ground and sensor tip and therefore distort the result.
Bisection points TDC-position determined by average of the Bisection points

TDC-Sensor signal

Ai + Bi 2 A1,2, ... -20 -10 0 B1,2, ... 10 20

Crank Angle [CA] Figure 9-18: TDC signal evaluation

Determination of the actual TDC position from the output signal of the sensor cannot be done using the signal maximum due to the flat signal curve in the vicinity of TDC and due to the limited resolution of the signal sampling. Rather the following algorithm is used: The amplitude is measured in the rising branch at angle (A1,2, ...) and the corresponding angle (B1,2, ...) in the falling branch with the same signal amplitude, see Figure 9-18. This process is repeated a number of times and the position of top dead centre determined from the results (centre line). A suitable angle range for (A1, 2, ...) is, for example, from 15CA to 5CA before TDC.

9.6.2.5 Comparison of TDC Determination Methods


The methods described for determining TDC differ mainly in terms of time and effort, and achievable accuracy, see Figure 9-19. The classifications shown in the figure are based on the assumption that the necessary equipment is available for all the different TDC determination methods. The most accurate but the most time consuming one is TDC determination with a TDC sensor. The thermodynamic TDC determination requires a little less time and effort, but has slight disadvantages in terms of accuracy. The static TDC determination requires considerable time and effort and is significantly less accurate than the first two methods. TDC determination using the pressure curve of a motored engine

Crank Angle Encoder

9-23

offers the least accuracy, but the method is significantly more accurate if reliable values are available for the loss angle. [1]
Effort

high static TDC-detemination medium motored pressure curve small

TDC-Sensor

Thermodynamic alignement

( )

(Accuracy depending from the quality of the loss angle) small medium high
Accuracy

Figure 9-19: Time and effort, and accuracy of different TDC determination methods

9-24

Engine Indicating

10 Trouble shooting
Table 10-1 lists the problems that frequently occur in the measurement signal and according to the listed significance their possible causes. We recommend proceeding to remedy the problem quickly. The effects of problems that can be so small that they are not visible until the measurement values are evaluated, are identified by -. The listed problem codes and measures for trouble shooting are described in Chapters 10.1 to 10.6, the problem codes being divided into the following groups:

Pressure transducer Measurement cabling Charge amplifier Crank angle encoder Data acquisition and evaluation Calibration

101 - 118 201 - 206 301 - 310 401 - 402 501 - 502 601 - 604

+ Chapter 10.1 + Chapter 10.2 + Chapter 10.3 + Chapter 10.4 + Chapter 10.5 + Chapter 10.6

10

The following category is also included to cover influences (see Table 10-2) that do not derive from measurement errors, but which nevertheless have an effect on the measurement signal:

Real effects (can be confused with error)

001 003

Trouble shooting

10-1

Table 10-1:

Effects on the measurement signal and possible causes of error

Effect

Possible causes of error in order of significance 1 2 3 Other

No measurement signal

301 202 117 310

Output voltage of charge amplifier at 303 304 206 maximum value

- Occasional jumps or irregularities in the 202 401 118 measurement signal - Sudden change in level of the 104 103 202 measurement signal up or down with no load change
Truncated measurement signal 304 502 113 201 402 401 604, 110, 102, 117,

- Angle-misaligned measurement signal

- Proportional error over entire 306 102 601 602, 603, measurement range, or expected peak 101, 103, 116, 501, pressure or IMEP not reached 115, 117 - Changes in measurement signal or IMEP 111 104 103 101, 113, 200, 401 at unchanged operating point (i.e. continuous operation) - Measurement signal superimposed high-frequency oscillations
by 204 302 107 109, 001 205,

108,

- Measurement signal superimposed by low- 302 203 frequency oscillations synchronous with the mains - Measurement signal superimposed by low- 108 105 110 frequency oscillations synchronous with the engine - Slow drift of measurement signal at 201 113 305 unchanged load

10-2

Engine Indicating

Measurement signal changes level after an 106 engine load change Mean level change at load change is not 106 307 308 properly reflected

Inclined gas exchange curve section

105 307 201 113, 305

Measurement values in the vicinity of TDC 109 002 003 not plausible Pressure proportional error to the in the 116 309 gas exchange range
Table 10-2: Real effects Description and how to avoid them

Code Effect 001

Description and how to avoid them

Combustion chamber It is not the task of the measurement to oscillations (high-frequency) avoid combustion chamber oscillations but try selecting a less troublesome measuring point or use filters. Squish-induced flow (dynamic pressure changes around TDC) Measuring positions with a strong squishinduced flow are only suitable to a limited extent for accurate measurements and should be avoided. Their influence only affects a small angle range around TDC, however, and may therefore not present a problem with every measurement task Pressure measurements in prechamber or swirl chamber provide only very approximate information about the phenomena in the main combustion chamber

10

002

003

Influence of a divided combustion chamber (pressure difference due to flow phenomena)

Trouble shooting

10-3

10.1 Pressure Transducer


Code Description of error 101 Remedy

Change in pressure Re-calibrate transducer characteristics during running in Change in sensitivity due to Use cooled pressure transducers or influence of temperature transducers with GaPO4 technology. Calibrate the pressure transducer at the expected operating temperature. Maintain cooling water at a constant temperature (return cooling). Permanent change in Replace transducer. metrological characteristics Use pressure transducer, which can of the pressure transducer withstand high temperatures. Reduce the thermal load on the transducer by using due to overheating recessed-type installation, by improving the cooling or choosing a cooler measuring position. Failure of pressure Shut down engine immediately and do transducer cooling not switch on cooling; let pressure transducer cool down with the engine, then remove it and check it. Cyclic temperature drift Use pressure transducers with low cyclic temperature drift. Reduce the heating or thermal load on the transducer by using recessed-type installation, by improving the cooling or choosing a cooler measuring position. Load change drift Use pressure transducers with low load change drift. Reduce the heating or thermal load on the transducer by using recessed-type installation, by improving the cooling or choosing a cooler measuring position. Use pressure transducers with low Mechanical oscillation acceleration sensitivity. excitation (e.g. caused by valve impact, speeds > 10000 rpm)

+ Chapter 3.1.2.1

102

103

104

+ Chapter 3.1.2.1

105

+ Chapter 3.1.2.1

106

+ Chapter 3.1.2.2

107

10-4

Engine Indicating

Code Description of error 108 Effect of acceleration forces due to vibrations on pressure transducer, cable, cooling water hoses and cooling system Pipe oscillations

Remedy Use pressure transducers with low acceleration sensitivity. Lay or position cables, cooling water hoses and cooling system on vibration free parts of the test bed. Mount the pressure transducer flush or mount it with short, oscillation-optimised indicating channel. Use plug-in type pressure transducers or choose a suitable measuring position. Clean the pressure transducer. Use pressure transducers that are not sensitive to soot. Descale; Use decalcified cooling water. Restore high insulation resistance by cleaning the connections on the pressure transducer or by heating it to dry it. Reduce the thermal load on the transducer by using recessed-type installation, improving the cooling or choosing a cooler measuring position. Use charge amplifiers with drift compensation; Use SHORT mode on the charge amplifier. Choose a suitable measuring position. Choose a suitable measuring position. Mathematical compensation. Check calibration range. Use multi-point calibration. Replace pressure transducer. Replace pressure transducer

+ Chapter 3.1.2.2

109

+ Chapter 4 + Chapter 3.1.2.3 + Chapter 3.1.2.4

110 111

112 113

Deformations of the mounting position Change in the metrological characteristics of the pressure transducer due to sooting Scaling of cooling water galleries Insulation problems due to moisture, contamination or too high operating temperatures

10
+ Chapter 2.2

114 115 116 117 118

Squish-induced flow Influence of a divided combustion chamber Non-linearity of the pressure transducer Faulty pressure transducer Contact problems in pressure transducer

+ Chapter 4 + Chapter 4

Trouble shooting

10-5

10.2 Measurement Cabling


Code Description of error Remedy

+ Chapter 2.3

201

202

Restore high insulation resistance by cleaning the connectors or by heating. Lay cables where it is cool. Use charge amplifiers with drift compensation. Use SHORT mode on the charge amplifier. Ruptured cable, contact Check connections on the pressure problems or loose cable transducer and the various measurement system components. connection Insulation problems due to moisture, contamination or too high operating temperatures Use an equipotential bonding line (with large cross-section) between engine and measuring ground. Use an isolating transformer. Segregate the supply grounds of the charge amplifiers when more than one pressure transducer is used. Influences due to Use shielded cables. electromagnetic fields Change the way cables are laid. Triboelectrical effect due to Use low-noise cables. cable movement Secure cables to non-vibrating components. Cable short circuit Replace cable. Ground loop problems due to different potential between engine, ground and measuring ground (potential difference)

+ Chapter 2.4.1

203

+ Chapter 2.4.2 + Chapter 2.3

204 205

206

10-6

Engine Indicating

10.3 Charge Amplifier


Code Description of error 301 302 303 304 RESET switch of charge amplifier is activated Interference in supply voltage The charge amplifier has reached saturation Charge amplifier is overloaded Remedy Deactivate the RESET switch.

+ Chapter 2.2.2

305 306 307 308

309

310

Use mains filters and isolating transformers. Ground the charge amplifier by pressing the RESET switch. Select correct measurement range. Ground the charge amplifier by activating the RESET switch. Use drift compensation. Improve the insulation. Input offset is not zero Correct the charge amplifier. Sensitivity set incorrectly on Adjust sensitivity setting. charge amplifier Charge amplifier is in Use LONG mode. SHORT mode Drift compensation is Deactivate drift compensation. activated on the charge amplifier Non-linearity of charge Ground the charge amplifier by pressing amplifier the RESET switch. Use drift compensation. Use SHORT mode on charge amplifier. Faulty charge amplifier Replace charge amplifier.

+ Chapter 2.2.2

10
+ Chapter 2.2.3 + Chapter 2.2.3

Trouble shooting

10-7

10.4 Crank Angle Encoder


Code Description of error 401 Number of pulses measured per revolution does not agree with number of angle marks (electromagnetic scatter, torsional vibration, etc.) Errored TDC determination Remedy Check angle encoder and its mounting; eliminate scatter sources. Use state-of-the-art indicating equipment which outputs an error message when the number of pulses per revolution is not correct. Determine the TDC correctly, e.g. by using a TDC sensor for dynamic TDC determination

402

10.5 Data Acquisition and Evaluation (Indicating Equipment)


Code Description of error 501 502 Remedy

Sensitivity is set incorrectly Correct sensitivity setting. on indicating equipment Indicating device has Select correct measurement range; use overshot range indicating equipment with automatic measurement range monitoring.

10.6 Calibration
Code Description of error Remedy Calibrate the entire measurement system.

+ Chapter 5

601

602

603 604

Pressure transducer was not calibrated together with the components used for the measurement Pressure transducer was not calibrated at operating temperature Calibration pressure not constant Incorrect calibration values

Calibrate in heated holder.

Check dead weight tester; Vent the hydraulic lines. Check dead weight tester and transducer (insulation, linearity). Deactivate drift compensation on charge amplifier

10-8

Engine Indicating

11 LINK List

AVL LIST GmbH


AVL is the world's largest privately owned and independent company for the development of powertrain systems with internal combustion engines as well as instrumentation and test systems. http://www.avl.com/

AVL Indicating Technology


For engine R&D a comprehensive knowledge of the processes in an internal combustion engine necessary. For these purpose AVL have developed a whole family of indicating systems, each tailor-made to suit a particular application. http://www.avl.com/indicating

11

AVL GaPO4 crystals


Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4) is a piezoelectric crystal material with outstanding properties in respect of its application on engine test sensors. AVL have established the only industrial production of GaPO4 in the world. http://www.gapo4.com

Link List

11-1

University of Technology Graz


Institute for Combustion engines and Thermodynamics The Institute was founded in 1920, and under its heads Prof. Dr. Julius Magg, Prof. Dr.Dr.h.c. Hans List, and Prof. Dr.Dr.h.c. Anton Pischinger it developed into one of the renowned research establishments for internal combustion engines. Its laboratories are equipped with most advanced test and research facilities for internal combustion engines, motor vehicles and investigation of pullant dispersion. http://www.tugraz.at/einrichtungen/

11-2

Engine Indicating

12 Bibliography
[1] Angstrm H-E.: Cylinder pressure indicating with multiple transducers, accurate TDC-evaluating, zero levels and analysis of mechanical vibrations, 3rd International Indicating Symposium, Mainz 1998 AVL Application Notes MI-006-2000: Zylinderkopf und Montagebohrung Deformation (Cylinder Head and Installation Bore Deformation), AVL LIST GmbH, 2000AVL Application Notes MI-007-2000: Lastwechsel und Lastwechseldrift (Load Change and Load Change Drift), AVL LIST GmbH, 2000 AVL Application Notes MI-008-2000: Zyklische Temperaturdrift und Einfluss auf das pi (Cyclic Temperature Drift and Influence on IMEP), AVL LIST GmbH, 2000 AVL Product Information MI-002-96: AVL Echtzeit-Klopfanalyse fr Ottomotoren (AVL Realtime Knock Analysis for SI Engines), AVL LIST GmbH, 1996 AVL Product Information: Druckaufnehmer fr die Motormesstechnik (Pressure Transducers for Engine Instrumentation), AVL LIST GmbH, 2001 AVL Product Information: Gallium Orthophosphat GaPO4, AVL LIST GmbH, 2000 AVL Product Information: IFEM Indizier-Frontendmodul (IFEM Indicating Front End Module), AVL LIST GmbH, 2000 AVL Product Information: Indiziertechnik (Indicating Technology), AVL LIST GmbH, 2000 AVL Product Information: OT-Sensor (TDC Sensor), AVL LIST GmbH, 2001 AVL Product Information: Piezoverstrker 3066A02 (3066A02 PiezoAmplifier), AVL LIST GmbH, 2000 AVL Product Information: Winkelaufnehmer (Crank Angle Encoder), AVL LIST GmbH, 2001

[2]

[3] [4]

12

[5}

[6]

[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Bibliography

12-1

[13]

Beran R., Figer G., Wimmer A., Glaser J., Prenninger P., Mglichkeiten fr die genaue Messung von Ladungswechseldruckverlufen (Possibilities for the Exact Measurement of Gas Exchange Pressure Curves, 4th International Indicating Symposium, Baden-Baden 2000 Feler, H.: Berechnung des Motorprozesses mit Einpassung wichtiger Parameter (Calculation of the Engine Process with Adjustment of Important Parameters), Dissertation, Technical University of Graz, 1988 Glaser J., Winkler J.: Indizieren mit Glhkerzenadaptern (Indicating with Glow Plug Adaptors, AVL Product Information MI-020-95, AVL LIST GmbH, 1995 Glaser, J.: Fehler von Quarzdruckaufnehmern und Probleme bei der Druckindizierung von Verbrennungsmotoren (Quartz Pressure Transducer Errors and Problems in Pressure Indicating on IC Engines), Dissertation, Technical University of Graz, 1983 Hohenberg, G.: Experimentelle Erfassung der Wandwrme in Kolbenmotoren (Experimental Acquistion of the Wall Heat in Piston Engines), Habilitation Thesis, Technical University of Graz, 1980 Klell M., Wimmer A.: Ein Verfahren zur thermodynamischen Bewertung von Druckaufnehmern (A Method for Thermodynamic Evaluation of Pressure Transducers), Motortechnische Zeitschrift MTZ 50, 1989 Merzhuser T.: Motorberwachung- und Regelung auf Basis einer kontinuierlichen Zylinder-Spitzendruckmessung (Engine Monitoring and Control based on Continuous Cylinder Peak Pressure Measurement), 3rd International Indicating Symposium, Mainz 1998 Mhlgger M., Teichmann R., Indizieren eine Philosophie? Anforderungen, Wnsche und Mglichkeiten aus der Sicht des Anwenders (Indicating a Philosophy? Requirements, Wishes and Possibilities from the Point of View of the User), 4th International Indicating Symposium, Baden-Baden 2000 Pischinger, R., Kranig, G., Taucar, G., Sams, Th.: Thermodynamik der Verbrennungskraftmaschine (Thermodynamics of Internal Combustion Engines), Springer Publishing Vienna, 1988 Sass, F.: Geschichte des deutschen Verbrennungsmotorenbaus von 1860 1918 (History of German Internal Combustion Engine Engineering from 1860 1918

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

[22]

12-2

Engine Indicating

[23] [24]

Tichy, J., Gautschi G.: Piezoelektrische Metechnik (Piezoelectric Engine Instrumentation), Springer Publishing Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1980 Wimmer, A., Glaser, J.: Welche thermodynamischen Aussagen sind mit Miniaturdruckaufnehmern mglich? (What Thermodynamic Information can Miniature Pressure Transducers Give Us?), Paper for 2nd Indicating Symposium in Offenbach/Main, May 1996

12

Bibliography

12-3

12-4

Engine Indicating

13 List of Figures
Figure 1-1: Indicator chart recorded by Nikolaus August Otto (from Friedrich Sass: Geschichte des deutschen Verbrennungsmotoren-baus von 1860-1918") [22] .................................................................................1-1 Figure 1-2: Application areas of indicating technology............................................1-2 Figure 1-3: Cylinder pressure curve over an engine cycle........................................1-3 Figure 1-4: Low pressure curves over one cycle ......................................................1-6 Figure 2-1: Structural diagram of the piezoelectric pressure measurement system with additional devices ........................................................................2-1 Figure 2-2: Piezoelectric effects ...............................................................................2-3 Figure 2-3: Measuring element for the longitudinal effect ......................................2-5 Figure 2-4: Increasing the charge output with the longitudinal effect .....................2-5 Figure 2-5: Measuring element for the transversal effect .........................................2-6 Figure 2-6: Quartz crystal.........................................................................................2-8 Figure 2-7: Crystal structure of Gallium Orthophosphate ......................................2-10 Figure 2-8: Temperature dependency of piezoelectric constant (d11) for quartz and Gallium Orthophosphate .............................................................2-10 Figure 2-9: Construction of a piezoelectric pressure transducer based on the longitudinal effect (from AVL) Mounting thread M14x1.25..........2-12 Figure 2-10: Construction of piezoelectric pressure transducers based on the transversal effect (from Kistler) Mounting thread M14x1.25 .........2-13 Figure 2-11: Uncooled miniature pressure transducer (from AVL) Mounting thread M5x0.5....................................................................................2-14 Figure 2-12: Charge amplifier (e.g. from AVL) .....................................................2-16 Figure 2-13: Circuit diagram of a charge amplifier ................................................2-16 Figure 2-14: Definition of the time constant when discharging a capacitor ...........2-18 Figure 2-15: Electrical drift effect ..........................................................................2-19 Figure 2-16: Typical effect of SHORT mode on the measurement result at low speed and with low transducer sensitivity..........................................2-21 Figure 2-17: Basic effect of cable length on the upper cut-off frequency...............2-24 Figure 3-1: External influences on the pressure transducer ......................................3-2 Figure 3-2: Measurement and overload range ..........................................................3-3 Figure 3-3: Sensitivity and linearity .........................................................................3-5 Figure 3-4: Resonance frequency spectrum..............................................................3-6 Figure 3-5: Temperature distribution and deformation of a pressure transducer and curve of the cyclic temperature drift with cyclic heating at the front face (result of an FEM simulation)..............................................3-9

13

List of Figures

13-1

Figure 3-6: Deviations in indicated mean effective pressure and in the energy balance due to an error that is proportional to the pressure and due to cyclic temperature drift..................................................................3-10 Figure 3-7: Tester for determining the cyclic temperature drift (diagram) .............3-11 Figure 3-8: Curve of heat flow density in the tester................................................3-12 Figure 3-9: Load change drift.................................................................................3-13 Figure 3-10: Influence of structure-borne noise in the measured pressure signal...3-15 Figure 4-1: Interrelation between measurement task, pressure transducer and installation............................................................................................4-2 Figure 4-2: Influence on the measured pressure curve of a measuring position arrangement in the squish gap..............................................................4-9 Figure 4-3: Temperature distribution at the cylinder head of a 2-valve DI diesel engine.................................................................................................4-11 Figure 4-4: Heat flow load and cyclic temperature drift as a function of installation position and depth ...........................................................4-13 Figure 4-5: Influence of the length of the indicating channel on the measured pressure curve ....................................................................................4-14 Figure 4-6: Indicating channel with additional volume ..........................................4-15 Figure 4-7: Pipe oscillation frequency as a function of indicating channel length and gas temperature ...........................................................................4-16 Figure 4-8: Flow chart for pressure transducer selection........................................4-24 Figure 5-1: Glow plug adaptor with pressure transducer..........................................5-1 Figure 5-2: Glow plug adaptor with pressure measuring probe................................5-2 Figure 5-3: Different designs of spark plug adaptors ...............................................5-3 Figure 5-4: Front and shoulder-sealing direct installation ........................................5-6 Figure 5-5: Example of the installation of an uncooled pressure transducer with adaptor sleeve ......................................................................................5-7 Figure 5-6: Direct installation of a cooled transducer with adaptor sleeve...............5-8 Figure 5-7: Pressure transducer and bore ready for transducer installation............5-10 Figure 5-8: Work stages for installing a transducer................................................5-11 Figure 5-9: Cylinder head with two installed pressure transducers ........................5-12 Figure 5-10: Work stages for single sleeve and inclined bore axis.........................5-13 Figure 5-11: Work stages for installing the adaptor sleeve ....................................5-14 Figure 5-12: Installing the pressure transducer.......................................................5-15 Figure 5-13: Work Stages for multiple seals and perpendicular bore axis .............5-16 Figure 5-14: Installing adaptor sleeve and transducer ............................................5-17 Figure 6-1: Calibration methods...............................................................................6-1 Figure 6-2: Schematic representation of the construction of a dead weight tester design...................................................................................................6-4 Figure 6-3: Calibration jump ....................................................................................6-5 Figure 6-4: Influence of electrical drift during calibration .......................................6-6 Figure 6-5: Unloading jump in high pressure dead weight testers with loading and unloading valve .............................................................................6-7

13-2

Engine Indicating

Figure 9-1: Principle of signal discretization............................................................9-2 Figure 9-2: Influence of angle and amplitude resolution on the discretization.........9-2 Figure 9-3: Influence of the resolution on the display of knocking combustion.......9-3 Figure 9-4: Inductive and optical transducers...........................................................9-5 Figure 9-5: Possible mounting positions for sensor head and marker disk...............9-5 Figure 9-6: Crank angle encoder with and without integrated sensor.......................9-6 Figure 9-7: Examples of crank angle encoder designs with and without integrated sensor (from AVL)...............................................................................9-7 Figure 9-8: Manufacturing errors ...........................................................................9-11 Figure 9-9: Installation error ..................................................................................9-12 Figure 9-10: Errors due to geometric and positional deviations of the crankshaft .9-13 Figure 9-11: Error due to relative movement of stabilising support or sensor head in relation to the crankcase ........................................................9-14 Figure 9-12: Effects of positional errors on the accuracy of crank angle encoders 9-15 Figure 9-13: Effect of an angle error on the energy balance and friction mean effective pressure (diesel engine).......................................................9-17 Figure 9-14: Method for static TDC determination................................................9-18 Figure 9-15: Thermodynamic loss angle ................................................................9-19 Figure 9-16: TDC determination by means of thermodynamic adjustment ............9-21 Figure 9-17: Construction and mounting of a TDC sensor.....................................9-22 Figure 9-18: TDC signal evaluation .......................................................................9-23 Figure 9-19: Time and effort, and accuracy of different TDC determination methods..............................................................................................9-24

13

List of Figures

13-3

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Engine Indicating

14 List of Tables
Table 1-1: Table 4-1: Table 4-2: Table 4-3: Table 4-4: Table 7-1: Table 10-1: Table 10-2: Indicating parameters Important measurement tasks with evaluation criteria and additional measurement parameters Adaptation with and without intervention in the test engine Pressure transducers for engine instrumentation Effect of pressure transducer properties and installation on signal evaluation Assessment of zero-line detection methods Effects on the measurement signal and possible causes of error Real effects Description and how to avoid them 1-4 4-5 4-7 4-18 4-21 7-5 10-2 10-3

14

List of Tables

14-1

14-2

Engine Indicating

15 Index
Acceleration....................... 3-2, 3-15, 10-5 Accuracy requirements..............4-24, 9-4 Adaptor sleeve .............................5-6, 5-12 Analogue/Digital converter ................ 2-2 Angle measurement.............................. 9-1 Bessel filter ............................................2-22 Cable length..........................................2-23 Calibration.............................6-1, 6-3, 10-4 Capacitance ..........................................3-21 Capacitive..............................................9-23 Change in sensitivity ...................3-7, 4-23 Characteristic........................................... 3-4 Charge amplifier ............................2-1, 2-16, 3-18, 6-1, 10-7 Charge amplifiers.................................3-18 Charge output ........................................ 2-4 Chemical influence .....................3-2, 3-16 Cleaning.................................8-1, 8-3, 10-5 Combustion chamber pressure measurement.......................................... 1-2 Combustion noise ................................. 1-4 Construction of piezoelectric pressure transducers...........................2-12 Contamination .......................... 10-5, 10-6 Contamination resistance..................9-10 Cooling water crosstalk........................ 3-7 Crank angle encoder ..................9-1, 10-8 Crank angle encoder with integrated sensor ................................... 9-6 Crank angle error.................................9-17 Crank angle errors...............................9-11 Crank angle resolution ......................... 9-9 Crankshaft torsion ...............................9-13 Cut-off frequency.................................3-19 Cyclic heating.......................................3-10 Cyclic temperature drift .. 3-8, 3-12, 4-14 Data acquisition...........................2-2, 10-8 Dead volume............................. 4-13, 4-15 Dead weight tester......................6-3, 10-8 Deformation impact ...........................3-16 Deposits .................................3-16, 5-4, 8-3 Descaling .......................................8-2, 10-5 Design ......................................... 4-20, 4-22 Diaphragm ............................................ 2-12 Digital signal recording ........................ 9-1 Discharge .............................................. 2-18 Drift compensation........ 2-21, 10-5, 10-7 Duration of combustion .............. 1-5, 7-5 Electrical drift..............................2-17, 2-20 Electrical filter ....................................... 2-22 Electrodes................................................ 2-4 Electromagnetic compatibility.......... 9-10 Electromagnetic fields ..............2-25, 10-6 Electrometer amplifier .......................... 3-7 Energy conversion points .................... 4-5 Evaluation........................... 4-5, 9-17, 10-8 Flow recess ........................................... 4-13 Forced zero point ...................................3-4 Friction analysis...................................... 4-5 Friction mean effective pressure .........................................................4-4, 9-17 Front-sealing............................................ 5-5 Gallium orthophosphate.............. 2-9, 5-2 Gas exchange analysis ......... 1-6, 1-7, 4-5 Gas oscillations ...................................... 4-9 Glow plug adaptator .......................... 4-14 Ground loop...............................2-24, 10-6 Heat flow......................................... 3-1, 3-7 Heat range .............................................. 5-4 Helmholtz resonator........................... 4-16 High pass filter ..................................... 2-22 High pressure indicating...................... 1-3 Hydrothermal synthesis ....................... 2-8 IMEP stability ........................................ 3-17 Indicated mean effective pressure.. 9-17 Indicating channel....................................... .................................4-13, 4-15, 4-18, 4-23 Indicating equipment .................2-2, 10-8 Indicating parameters... 1-3, 1-4, 4-3, 4-5 indicator chart ........................................ 1-1 Influence of measuring position ........ 4-7 Input offset............................................ 2-18 Input voltage ........................................ 2-17 Installation bore ..................................... 4-8 Installation error................................... 9-11 Installation position............................... 5-5

15

Index

15-1

Insulation resistance........... 2-23, 3-6, 8-1 Interference signals .....................2-24, 7-5 Knock detection..................................... 4-5 Leakproofness.................... 4-19, 5-8, 9-10 Lifetime.................................. 3-4, 4-23, 9-9 Linearity............................................ 2-7, 3-5 Linearity deviation ......................... 3-4, 3-5 Load change drift...................... 3-13, 10-4 LONG.....................................................2-20 Longitudinal effect.......................2-5, 2-12 Low pass filter.......................................2-22 Low pressure indicating ....................... 1-6 Machining the mounting bore ........... 5-9 Maintenance........................................... 8-1 marker disk.............................................. 9-7 Marker disk....................................9-6, 9-12 Measurement cabling...... 2-1, 2-23, 10-6 Measurement range....................3-3, 4-23 Measurement task .......................4-3, 4-23 Measuring element ............ 2-4, 2-12, 3-9 Measuring point...................................4-19 Measuring position........... 4-8, 4-13, 4-18 Mechanical engine load....................... 4-5 Miniature pressure transducer.................. ..................................... 2-14, 3-8, 4-24, 5-3 Misfire detection.................................... 4-5 Monitoring............................................... 4-5 Motion noise.........................................2-23 Mounting principle................... 4-20, 4-22 Multi-point-calibration........................... 6-2 Natural frequency........................3-5, 4-21 Noise.......................................................3-20 Noise analysis ......................................... 4-4 Noise charge.........................................3-21 Operating conditions............................ 4-3 Operating temperature range ............ 3-4 Output signal ..................................2-7, 3-4 Overload range ...................................... 3-3 Parameters............................................... 3-3 Peak pressure....................... 4-5, 7-5, 10-2 Permanent zero-line deviation .........3-14 Piezo material...............................2-7, 2-11 Piezoelectric effect................................ 2-3 Piezoelectric pressure transducer......................................2-1, 2-12 Piezoelectricity ....................................... 2-3 Pipe oscillations......................... 4-15, 10-5 Plug-in transducer ................................4-22

Polarity ...................................................3-18 Polytropic exponent ............................. 7-2 Potential difference.............................10-6 Prechamber................................ 4-12, 10-3 Pressure indicating ................................... 1-1, 3-8, 4-1, 5-1, 5-5 Pressure jump...............................2-19, 6-6 Pressure measuring probe.........4-24, 5-2 Pressure rise............................................ 1-4 Pressure transducer cooling .. 2-14, 10-4 Pressure transducer selection................... ..................................................... 4-20, 4-24 Pyroelectric effect ................................. 2-8 Quartz ...............2-3, 2-8, 2-12, 2-14, 4-21 Reference transducer .........................3-12 Repair ....................................................... 8-1 Representative pressure....................... 4-7 RESET..............................................6-6, 10-7 Resistor for negative feedback.........2-20 Resonance frequency.................3-6, 3-19 Ripple .....................................................3-20 Sampling rate.......................................... 9-2 Screening...............................................2-23 Sensitivity.................................... 3-18, 4-23 Shock resistance ..................................4-23 SHORT ........................................ 2-20, 10-7 Short term drift....................................... 7-5 Shoulder-sealing..................................... 5-5 Signal discretization .............................. 9-1 Signal-to-noise ratio.............................4-21 Similar-to-static measuring.................2-18 Single-point calibration......................... 6-2 Sooting ........................................ 3-16, 10-5 Spark plug adaptator ............................ 4-8 spark plug adaptor ................................ 5-3 Spark position......................................... 5-4 Speed of the pressure rise................... 4-9 Speed range............................................ 9-9 Squish-induced flow................. 10-3, 10-5 Stabilising support .................... 9-14, 9-16 Stability............................................. 2-7, 4-6 Start of combustion ...................... 1-4, 1-5 Step ........................................................... 6-1 Structure-borne noise ...... 2-22, 3-15, 7-3 Supporting arm ....................................9-14 Swirl chamber..................4-12, 9-21, 10-3 TDC determination .............................9-20 TDC Determination ................. 9-19, 9-24

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Engine Indicating

TDC sensor ................................ 9-22, 9-23 Temperature ................................... 2-8, 3-1 Temperature calibration....................... 6-5 Temperature drift................................... 3-8 Temperature resistance......................4-23 Test engine....................................4-3, 4-24 Thermodynamic analysis ..................... 1-5 Thermodynamic loss angle ...............9-20 Time constant.......................................2-18 Transmission behaviour ....................... 3-4

Transversal effect.........................2-6, 2-13 Triboelectrical effect ........................... 10-6 Twin formation....................................... 2-9 Uncooled pressure transducer......... 4-22 Vibration resistance ............................ 9-10 Water slap ............................................... 5-9 Water-cooled pressure transducer.. 2-12 Zero-line detection ....................... 7-1, 7-5 Zero-line gradient................................ 3-14

15

Index

15-3