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GCSE Psychology Topic A How do we see our world?

Key terminology Perception: perception - the way the brain makes sense of the visual image detected by the brain. retina - the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. It is made up of nerve cells called rods and cones. rods - light-sensitive cells in the retina that respond even in dim light. cones - light-sensitive cells in the retina that can detect colour. optic nerve - bundle of nerves that leads out from the retina at the back of the eye. It carries information from the rods and cones to the brain. blind spot the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves. It has no rods or cones so cannot detect light. optic chiasma the cross-shape where some of the information from the left and right eye crosses over to pass into the opposite side of the brain. visual cortex the area at the back of the brain that interprets visual information. Revision notes: - vision and perception are different vision is the biological process of seeing and perception is the psychological process of making sense of the image. - the light reflected from an object enters the eye and makes an image on the retina (at the back of the eye). It is here that nerve cells called rods (sensitive to bright light) and cones (detect colours) help us to perceive objects. - the optic nerve carries the nerve impulses from the rods and cones to the brain. - the blind spot is found in each eye. It is the area in the retina where there is no space for rods and cones therefore the area is blind as there are no lightsensitive cells. We often dont notice our blind spot because our two blind spots dont overlap so if one eye cant see something, the other one can. - the optic chiasma is needed because information from each eye goes to both sides of the brain; some from the left eye goes to the left side of the brain and some to the right. - the visual cortex allows us to understand shapes and distances and fills in the gap left by the blind spot in each eye.

Task 1: True or false? 1. The retina is made up of rods and cones. 2. Cones cannot detect colour. 3. The blind spot only exists in the left eye. 4. The visual cortex is the cross shape where information from the left and right eyes cross. 5. The optic chiasma is the light sensitive layer at the back of the eye. 6. The area at the back of the brain that interprets visual information is the retina. 7. Vision is the biological process of seeing. 8. Perception is the biological process of seeing. 9. Rods can respond even in dim light. 10. The blind spot contains no rod and no cones.

TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE

Key terminology Depth cues: depth cures the visual clues that we use to understand depth or distance. monocular depth cues information about distance that comes from one eye, such as superimposition, relative size, texture gradient, linear perspective and height in the plane. binocular depth cues information about distance that needs two eyes, such as stereopsis. size constancy we perceive an object as the same size even when its distance from us changes. relative size smaller objects are perceived as further away than larger ones. texture gradient - an area with a detailed pattern perceived to be nearer than one with less detail. height in the plane objects closer to the horizon are perceived to be more distant than ones below or above the horizon. superimposition a partly hidden object must be further away than the object covering it. linear perspective parallel lines appear to converge (meet) in the distance. stereopsis a binocular depth cue. The greater the difference between the view seen by the left eye and the right eye, the closer the viewer is looking.

Task 2: Annotate the picture showing the monocular depth cues used by the artist. Make sure you demonstrate your understanding of each depth cue.

Revision notes: - we can judge depth in the real world (in 3D) and we can understand depth in pictures (2D) by the use of depth cues which are pieces of visual information that trigger or cue our understanding of distance. - monocular depth cues use one eye while binocular depth cues require the use of both eyes.

when we look at an object that is close our brain scales it down so that it looks normal sized and when an object is further away we scale it up so it looks normal rather than tiny. This reminds us that the size of the object remains constant but helps us to make sense of our world. We perceive bigger objects as being closer than smaller objects (which we perceive as further away) by using the depth cue of relative size. We use the depth cue of texture gradient when looking at cobblestones or a sandy beach we see that close up the surface is very detailed while further away the texture is less clear. when we look at pictures that include the horizon, objects lower in the scene appear closer than those objects higher up which appear further away. This is the depth cue of height in the plane. superimposition reminds us that objects in front of (or partly covering) other objects are closer to us. very long straight roads and railway lines appear to converge in the distance (even though we know they dont) this is an example of linear perspective. stereopsis is a binocular depth cue that allows us to see one image when we are presented with two images side by side (one image from the right eye and one image from the left eye). When we look at an object with both eyes open, our brain forms one perception from the two images. The image on the right retina and the image on the left retina are combined. When we are looking at something far away the two images are very similar but when we are looking at something closer the two images are very different this helps us to judge depth.

Task 3: Unscramble the following anagrams: cmnularoo ptdhe usce. terlaeiv zesi. ghhtei ni hte pelan. tourimpoepssiin teeropsssi. utrexet diengrat earinl cpprstiveee.. Gestalt: Gestalt laws perceptual rules that organise stimuli. figure-ground a small, complex, symmetrical object (the figure) is seen as separate from a background (the ground). similarity figures sharing shape, size or colour are grouped together with other things that look the same. proximity objects which are close together are perceived to be related. continuity straight lines, curves and shapes are perceived to carry on being the same. closure lines or shapes are perceived as complete figures even if parts are missing.
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Revision notes: - the whole is worth more than the sum of its parts. We organise these parts of what we can see (the stimulus information) to give us a more complex perception. - we look for patterns to help us make sense of our world. - we use the Gestalt law of figure-ground to see a more complex, symmetrical and smaller object from the ground. - we tend to group things that are similar in size colour or shape this is the Gestalt law of similarity. - objects that are close together are seen as a group because of the Gestalt law of proximity. - Gestalt law of continuity says that we link things that follow a predictable pattern and see them as continuous even if they are not. - we tend to perceive objects as a whole our brains fill in the gaps this is the Gestalt law of closure. Task 4: For each picture state which Gestalt law you are using.

Key terminology Illusions: visual illusion a conflict between reality and what we perceive. fiction an illusion caused when a figure is perceived even though it is not present in the stimulus. illusory contour a boundary (edge) that is perceived in a figure but is not present in the stimulus. motion after-effect an illusion caused by paying more attention to movement in one direction and perceiving movement in the opposite direction immediately afterwards. colour after-effects an illusion caused by focusing on a coloured stimulus and perceiving opposite colours immediately afterward. ambiguous figure- a stimulus with two possible interpretations, in which it is possible to perceive only one of the alternatives at a time. distortion illusion where our perception is deceived by some aspect of the stimulus. This can affect the shape or size of an object. Revision notes: - visual illusions occur when our perception conflicts or disagrees with reality; we are not seeing the world as it really is. We see an illusion when we misinterpret the stimulus, so the physical reality and our perception disagree. - for ambiguous figures swapping between the two interpretations is quite difficult. -some common geometrical illusions only work when seen on paper. If you see the object in real life and walk around it, the illusion goes away.

Gestalt theory of illusions: - for fictions such as the Kanizsa triangle when we see a figure as incomplete, our perception makes a whole shape. This is the figure of the figure-ground relationship. - when explaining distortions the Muller-Lyer illusion - in perceiving the figure as a whole we tend to add fins or circles to the central lines. When pointing out the fins drag out the line and make it look longer. - Gestalt theory explains ambiguous figures by saying that we normally identify the figure or ground but in ambiguous figures it could be either figure or ground because we cannot tell whether the black or white area is the figure. - Gestalt theory provides a good explanation for ambiguous figures however it cannot explain any illusions other than the Muller-Lyer illusion. - Gestalt theory explains fictions well but in the case of the Kanizsa triangle Gestalt explanation says we would use closure to organise this figure which means we should see a six pointed star, but we dont, we see two triangles. Task 5: Answer the following questions: a) What type of illusion is this?

b) Which laws/cues would Gestalt use to explain how we are fooled by this illusion?

Gregorys perspective theory of illusions: - remember size constancy and monocular depth cues? We maintain the relative size of objects regardless of their distance from us. - In the Hering illusion the radiating lines look like a linear perceptive cue so we use constancy scaling as if the scene really had depth. The person who appears furthest away would be scaled up so they look bigger and the person who appears closer would be scaled down, and look smaller. - The Ponzo illusion (the top bar looks bigger than the bottom bar) if the railway tracks were used as cues to linear perspective, the top bar would seem further away. As it is perceived to be more distant, it is scaled up so it seems bigger than the bottom bar. - The Muller-Lyer illusion can be explained using the ideas of linear perspective and constancy scaling. On the left hand photo the front of the shop is closer than the back. We scale things down that are near us. In the picture on the right the middle vertical line looks further away as it is scaled up. - Evaluating Gregorys theory - it is a good explanation of distortions. If angled lines are used as depth cues, this explains many illusions. - However, Gregorys theory cannot explain some versions of the Muller-Lyer illusion.
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Gregorys theory can explain some ambiguous figures when the two alternative figures are perceived using depth cues. e.g. On Leepers Lady the nose of the young woman looks further away than the wart on the old womans nose. Depth cues can also explain some fictions as the background lines appear closer to the horizon and so further away.

Task 6: Answer the following questions: a) What type of illusion is this?

b) Which laws/cues would Gestalt use to explain how we are fooled by this illusion?

Key terminology Schemas and perception: schema -a framework of knowledge about an object, event or group of people that can affect our perception and help us to organise information and recall what we have seen. perceptual set the tendency to notice some things more than others. This is caused by experience, context or expectations. independent variable (IV) the factor which is changed by the researcher in an experiment to make two or more conditions. Dependent variable (DV) the factor which is measured in an experiment. Revision notes: - what we expect to see influences what we think we see. - Brewer and Treyens (1981) took participants into a room they were told was an office and asked them to wait. They were then moved to another room and asked what they could remember about the 1 st room. They recalled more objects that fitted in with the context of an office. Nine of the 30 participants said they recalled books although there werent any! - This study suggests that context can produce expectations and leads to the idea of schemas. - Palmer (1975) wanted to find out whether context would affect perception. He used a laboratory experiment and showed participants visual scenes such as one of a kitchen. They were then shown an object (a mail box, a drum, a loaf of bread) which they were asked to identify. There were 4 conditions in the experiment (the IVs appropriate, inappropriate-similar, inappropriate-different and no context). It was a repeated measures design as all participants participated in all aspects of the experiment. The number of correctly identified items was the dependent variable (DV). The participants correctly identified the most objects after seeing an appropriate context and the least after seeing an inappropriate context therefore Palmer concluded that expectations affect perception. - People have a perceptual set based on context which affects how accurately they recognise objects. - Strengths controlled how long participants saw the object for - clear instructions so they knew exactly what to do - data from two participants was not used as they had forgotten their glasses (poor vision could have affected the results). - Weaknesses - because the participants were told what they were doing it might have made them try harder in some conditions. They might have been trying to please the experimenter. - As data from some participants couldnt be used, this means there were fewer results. Task 7: What is meant by the word schema? Key terminology Bartlett (1932) Schemas and remembering stories
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serial reproduction a task where a piece of information is passed from one participant to the next in a chain or series. Differences between each version are measured. (Chinese Whispers) repeated reproduction a task where the participant is given a story or picture to remember. They then recall it several times after time delays. Differences between each version are measured. Revision notes: - Bartlett (1932) wanted to investigate how information changes with each reproduction and to find out why the information changes. - He deliberately chose The War of the Ghosts, a North American Indian folk tale from another culture and unknown to the participants. - The first participant read the story twice themselves (serial reproduction) then after 15-30 mins told the story to a second participant. Each participant repeated their story to the next person in a chain of participants. - For the repeated reproduction task each participant was tested separately after reading the story to themselves twice, 15 minutes later they gave their preproduction of it. Later reproductions were done at 20 hours, 8 days, 6 months and 10 years for different participants. Participants did not know the aim of the study. - Very, very few participants recalled the story accurately Bartlett found the following pattern of errors form (the order of events), details (names and numbers were lost), simplification (details are left out or made more familiar) and addition (inaccurate details were included). - Bartlett concluded that unfamiliar material changes when it is recalled. It becomes shorter, simpler and more stereotyped- this may be due to the effect of schema on memory. - Strengths - Both the repeated and serial reproduction tasks were done many times to show that the changes to the story followed the same patterns. - other stories were also used and showed similar results. - Weaknesses By choosing unfamiliar material, Bartlett could not be sure that the changes he found would happen with familiar information. - Bartlett did not always test the repeated reproduction participants after the same time intervals, so the changes over time cannot be compared fairly. Task 8: Answer the following questions: a) What is the difference between serial reproduction and repeated reproduction?

b) Procedure: - describe: the participants

the materials used

c) the Independent variable (for both conditions)

d) the Dependent Variable e) the procedures for each of the conditions (serial reproduction and repeated reproduction)
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f) Findings: - How many patterns of changes did Bartlett find?

g) Describe each category of change and give an example of your own.

h) Conclusions: What 2 conclusions did Bartlett find?

Key terminology Carmichael (1932) Do words affect recall? reconstructive memory- recalled material is not just a copy of what we see or hear. Information is sorted and when it is remembered it is rebuilt, so can be affected by extra information and by ideas (like schemas) we might already have. Revision notes: - Carmichael, Hogan and Walter (1932) wanted to find out whether words shown with pictures would affect the way the pictures were remembered. - He used a laboratory experiment (with independent groups design) in which 95 participants were shown 12 pictures (the stimulus material). The independent variable (IV) was which word they heard. Between each picture the experimenter said, The next picture resembles followed by a picture from list 1 or list 2. The participants were then asked to draw the pictures they had seen and their drawings were compared to the original. This was the dependent variable (DV). - The drawings produced by people who heard words from list one were very different to list 2. The drawings looked like the words they heard. Carmichael et al. concluded that memory for pictures is reconstructed and the verbal context in which the drawings are learned affects recall because the memory of the word alters the way the picture is represented. - Strengths by using a control group Carmichael et al. could be sure that peoples drawings werent always distorted in the same way. -by using 2 different lists they showed that the verbal labels affected peoples drawings. - having 12 pictures and many participants gave them lots of evidence, so they could be sure their findings werent just a fluke.
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- the findings are supported by recent evidence that verbal labels affect memory. -Weaknesses in real life things are not generally ambiguous as the stimulus figures shown. - Prentice (1954) tested the effect of verbal labels on recognition rather than recall and found that verbal labels didnt affect recognition, this means Carmichaels findings did not apply widely. Task 9: Answer the following questions: a) Evaluation the strengths and weaknesses of Carmichael et als study.

b) Why was using a control group a strength?

c) Why was using 2 different word lists important?

d) How much data did they have? Is this a good thing?

e) What type of stimulus are these?

f) Does the experiment represent real life? Why? Is this a strength or weakness of the experiment?

g) What do Prentices findings suggest about Carmichael at als findings?

Key terminology Designing and Understanding experiments experiment a research method which measures participants performance in two or more conditions. experimental (participant) design the way that participants are used in different conditions in an experiment. They may do all conditions or different participants may do each condition. independent groups design different participants are used in each condition in an experiment. repeated measures design - the same participants are used in all the conditions in an experiment. hypothesis a testable statement of the difference between the conditions in an experiment. It describes how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable. controls ways to keep variable constant in all conditions of an experiment.
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Revision notes: - an experiment is a way to find out whether one factor affects another. - Sometimes participants need to participate in all conditions of the experiment, other times they only participate in one. - hypotheses are written to say what an experimenter expects will happen in an experiment. They always operationalise the IV and DV and say how the IV will affect the DV. - the controls are what the experimenter does to keep variables the same in all conditions. Task 10: Write a hypothesis for each of the following: a) Do girls talk more than boys?

b) Does lack of sleep affect reaction time?

c) Do higher temperature make tomatoes grow faster?

d) Does age affect short term memory?

Key terminology Dealing with descriptive statistics mode an average that is the most common score or response in a set. descriptive statistics ways to summarise results from a study. They can show a typical or average score or how spread out the results are. bar chart a graph with separate bars. Usually there is one bar for each condition in an experiment. median an average that is the middle number in a set of scores where they are put in order from smallest to largest. mean an average that is calculated by adding up all of the scores in a set and dividing by the number of scores. range a way to show how spread out a set of results is by looking at the biggest and smallest scores. Revision notes: - averages tell us how most people responded. This gives us a general picture of the findings. - different kinds of experiments produce different kinds of data and for each kind of data there is an average. - bar charts are a way of displaying results - the conditions of the experiment (the IV) go along the x-axis and the total or average score goes on the y-axis. There would be as many bars as there are conditions in the experiment. Key terminology Ethics in psychology experiments ethical issues potential psychological or physical risks for people in experiments.
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informed consent an individuals right to know what will happen in an experiment, and its aims, before agreeing to participate. right to withdraw a participants right to leave a study at any time and they ability to do so. ethical guidelines - advice to help psychologists solve ethical issues. Revision notes: - wondering about what will happen in your experiment, being concerned about how good your answers were, making sure your participants are not harmed are all examples of ethical issues. - one problem for experimenters is that ethics sometimes conflict with the need for controls. - When conducting experiments in psychology you need to ensure you meet all ethical guidelines before you begin your research. Participants must understand the nature of the study and agree to participate (this is fully-informed consent) and if they want to leave the study they can at any time and have the right to take their data with them (the right to withdraw). - The BPS (British Psychological Society) has a Code of Conduct to help psychologists conduct their research in a way that will meet ethical guidelines. - Psychologists often give participants a summary about what will happen in a study although this is difficult in public places. Task 11: Read the descriptions of the following studies. Which ethical guidelines have been broken? Explain your answer. Study A: A group of experimenters wants to find out if the media has an impact on levels of aggression on children. They measured the amount of TV watched by the children and then compared it to the level of aggression shown in the playground by observing them at playtime. The ethical guideline that is being broken is because .. Study B: In a busy underground train station, an experimenter pretends to collapse, bleeding from the mouth. Members of the public who see the event are secretly observed by another experimenter to see what kind of person helps and how long they take to help. The ethical guideline that is being broken is because .

Evaluating experiments Revision notes:

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-Strengths of experiments: - in laboratory settings is easy to gain because you can tell participants exactly what is happening and they can give their fully-informed consent. If they are told why they are doing the experiment this can cause problems because they might change their behaviour, which would alter the results. - when the participants come to the laboratory their right to withdraw can be explained. - the experimenter can control other factors that could change the DV. By controlling other variables, the experimenter can be certain that differences in the DV have been caused by the different conditions. - the DV can be measured accurately. Weaknesses of experiments: - sometimes we need to avoid giving participants full information about a study. This is because knowing the aims of the study might alter the way they behave. This is called deception. Not knowing the aims of the study may upset participants but sometimes researchers need to deliberately deceive participants. When deception is used psychologists minimise harm by: avoiding deception unless it is absolutely necessary, avoiding other ethical problems such as embarrassment, explaining the real purpose as soon as possible and allowing participants to withdraw their results at the end. - Experiments should try to represent real life as much as possible. Task 12: Explain how each of the following applies to experiments and whether they would be strength or a weakness: a) deception: b) representing real life c) lack of controls: d) demand characteristics

Key terminology Schemas and eyewitness memory eyewitness somebody who sees a crime or aspects of a crime and who helps the police to find out what has happened or to catch whoever was responsible. Revision notes: Schemas are useful because they help us to predict what might happen but in the case of eyewitness memory we might think we see something based on our perception. e.g. stereotypes such as black people are violent and are likely to have committed the crime (Allport and Postman, 1945, the black man in the suit and the white man with the razor people remembered the black man holding the razor in a threatening way. Task 13: Explain how each of the following might affect eyewitness memory: a) reconstruction over time b) context/situation c) unfamiliar material d) rebuild memories using schema

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GCSE Psychology Topic B Is dreaming meaningful?


Freuds dream theory Symbols in dreams Analysing dreams Evaluating Freuds dream theory Key terminology: manifest content - what the dream is said to be about by the dreamer the story the dreamer tells. latent content - the meaning underlying the dream. If the symbols from the manifest content are translated by an analyst, they can reveal unconscious thoughts. condensation - when many thoughts and elements from the unconscious are represented in the dream in one symbol. displacement - when something that seems to be unimportant in the dream is made central, to shift attention from what is really important. secondary elaboration - how the dreamer builds a story when telling what the dream is about, adding to and changing things, which makes the analysis hard. Psychoanalysis Freuds therapy, designed to help release unconscious thoughts. Free association a method used by Freud in psychoanalysis where the patient is encouraged to express a flow of consciousness. The process helps to uncover links which can then be interpreted. slip of the tongue when someone uses the wrong word for something. Freud analyses these slips to help uncover unconscious thoughts. dream analysis a method used by Freud to help uncover unconscious thoughts, by analysing dreams and uncovering symbols. qualitative data data involving stories or attitudes. valid refers to findings of studies and means that they are about real-life situations, real-life behaviour or feelings that are real. subjective where the researcher is somehow affecting the information that is gathered, perhaps by their interpretation. objective where the researchers views do not affect the information that is gathered. Revision notes: Freud is the name you need to remember when talking about dreams having meaning. Over 100 years ago Freud thought that dreams were a very important part of a persons life because through dreams unconscious wishes and desires could be understood. The unconscious is the large part of the mind that is hidden completely (like the majority of an iceberg is under the water) some of what is in the unconscious is repressed (pushed back) because it is too hard to deal with. The conscious mind is what we are aware of, can remember, discuss and deal with. These unconscious thoughts guide our behaviour. Freud thought that the mentally ill needed help because nothing was being done for them. He realised the mind was powerful and could cause mental health problems. Freud is very well known because he focused on how important sexual issues were, he often talked about repressed unconscious thoughts being repressed sexual wishes and desires. Freud said dreams have a manifest (the story the dreamer tells) and latent (the underlying meaning of the dream) content and used the term dreamwork to describe what the mind is doing whilst dreaming to keep unconscious thoughts hidden and repressed. This protects the individual from undesirable thoughts. Dreamwork includes condensation, displacement and secondary elaboration. An analyst can help to interpret a dream by unpicking the dream and considering how one idea might represent condensation of themes. They might look to see how displacement has changed the focus of the dream on to an unimportant theme, or they might unravel secondary elaboration to get the original experience of dreaming. 13

Freud said that symbols in dreams meant different things to different individuals as everyones unconscious is a personal thing. Falling is often seen as the manifest content of a dream and is interpreted as losing control. Snakes can be a sign of trouble or a phallic symbol. Dreams can be analysed through a process called psychoanalysis. The analyst listens to a description of the dream (manifest content) then the latent content can be uncovered by analysing the symbols in the manifest content. Unconscious desires leak into the dream via symbols to protect the sleeper. Freud believed that mental health comes from uncovering unconscious desires and dream analysis can be part of the therapy. Up until the late 1800s very little was known about mental health issues and people with mental illnesses were put in asylums mainly because no one knew what to do with them! Psychoanalysis aims to reveal unconscious wishes, desires and emotions to the patient, once they know the content of their unconsciousness, will no longer have psychological problems. As their desires are no longer hidden, they can be dealt with. Psychoanalysis uses three main methods slips of the tongue, free association and dream analysis to help gain a lot of information to work with and to use as evidence for conclusions about unconscious wishes. Psychoanalysis takes a long time because many dreams have to be related and many sessions undergone before the analyst can start to suggest what the dream might symbolise.

Task 1: For each of the following sentences, circle true/false. a) Freud focused his work on the conscious. b) Freud thought that the mind was the cause of mental health issues. c) He focused on sexual issues because he thought they represented unconsious thoughts and desires. d) Freud said that dreams have a latent and manifold content. e) Snakes in dreams can be a sign of giving birth. f) Psychoanalysis is made of of dream analysis, free association and slips of the mind. g) Freud agreed with other theorists, saying that everyones dreams had the same meaning. h) The unconscious is unreachable. i) Freud said that mental health can be improved by uncovering unconscious wishes and desires.

TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE

Strengths of Freuds theory 1. He used unique methods to find data (free association, slips of the tongue, dream analysis) that was difficult to access. 2. He gathered in-depth and detailed information about individuals (qualitative data about real life (valid data). He listened carefully to his patients. Weaknesses of Freuds theory 1. His sample was biased (mostly middle-class Viennese women) so his results are not generalisable. 2. His concepts were unmeasurable (if you cut open a skull, can you see the unconscious?) and cant be called science. 3. He interpreted his findings, (he was subjective) so they might be biased. Science needs to be objective. 4. There is an alternative biological theory - activation-synthesis.

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Task 2: Fill in the gaps: A strength of Freuds theory is that he used..............................methods to gather his data such as ............ ..............................., slips of the .........................and .........................analysis. Another strength is that he gathered ........-.......................... .............................data about ...........life which made the data...................... However, a weakness of Freuds theory was that his ...........................was biased because.................... .................................................................................................so his results arent ................................... Also, he ............................his findings and was .......................whereas science needs to be .................. ...................... .............................is the alternative..................................theory of dreaming.

How the brain send signals Key terminology neuron - a cell in the body, including the brain, which sends information using both electrical and chemical processes. axon - the cable that leads from a cell body of a neuron down to the terminal buttons that hold the neurotransmitter. impulse - the electrical signal that travels from the cell body of a neuron to the terminal buttons, where it releases a neurotransmitter. neurotransmitter- a chemical at the terminal button of a neuron, which is released by the impulse and then goes into the synaptic gap. synaptic gap - the gap between the dendrites of one neutron and the next. synaptic transmission - what happens when a neurotransmitter released by an impulse of one neuron goes across the synaptic gap and is taken up at the dendrites of another neuron. Revision notes: Neurons respond to stimuli from the environment or inside the body and communicate within the nervous system. Messages in the brain are sent using electrical impulses and chemicals called neurotransmitters. 1. An electrical impulse is triggered from the cell of one neuron which travels down the axon to the end. 2. At the end it releases a neurotransmitter that is found in the terminal buttons at the end of the axon. 3. The neurotransmitter has to cross the synaptic gap to get to the dendrites of the next neuron to continue the message. 4. The neurotransmitter, released by the impulse, goes into the synaptic gap where it could be taken up by the dendrites or could be lost. 5. If the receptors at the end of the dendrites of the next neuron are suitable to receive the neurotransmitter that is in that gap, then the chemical gets picked up. 6. The neurotransmitter sets off an electrical signal (by changing the chemical balance at the receptor) and then it drops back into the synaptic gap where it can be taken back up to be used again. 7. The change in the chemical balance (from the receptors) triggers an electrical impulse from the cell body, which then travels down to the end of the axonthe process starts again. The process of a neurotransmitter passing from one neuron across the synaptic gap and being picked up by the next neuron is called synaptic transmission. Receptors at a dendrite will be a shape (lock) to take up only a certain neurotransmitter (key) and all other neurotransmitters will not be taken up.

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Task 3: Label the following diagram with the following terms: Cell body, axon, terminal buttons, neural impulse, dendrites. 5

Task 4: Define the following key terms: neuron neurotransmitter impulse

Task 5: True or false? 1. A NEURON is a cell in the body that sends information using both electrical and chemical processes. TRUE 2. The TERMINAL BUTTONS are found near the cell body, and receive messages from other cells. TRUE 3. A NEUROTRANSMITTER is the electrical signal that travels from the cell body of a neuron, through to the TERMINAL BUTTONS. TRUE 4. A NEUROTRANSMITTER is a chemical which is released at the terminal button of a neuron. TRUE 5. An IMPULSE releases the neurotransmitter at the terminal button. TRUE 6. SYNAPTIC TRANMISSION is the cable that leads from a cell body of a neuron down to the terminal buttons that hold the neurotransmitter. TRUE 7. Neurotransmiters are like keys that will only fit certain locks receptors at a DENDRITE. TRUE 8. SYNAPTIC GAP is the space bewtten the dendrites on the neuron.TRUE 9. Once a neaurotransmitter is picked up by a DENDRITE, it sets off an ELECTRICAL SIGNAL and changes the CHEMICAL BALANCE of the receptor. TRUE 10. A change in CHEMICAL BALANCE in a receptor triggers off an ELECTRICAL INPULSE from the cell body which travels down The AXOX TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE

FALSE FALSE FALSE

FALSE

FALSE

A biological theory of dreaming Evaluating activation-synthesis Key terminology: activation-synthesis model a model of dreaming proposed by Hobson and Mc Carley where the brain is active but no sensory information is coming into it. The brain puts the information it has together to make sense of it and this is the dream. random activation during REM sleep, when neurons are active randomly but not deliberately. sensory blockade during REM sleep, when no information enters through the senses. movement inhibition the state, during REM sleep, when the body is paralysed and there is no movement.

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Revision notes: Biologists suggest that dreams are random thoughts which have been put together by the sleeping brain to make some sense of them. Hobson and McCarley came up with a biological theory of dreaming in 1977. It says that dreams are random messages sent to the brain which are interpreted to make a story. Messages are randomly activated, and then synthesised into a story. Biologists are scientists and use research methods such as experiments and scanning. Hobson and McCarley said there is a dream state generator in the brain and this part of the brain gives a dream state during REM sleep. REM sleep happens around 4 or 5 times a night and is easily recognisable; scientists can measure electrical activity in the brain during REM sleep using an EEG (electroencephalograph). During REM sleep, any incoming information from the senses is blocked sensory blockade. Physical movements are also blocked movement inhibition. During REM sleep the neurons in the brain are activated because there are random impulses that give information as if it were the senses. This information is knows as random activation and is the activation part of the activation-synthesis theory. The information that comes from inside the brain itself is known as internally-generated information. The brain then tries to make sense of the nonsense it has gathered. It is synthesising the information to make a story; this is the synthesis part of the theory. Task 6: In the boxes below, draw a picture to illustrate: movement inhibition

sensory blockade

Evidence for the activation-synthesis model of dreaming - REM sleep happens regularly throughout a nights sleep, and happens regularly night after night. Sleep labs have shown everyone has regular REM patterns. - As this happens in a regular pattern, Hobson and McCarley looked for an explanation that would explain this regularity and predictability. Because people have movement inhibition during REM sleep and there is no input from the senses (sensory blockade) they felt there must be something happening in the brain itself to produce dreams. Development of the activation-synthesis model - Hobson and McCarleys theory has been developed and added to over the years. Hobson said that he thought there was meaning in dreams, that some ideas generated by the brain from the random firing off of neurons could be useful and give the individual new ideas. E.g. if you wake up with a good idea it might have come from your dreams. - Hobson also suggested that brain activity is likely to be genetic because it is found in everyone. He thought it might be there to test brain circuits or the stimulation of the brain during REM sleep must be important for normal brains to function when awake. 17

Task 7: Answer the following exam question: Describe the activation-synthesis model of dreaming. (4 marks) .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................................

Studies giving evidence - Hobson and McCarley tested cats to see which areas of the brain were active during REM sleep. They found that the pons and the reticular activating system (RAS) seem to be involved in shutting down physical movement during REM sleep. - Other evidence they used was that if the neurons activated during REM sleep are those in the brain that control balance, then the dreamer is likely to dream about falling. This explains why dreams seem to have some meaning they come from neurons that, when activated when the person is awake, have a specific purpose. Weaknesses of the activation-synthesis theory - Many people recognise parts of their dreams as something that happened the day before or in their lives. This means that thoughts are not as random as activation-synthesis suggests. - Activation-synthesis theory is based on the idea that dreams often show unusual, bizarre situations and do not make full sense. However, in a study only about 34% of 200 dreams did not make logical sense. - Other studies show that dreams do often make sense. When talking about your dreams you are able to make sense of them and relate the events in the dream to your life. - Lucid dreaming when people are dreaming but they know they are dreaming does not fit with activationsynthesis, as it means dreams are controllable and not random. - Young children under the age of 5 seem to have very few dreams and their dreams are not yet very active, yet they have a normal amount of REM sleep. This suggests dreams are not simply linked to REM sleep.

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Task 8: Answer the following exam question: Evaluate the activation-synthesis model of dreaming. (6 marks) .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................................

Comparing dream theories Key terminology: methodology refers to how psychology works, including how data are gathered. It involves considering, how do we know? objective where the researchers views do not affect the information that is gathered. Revision notes: To compare theories using methodology, list the methodology used in the two theories, then say how it is similar and different. Try to give some good and bad points for each. Methodology linked to Freuds Methodology linked to Hobson and theory McCarleys theory Case studies Neurotransmitter functioning Little Hans Animal experiments Dream analysis Brain scanning Free association EEG testing (detecting electrical activity in Slips of the tongue the brain) Case studies are less scientific than animal experiments and brain scanning. E.g. free association needs interpretation from the researcher, whereas brain scanning, although needing some interpretation, is much more objective. Therefore Hobson and McCarleys theory is more objective than Freuds because of the methodology used to find evidence for the theory. 19

Task 9: Draw a picture in each box to help you remember the methodology used by Freud. Case studies Little Hans

Task 10: Write your own paragraph using the words below: neurotransmitter functioning, animal experiments, brain scanning, EEG testing ...........................and McCarley proposed the ................. .......................model of dreaming. .............................................................................

Dream analysis

Slips of the tongue

............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

The nature-nurture debate refers to how far a characteristic or feature of humans comes from nature (genetics) or nurture (what they experience growing up). Nature Nurture Biology Environment Genes, hormones, brain structure Upbringing and parents influences Hobson and McCarleys theory is about Freuds theory is about nurture because nature sleeping and dreaming unconscious desires themselves come from experiences Freuds theory has elements of nature as well the structure of the mind, the But it is in our nature to have repressed power of the unconscious wishes in our unconscious (it is the wishes themselves that come from nurture

Task 11: Write down 3 questions you still need to find answers to regarding the nature-nurture debate. 1) 2) 3)

A theory is said to be credible if it is developed using solid scientific evidence. It is also said to be credible if it agrees with what we usually think. Freuds theory does not use scientific evidence the unconscious is not measurable in any way. Freuds theory therefore lacks credibility. Hobson and McCarleys theory is credible because the evidence comes from scanning and from laboratory studies using animals; because these methods are scientific and objective research methods we can say their theory is credible.

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Issue Objectivity

Freuds theory Subjective, as meaning needs interpreting Lacks credibility because of lack of scientific methods and unlikely explanation (e.g. sexual interpretations) Uses case studies and dream analysis Dreams have meanings with the story giving symbols as clues to unconscious wishes Both nature and nurture having a powerful unconscious is nature and its contents are nurture

Credibility

Hobson and McCarleys theory Objective, as it uses scientific measures such as scanning and experiments Has credibility because of scientific methods and evidence from animal studies Uses scanning and experiments Dreams have no meaning they are random and meaningless Nature dreaming is part of the way the brain and body work

Research methods Dreams are meaningful Naturenurture

Using case studies Weaknesses of case studies Designing case studies Ethics and case studies Key terminology: case study - a research method for studying an individual or small group and gathering in-depth and detailed information using different means. aim - a statement of what the study is being carried out to find. qualitative data - data involving stories or attitudes. quantitative data - data that involve numbers and statistics, such as percentages. generalisability- refers to findings of studies and how far they can be said to be true of people other than those that were studied. If findings are thought to be true of other people then they are generalisable. reliability - refers to whether findings from a study would be found again if the study were repeated. A study is reliable if the findings are replicated (found again). subjectivity - refers to research methods, where the researcher is somehow affecting the results, perhaps by their interpretation. objectivity - refers to research methods, where there is no bias, for example the researchers own views have not affected the findings. privacy - an ethical guideline for studies that involve people as participants, which ensures that their names must not be recorded and they must not be identifiable. Privacy is linked to confidentiality. confidentiality - an ethical guideline for studies that involve people as participants, which ensures that information gained must not be shared with others without permission. There are some occasions where confidentiality must be broken, however, if there are issues of safety for someone else. Confidentiality is linked to privacy. Revision notes: A case study is an in-depth study that gathers a lot of detail about one person or a small group. A case study rarely involves just one research method. Case studies use as many other research methods such as questionnaires, interviews, experiments, case histories, secondary data from other sources and observations to gather as much information as possible. The aim of a case study is a general idea of what why the study is being done and what the researcher expects to find out. There is no hypothesis because a case study looks for detailed information about a person so a hypothesis wouldnt be suitable. Qualitative data refers to rich data which comes from open questions (e.g. Would you please tell me in as much detail as possible what you think of the present government) Quantitative data concerns qualities and numbers and comes from closed questions (e.g. Do you like the present government? Yes/No) Case studies gather both types of data. Case studies arent generalisable because they are in-depth studies of an individual or a small group and we cant say that the way this individual or small group behaves are true of other individuals in other situations. For example, if 21

we asked 30 people to memorise a list of words, in certain conditions be generalisable to the rest of the population. Reliability is another weakness of case studies because case studies cannot be repeated to give the same results. Also, they use many types of research methods to gather data and if the case study was repeated it would give different results. E.g. if a case study was being conducted on the development of a 5 year old boy, repeating it when he was 10 wouldnt give data about the development of a 5 year old boy! Subjectivity in psychology means that the researcher has somehow affected the information that was gathered; case studies are generally said to be subjective because the researcher is deeply involved in data collection and the qualitative data has often been selected and interpreted by the researcher. Objectivity refers to there being no bias from the researcher and no interpretation involved. This is difficult in case studies. It can therefore be said that case studies are subjective, they lack generalisability, reliability and objectivity, and the researcher tends to interpret the data. Case studies are very detailed and provide information about many aspects of someones life and what they are like. For example, questionnaires are limited to the questions they ask and experiments are limited to the tasks set. Case studies can explore different angles about someone by asking others for their opinions and asking the person themselves. This detail is rich, and in-depth, which is s strength as new theories and ideas can develop from it. The main strengths of case studies are that they gather valid (real-life) data and they gather detail that is hard to find in any other way. Case studies are said to be valid because they are often about one unique individual and information comes directly from that one person. As the data are about real-life situations, the data is valid. Also, many different research methods can be used to gather other data, making it more likely that the findings are real.

Task 12: Unscramble the following acronyms and write a definition for each: ecsa eusstdi - ............................................................................................................................................. autivaqelit.................................................................................................................................................... eauiatttqivn ................................................................................................................................................. lyficndetiaitno.............................................................................................................................................. davil ........................................................................................................................................................... busveecjti.................................................................................................................................................... coteebjiv ..................................................................................................................................................... dcoeynasr taad........................................................................................................................................... ewitrvesin................................................................................................................................................... ni phtde.......................................................................................................................................................

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Freuds case study of Little Hans Key terminology: phallic term used to refer to anything that is related or said to be represent the male penis, or the term can refer to the penis. Oedipus complex the idea that a boy from about the age of four years old will have unconscious feelings for his mother and want his father out of the way, though then fears his father and feels guilty too. Revision notes: Freud carried out a number of case studies, in order to find out what was holding his clients back. Some of his clients had some bizarre dreams or phobias which Freud suggested was due to problems in the unconscious. Little Hans (not his real name) was a boy Freud studied in 1909. - Background - Hans parents were supporters of Freuds ideas and agreed to log their sons development and sent it to Freud. - Little Han (aged 3) sent messages to The Doctor through his parents letters but only met Little Hans once or twice. - Horse phobia Hans was afraid to go out of the house, and was particularly frightened of horses. Freud analysed what Little Hans said, including his dreams, to find out what it was in Hans unconscious that was causing the phobia. This was so that these wishes and desires could be revealed to little Hans and so cure the phobia. - Just before Little Hans was 5 years old his father reported to Freud that Little Hans had woken up crying. He said that he thought his mummy was gone and he had no mummy. - Freud said this was an anxiety dream and showed that he was anxious that his mother would leave him. This links to Freuds Oedipus complex. - Freud thought that Little Hans (like other children his age) was in the phallic stage, the third stage of development when sexual interest is focused on the genital area for both boys and girls. For boys, sexual interest is transferred onto their mother. - Freud thought that a boy wanted to take his mother away from his father, but feared his fathers anger and also felt guilty about these desires. All of these emotions are unconscious. - To resolve his feelings, of guilt for wanting to take his mother away and of fear of his father, a boy would identify with his father and become his father. - Girls go through a similar experience called the Electra complex. - Little Hans also had a dream about two giraffes, a big one and a crumpled one. The big giraffe shouted out because Little Hans (in his dream) took the crumpled one away from it. The big giraffe stopped calling out and Little Hans says that in the dream he sat down on the crumpled giraffe. - Freud interpreted this dream as follows: the big giraffe was a symbol for a penis and the crumpled giraffe was Little Hans mother. When the big giraffe shouted at Little Hans it showed Little Hans wanted to take his mother away from his father. This was taken as evidence for the claim that a young boy has sexual feelings for his mother and also fears his father and feels guilt. Task 13: In each example, choose the odd word out and explain why. 2) Horses Fish Elephants giraffes 2) 3) Oedipus complex Activation-synthesis Phallic Stage Electra complex

1) Little Hans Hobson and McCarley Freud unconscious 1)

3)

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Evaluating dream analysis Key terminology: false memory any memory that is not true and can be given by someone else remembering an event and telling another person who then remembers it as true. Freuds definition refers more to a false recovered memory, where a childhood memory (e.g. of abuse) is suggested by the analyst and accepted, then later found not to be true. Evaluation of dream analysis as a research method Strengths 1. It can access hard-to-reach information buried in the unconscious. 2. It is usually accepted by the client, helping them to be cured. 3. It uses information from the client directly and can be used as a legitimate part of a case study or therapy. Weaknesses 1. There may be ethical problems as the interpretation can be wrong which could lead to false memories which never actually happened. 2. It involves interpretation that is subjective. Task 14: Spot the fibs! Read the following paragraph and correct the errors. The strengths of dreamwork is that it can reach information buried in the conscious and clients say they are still sick when it is finished. It also uses data from the clients GP. The weaknesses of dreamwork are that it is always ethical and the interpretation is always correct. Lots of people have false memories that really happened to them. Dreamwork involves objectivity and is objective. Ethics and case studies Any study in psychology has to be done ethically which means that potential psychological and physical risks are considered carefully. Privacy is about making sure that the identity of the participant is kept a secret. The participant has a right to have their results kept private. Confidentiality is also about privacy and refers to the participants name being withheld and their identity being kept secret. Competence Ethical guidelines are given in the UK by the British Psychological Society (BPS) to protect participants taking part in psychological research such as case studies. A researcher must be qualified and capable of carrying out the proposed research. If necessary they must consult colleagues. The job of a psychoanalyst Becoming a psychoanalyst Revision notes: Most psychoanalysts work with people with mental health issues, such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), phobias or anxiety. Sometimes they work with someone who is having problems with their relationships or managing their life, rather than someone diagnosed with a mental illness. There are different types of psychotherapy including cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), humanistic therapy, general counselling, and hypnotherapy, but psychoanalysis is specific to Freuds ideas. The aim of psychoanalysis is to uncover unconscious wishes and desires to find the reasons for the patients problems, which will help to solve them. Some psychoanalysts train other psychoanalysts, so therefore dont work with patients. Psychoanalysts listen and observe, focusing on the emotions that the patient shows. They look at both verbal and non-verbal information and record information from each session carefully. 24

Having gained the information, the psychoanalyst then helps the person to understand their emotions. Making the unconscious conscious aims to release underlying issues, freeing the person from the behaviour causing the problem. The client usually undergoes analysis about 4 times a week, (each session lasts about an hour) which is a huge commitment! The analysis can go on for a long time (months, years even) and takes place in a quiet, comfortable room, so that the client can relax and speak more freely. The client usually sits on a couch with the analysts out of sight so as to no affect the clients flow of information. Treatment cost at least 50 per session and is not usually available on the NHS. During dream analysis the client describes and talks about their dreams (as well as showing emotions which are noted). The analyst considers the manifest content and then draws out symbols to uncover the latent content. The psychoanalyst uses other information from free association, which adds detail to the dream analysis in order to help the client. Dream analysis is not always used as the main focus. Transference and countertranference have more focus, revealing things about the client just as other methods do. Transference describes the way a client will transfer their emotions love, hate, anger on to the analyst, who must be prepared for this. Countertransference is the word that is used for the way an analyst is likely, in turn; to transfer their own feelings back onto the client again. Psychoanalysts must be trained to do this! By recognising which emotions are being transferred onto them, the analyst can find out what emotions are involved in any possible problems that the client has. Most psychoanalysts work for themselves in private clinics and are not employed by the NHS (unlike clinical psychologists). Most psychoanalysts worked with people with mental disorders before specialising in psychoanalysis. Many also undergo training in family therapy, psychodrama or hypnotherapy. They do not focus solely on psychoanalysis; it is one of the therapies they offer. To be a psychoanalyst you need to able to listen carefully to people and observe them as well as being interested in people are the main skills required. You must be able to build a strong relationship with your clients without being judgemental about them. You must also be able to detach yourself from their problems; training helps psychoanalysts to do this. To become a psychoanalyst you have a degree or the equivalent of a degree and then undertake training that is approved by the International Psychoanalytic Association. There are only 2 providers in the UK. To be accepted on the training course you would have to go through an interview process. The training lasts for 4 years and is part time. The person being trained must undergo psychoanalysis themselves for 4 or 5 50 minute sessions a week. There are also seminars and theory sessions. In the first year training focuses on general theory and Freuds views, for example. Then more theories are explored. The final part of the training is the psychoanalysis of 2 patients whilst being supervised by a qualified psychoanalysis where you see clients for 50 minutes each day for 4 or 5 days a week. This lasts for two years and starts in the second year. A second client is seen in the third year and the analysis of this client lasts for a year. Like other professional people psychoanalysts must provide evidence of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) to show that they are keeping up with new issues and practising professionally.

Task 15: In a flow chart show how a person becomes a psychoanalyst (education and training).

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Task 16: Julie and Avri are both 17 years old and thinking about future careers. They have both considered becoming psychoanalysts. Julie is good at getting on with people and listening to them without getting too wrapped up in their problems. Avri makes snap judgments about people but when he does get to know people well he can get very involved in their lives. Who would make the best psychoanalyst? Explain why you think either Julie or Avri would make the best psychoanalyst. . . . . . . . .

Psychological sleep disorders Sleep disorder clinics Key terminology: insomnia - The most common sleep disorder. It means someone cannot go to sleep or cannot stay asleep. It will be diagnosed if it affects someones daily life and activities. It is more common as people get older. Some prescribed drugs can cause this sleep disorder, as can other mental illnesses, or stressful life events. It is often treated using prescribed drugs. Other treatments include teaching the sufferer to relax or teaching them to focus on positive thoughts when they go to bed. hypersomnia - This sleep disorder means people feel very sleepy at all times of the day. Conditions such as narcolepsy can cause this. It can also be caused by not sleeping properly through the night, perhaps due to breathing difficulties rather than psychological problems. narcolepsy - This is a sleep disorder which means people can suddenly have attacks of sleep in the day. It is a brain disorder. circadian rhythm disorders - This is a disorder of the sleep wake cycle. It causes problems with the body clock (24hr rhythm). We usually sleep at night and wake in the morning (sleep cycle), and during sleep go through 5 sleep cycles. Problems with the sleep-wake cycle bring problems for the body clock. Problems can occur when people have changing shifts at work as it means they have to keep changing their sleep times. It can be treated by using bright lights at certain times to reset the body clock. parasomnias- These disorders occur when someone is asleep such as nightmares, sleep walking, and sleep terrors. These are more common in children and males. Sleep walking happens during non-REM sleep, and. Teeth grinding and bedwetting are also examples of this type of sleep disorder. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) means that muscle paralysis is not activated, meaning violent movements occur during REM sleep. Drugs such as benzodiazepines are used to treat RBD. Psychoanalysis can also be used to help these sleeping disorders. Task 17: Answer the following questions: a) Define insomnia.

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b) What can cause insomnia?

c) How can insomnia be treated?

Revision notes: Research has shown that without REM sleep for a prolonged period of time (about 2 weeks) we experience disorientation, memory difficulties, illusions, and paranoia. Rats that have been kept awake have died! It is the REM part of the sleep cycle that is really important and so sleeping problems are taken seriously. Sleep laboratories and departments study sleep. Problems with sleep can arise from psychological problems, or physiological problems. Psychological problems are to do with the brain and mind. Physiological problems are to do with body. One example of a physiological sleep problem in snoring. This is physiological because it is to do with breathing which is to do with the body. Primary sleep disorders are not related to any other problem but are problems in themselves, such as going to sleep and problems waking up. Secondary sleep disorders stem from another problem, such as pain or jet lag, or stress.

Sleep disorder clinics are involved in the assessment and diagnosis of sleep problems. Blood testing can be used to see if there is a genetic link for someone who has narcolepsy. Observation and other measures can also help with diagnosis. An EEG can be used to study a persons sleep cycles. Researchers watch and record REM, or watch the restlessness an individual exhibits. The persons temperature may also be monitored. Many sleep clinics use a holistic approach which means that they take into account the persons lifestyle as well to gain an overall picture. Medication such as benzodiazepines is prescribed for sleeping behaviour disorders. CBT (cognitive behaviour therapy) encourages the individual to look at their thinking and perhaps change how they perceive things as well as change their behaviour. Acupuncture involves inserting needles in certain related parts on the body and can be used to help the body clock to readjust when the sleep-wake cycle is out of step. Hypnotherapy can be used to help clients relax in the case of insomnia and parasomnias. Task 18: Answer the following questions: a) What is a circadian rhythm disorder? b) What can happen if the sleep-wake cycle is effected?

c) Who are likely to suffer from CRDs? d) How can CRDs be treated? 27

Is Dreaming Meaningful? Preparing for the exam


Have a go at the questions below- you MUST consider how many marks are available. As a rough guide one point per mark!
1. What is the unconscious? (1 mark) 2. There are two main features of Dreams according to Freud. Describe each with an example. (4 marks) 3. Describe Freuds Dream theory. (6 marks) 4. Explain what is meant by Dreamwork? (2 marks) 5. What are the 3 features of Dreamwork? (3marks ) 6. Explain 3 methods used in Psychoanalysis. (6 marks) 7. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Freuds dream theory. (6 marks) 8. Describe how a brain sends signals using neurons. (4 marks) 9. Explain how lock and key help with brain signals. (3 marks) 10. Describe and explain a biological theory of dreaming. (6 marks) 11. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a biological theory of dreaming. (6 marks) 12. What is the nature- nurture debate? (2 marks) 13. Outline two METHODOLOGY differences between Freuds explanation of dreaming and Hobson and McCarleys explanation of dreaming. (4 marks) 14. What does credibility mean? (2 marks) 15. What is a case study? (1 mark) 16. Describe 3 weaknesses of using case studies. (6 marks) 17. Describe 2 strengths of using case studies. (4 marks) 18. Which ethical issues are particularly important when looking at case studies and why? (Try and give an example!) (4 marks) 19. Describe the case study of Little Hans. ( 4 marks) 20. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Dream analysis. (6 marks) 21. Describe the job of a psychoanalyst. (4 marks) 22. Explain how you can train to become a psychoanalyst. (4 marks) 23. Explain how a sleep disorder clinic can help someone with a psychological sleep disorder (6 marks)

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