Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 77

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Self Balancing Testing Frame-400KN Steel structures and steel truss is mostly used in civil engineering to withstand the load in bridges and factory roof etc. The design calculations are based on readily available data that has been provided in the steel tables and graphs. But once the truss is fabricated there was no way to actually test its reliability. The testing of component was also not possible till universal testing frame technique came into existence. This frame provides facility to check the performance of truss up to a load of 400kN. It also provides facility to analysis the various components at 1:1 scale, thus facilitates the designers to satisfy their calculation in accordance with the requirement of actual location. 1.2 Versatile Design This Universal Testing Frame consist of double frame which provides more stability to the truss modes that is being tested moreover the intermediate space to test the specimen that all longer in dimension than the frame itself. 1.3 Easy Assembly & Erection This Universal Testing Frame is collapsible and it can be dismantled and erected wherever required. Therefore it can be transported to any place easily. 1.4 Manufactured by local material The materials used in the universal testing frame are generally available in local market and need no import or special specification. Therefore it is economical. The erection and assembly etc. does not require very special skill. It can be easily done with the help of skilled persons those are easily available at factory sites. The erection is also possible with the help of chain pulley blocks. The foundation needed for the universal testing frame is also very simple due to fact that there are not point load on the foundation directly. We get a distributed load through the frame. Therefore it facilitates the testing procedures immediately after its assembly without demanding any complicated fabrication. 1

1.5 Facility of Direct Analysis This system provides almost similar conditions that are expected on the place of erection of the truss so we can analysis the model for the following structural elements present in the structure. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Tension element in the member Compression element in the member Flexural element in the member Tortional element in the member.

1.6 It is portable too It can be easily shifted or carried along from site to site. Thus we can easily use it for consultancy and commercial purpose. In this manner this frame can be used for modifying the existing truss or structure because we can easily make a model on site and put it under the test to satisfy the requirement. It will save lot of time, money and manpower. 1.7 Need of Loading Frame Though there are various methods of design of structure available which fulfill the above criteria yet there is need of some practical knowledge that how a component of a structure behave under the application of load. One can easily identified the end reaction of beam or trusses or the forces acting on the two when subjected to certain external forces. But it is difficult to imagine the actual behaviour of a structural component due to application of load. Thus this load bearing frame prove to be an important tool to enhance the version of a structural designer towards the structural behaviour of a member because of external forces applied over it. For example, if a truck runs into a bridge composed of plate girders it would probably bend the steel plate a little however a similar accident could cause the breaking of a members in truss which may even lead to the failure of truss. Thus the above can be easily computed with help of a load bearing frame. The truss of suitable scale may be manufacture & with the help of the loading frame by providing loading one can check the failure mode of a structure. This also play an important role in order to understand the behaviour of structural material & their properties under certain loading conditions. It can be used to check the different physical properties of a various structure such as plate girder, trusses, beams, box type girder, column beams, gantry girders etc. This universal testing frame is specially designed for large components in 1:1 scale. The design with its double frame & intermediate space permits specimens longer than

the size of frame opening to be investigated. In this way the possible uses of testing frame are almost unlimited. The frame components are manufactured from ISMC 400. The corners of frame are formed by joints rigid to bending each in fastened together with a high strength bolts. The testing frame is delivered in pre-assembled modules; it is assembled on site and placed on four adjustable vibration damping bearing. The hydraulic ram system are available as accessories are on rollers and can be positioned as require within frame. The various experiments that can be performed using this frame are bending, loading, compression experiments on large girders beams, trusses and other components from the area of civil engineering work. This could be used for a Test force in central position maximum 300 kN and test force off centered 2x200 kN. Another importance of this frame is for educational purpose. We know that a structural member subjected to compressive forces along its axis is termed as a compression member. The behaviour of compression member differ based on their length, short & stocky columns can be loaded up to their Yield stress and can attain their squash loads, provided the element that makeup the cross section are prevented from buckling long compression members behaves elastically and hence their strength may be predicted by Eulers formula. Intermediate length compression member fail both by yielding and buckling and hence their behaviour is inelastic. This can be easily understood with the help of the frame by providing the length of various compression members can one can provide an easy practical example to the student of structural analysis. The buckling behaviour of column under different end connections can be practically demonstrated to the students of civil engineers.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 General Structural design, though reasonably scientific is also a creative process. A structure is a body composed of several structure elements so assembled that it can setup resistance against deformation caused due to application of external forces. The various structural elements that may be present in a structure are (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Tension member Compression member Flexural member Torsion member Foundation elements.

The structural analysis deals with the determination of internal stress in these members as well as the determination of reaction components, when structure is subjected to external forces. The method of analysis and principle involved in structural analysis do not normally depend upon the type of material used for various structural components. Structural design is taken up after the structural analysis has two aspects. (i) (ii) Functional Aspect Strength Aspect

In the 1st aspect of design, the structure is design in such a way that it fulfills its intended purpose during its intended lifetime and be adequately safe in terms of strength, stability and structural integrity. In the 2nd Aspect, the structure should be strong enough to resist against external forces to which it is subjected during its entire period of service. In addition to above two aspects of design a structure should be economically viable in terms of cost of construction and maintenance, aesthetic pleasing & environment friendly. Safety is paramount importance in any structure and requires that the possibility of collapse of structure (partial or total) is acceptable low not only under normal expected loads (service loads) but also less frequent loads (such as due to EQ or extreme winds) and accidental loads (blast, impact etc.). Collapse due to various possibilities such as exposure to a load exceeding. The load bearing capacity

overturning, sliding, buckling, fatigue, fracture etc should be prevented. The progressive failure should also be minimized. The structure should also perform satisfactorily under service loads without any discomfort to the user due to excessive deflection, cracking, vibration etc. The serviceability should be fulfilled. 2.1 Steel There is a definite need for engineers involved in structural steelwork to acquaint themselves with some metallurgical aspects of steel. This will help the structural engineer to understand ductile behaviour of steel under load, welding during fabrication and erection and other important aspects of steel technology such as corrosion and fire protection. 2.1.1 The crystal structure and the transformation of iron Pure iron when heated from room temperature to its melting point undergoes several crystalline transformations and exhibits two allotropic modifications such as: (i) (ii) Body centered cubic crystal (bcc), Face centered cubic crystal (fcc).

When iron changes from one modification to the other, it involves the latent heat of transformation. If iron is heated steadily, the rise in temperature would be interrupted when the transformation starts from one phase to the other and the temperature remains constant until the transformations are completed. The flat portion of the heating/cooling curve in Fig. 5 exemplifies this. On cooling of molten iron to room temperature, the transformations are reversed and almost at the same temperature when heated as shown in Fig. 5. Iron up to a temperature of 910C remains as ferrite or iron with bcc crystalline structure. Iron is ferromagnetic at room temperature, its magnetism decreases with increase in temperature and vanishes at about 768C called the Curie point. The iron that exists between 768C and 910C is called the -iron with a bcc structure. However, in the realm of metallurgy, this classification does not have much significance. Between 910C and 1400C, iron transforms itself into austenite or -iron with face centred cubic (fcc) structure. When temperature is further increased, austenite reverts itself back to bcc structure, called the -ferrite. Iron becomes molten beyond 1539C. The different phases of iron are summarised in Table 1. Table 2.1: Various forms of Iron 5

Stable Temp. Range 0C >2740 1539-2740 1400-1539 910-1400 <910

Form of matter Gaseous Liquid Solid Solid Solid

Phase Gas Liquid bcc fcc bcc

Identification symbol Gas Liquid -ferrite -austenite -ferrite

2.1.2 The Iron-Carbon Constitutional Diagram When carbon in small quantities is added to iron, Steel is obtained. Since the influence of carbon on mechanical properties of iron is much larger than other alloying elements, we would study the fundamentals of Iron-Carbon alloy in a little elaborate way. The atomic diameter of carbon is less than the interstices between iron atoms. The carbon goes into solid solution of iron. As carbon dissolves in the interstices, it distorts the original crystal lattice of iron. The iron crystals, which were centred originally at the intersection of symmetry axes of the iron crystals, get distorted as seen from Fig. 6.

-Carbon -Ferrite

Fig.2.1: Interstitial solid solution of Carbon in Iron This mechanical distortion of crystal lattice interferes with the external applied strain to the crystal lattice, by mechanically blocking the dislocation of the crystal lattices. In other words, they provide mechanical strength. Obviously adding more and more carbon to iron (up to solubility of iron) results in more and more distortion of the crystal lattices and hence provides increased mechanical strength. However, solubility of more carbon influences negatively with another important property of iron called the ductility (ability of iron to undergo large plastic deformation). The -iron or ferrite is very soft and it flows plastically. Hence we see that when more carbon is added, enhanced mechanical strength is obtained, but ductility is reduced. Increase in carbon content is not the only way, and certainly not the desirable way to get increased strength

of steels. More amount of carbon causes problems during the welding process. We will see later, how both mechanical strength and ductility of steel could be improved even with low carbon content. The iron-carbon equilibrium diagram, which is a plot of transformation of iron with respect to carbon content and temperature, is shown in Fig. 7. This diagram is also called iron-iron carbide diagram. The important metallurgical terms, used in the diagram, are presented below. Table 2.2: Metallurgical terms of iron Name - Iron Fe3C Ferrite + Cementite laminar mixture - Iron Metallurgical term Ferrite Cementite Pearlite Austenite % Carbon(max) 0.02 6.67 0.80 (overall) 2.0 (depends on temperature) Crystal structure bcc fcc

2.1.3 The Structural Steels or ferrite Pearlite Steels The iron-iron carbide portion of the phase diagram that is of interest to structural engineers is shown in Fig. 8.
Temp 0 C 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 a 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 Weight % of Carbon l i j k Ferrite +
Ferrite () Austenite ()

11470C Austenite + 7230C Eutectoid Point Cementite + Pearlite Hyper-Eutectoid c steel d Cementite

Austenite

Ferrite + Pearlite Hypo-Eutectoid steel b

Fig. 2.2: The Eutectoid section of the Iron Iron Carbon phase diagram The phase diagram is divided into two parts called hypoeutectoid steels (steels with carbon content to the left of eutectoid point [0.8% carbon]) and hyper eutectoid steels

which have carbon content to the right of the eutectoid point. It is seen from the figure that iron containing very low percentage of carbon (0.002%) called very low carbon steels will have 100% ferrite microstructure (grains or crystals of ferrite with irregular boundaries) as shown in Fig. 9(a). Ferrite is soft and ductile with very low mechanical strength. This microstructure at ambient temperature has a mixture of what is known as pearlite and ferrite as can be seen in Fig. 8. Hence we see that ordinary structural steels have a pearlite + ferrite microstructure. However, it is important to note that steel of 0.20% carbon ends up in pearlite + ferrite microstructure, only when it is cooled very slowly from higher temperature during manufacture. When the rate of cooling is faster, the normal pearlite + ferrite microstructure may not form, instead some other microstructure called bainite or martensite may result.

Fig.2.3: Microstructures of steels (a) 100% Ferrite in extra low carbon steel, (b) Ferrite+Pearlite, (c) 100% Pearlite in eutectoid steel, (d) Pearlite+Cementite in hyper-eutectoid steel (Source: Thelning K.E., Steel and its heat treatment, Butterworths, 1984.) Table 2.3: Chemical composition of some typical structural steels
Type of steel Designation IS: code C S Mn P Si Cr Carbon equivalent

Fe 410A Standard structural steel Fe 410B Fe 410C Fe 440 Micro alloyed high strength steel Fe540 Fe590

2062 2062 2062 8500 8500 8500

0.2 3 0.2 2 0.2 0 0.2 0 0.2 0 0.2 2

.050 . 045 . 040 .050 . 045 . 045

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.8

.050 . 045 . 040 .050 . 045 . 045

0. 4 0. 4 . 45 . 45 . 45

SK SK K

0.42 0.41 0.39 0.40 0.44 0.48

K- killed steel SK- Semi Killed steel (Explained in section 6.2)

2.2 Mechanical Properties of Steel 2.2.1 Stress strain behaviour: Tensile test The stress-strain curve for steel is generally obtained from tensile test on standard specimens as shown in Fig.14.
Lc t r Area=S0d P L P

Fig.2.4: Standard tensile test specimen The details of the specimen and the method of testing is elaborated in IS: 1608 (1995). The important parameters are the gauge length Lc and the initial cross section area So. The loads are applied through the threaded or shouldered ends. The initial gauge length is taken as 5.65 (So)1/2 in the case of rectangular specimen and it is five times the diameter in the case of circular specimen. A typical stress-strain curve of the tensile test coupon is shown in Fig.15 in which a sharp change in yield point followed by plastic strain is observed. When the specimen undergoes deformation after yielding, Luders lines or Luders bands are observed on the surface of the specimen as shown in Fig.16.

f Elastic range

Variation due to Luders bands

Esh

fy Plastic range Strain hardening range

sh 10y

Fig.2.5: Stress strain curve for sharp yielding structural steels


Deformed regions

P Moving edges of Luders band

Fig.2.6: Luders bands in tensile test specimen These bands represent the region, which has deformed plastically and as the load is increased, they extend to the full gauge length. This occurs over the Luders strain of 1 to 2% for structural mild steel. After a certain amount of the plastic deformation of the material, due to reorientation of the crystal structure an increase in load is observed with increase in strain. This range is called the strain hardening range. After a little increase in load, the specimen eventually fractures. After the failure it is seen that the fractured surface of the two pieces form a cup and cone arrangement. This cup and cone fracture is considered to be an indication of ductile fracture. It is seen from Fig.15 that the elastic strain is up to y followed by a yield plateau between strains y and sh and a strain hardening range start at sh and the specimen fail at ult where y, sh and ult are the strains at onset of yielding, strain hardening and failure respectively. Depending on the steel used, sh generally varies between 5 to 15 y, with an average value of 10 y typically used in many applications. For all structural steels, the modulus

10

of elasticity can be taken as 205,000 MPa and the tangent modus at the onset of strain hardening is roughly 1/30th of that value or approximately 6700 MPa.
Uniform plastic f fy Non-uniform plastic

0.2% proof stress Elastic Fracture

0.2% strain

Fig. 2.7: Stress strain curve for continuously yielding structural steels 2.2.2 Hardness Hardness is regarded as the resistance of a material to indentations and scratching. This is generally determined by forcing an indenter on to the surface. The resultant deformation in steel is both elastic and plastic. There are several methods using which the hardness of a metal could be found out. They basically differ in the form of the indenter, which is used on to the surface. They are presented in Table 6. Table 2.4: Hardness testing methods and their indenters S. No. (a) (b) (c) Hardness Testing Method Brinell hardness Vickers hardness Rockwell hardness Steel ball Square based diamond pyramids of 135 O included angle Diamond core with 120 O included angle Indenter

Note: Rockwell hardness testing is not normally used for structural steels. Table 2.5: Hardness values of some metals Metal Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) 11

Copper (annealed) Brass (annealed) Steel

49 65 150-190

53 70 157-190

2.2.3 Mechanical properties of structural steel Table 8 summarises some of the important mechanical properties of steel produced in India. In Table 8, the UTS represent the minimum guaranteed Ultimate Tensile Table 2.6: Mechanical properties of some typical structural steels
Yield strength (MPa) Thickness (mm) <20 Standard structura l steel Fe 410A Fe 410B Fe 410C 410 410 410 250 250 250 <16 Micro alloyed high strength steel Fe 440 Fe 540 Fe 590 440 540 590 300 410 450 20-40 240 240 240 16-40 290 390 430 >40 230 230 230 41-63 280 380 420 22 20 20 23 23 23 27 27 27 Elongation Gauge

Strength at which the corresponding steel would fail.

Type of steel

Designation

UTS (MPa)

5.65 S0

Charpy V -notch values Joules (min)

2.2.4 Steel Products The long products are normally used in the as-hot-rolled condition. Plates are used in hot rolled condition as well as in the normalised condition to improve their mechanical properties particularly the ductility and the impact toughness. The structural sections produced in India include beams (classified as, light, junior, medium and heavy defined as ISLB, ISJB, ISMB and ISHB respectively) angles (equal, unequal), channel, tees etc. Channel sections are designated as ISLC, ISMC etc. and angles are designated as ISA. Usually the member is designated along with its depth. For example ISMB 300 (300 mm depth), ISMC 250 (250 mm depth), ISA(60 x 60 x 6) (1st leg breadth x 2nd leg breadth x thickness) etc. A sheet product after cold

12

rolling has high strength but very poor ductility. This product needs to be annealed at 650-6800C in the hood annealing furnaces to improve its ductility. Now-a-days hollow sections are also becoming very popular. Hollow sections i.e. round; square or rectangular are produced either by seamless rolling process or by fusion welding or electric resistance welding after cold forming of HRC/CRC into the desired shape. 2.3 Tension Members 2.3.1 Introduction Tension members are linear members in which axial forces act so as to elongate (stretch) the member. A rope, for example, is a tension member. Tension members carry loads most efficiently, since the entire cross section is subjected to uniform stress. Unlike compression members, they do not fail by buckling.
Rafter Suspenders Purlin

Tie

(a) Roof Truss Stay cables Staye bridge d (c) Suspended Building

S ag rod
Top chord (d) Roof Purlin System X bracings

Suspenders Suspe nsion bridge (b) Cable Supported Bridges (e) Braced Frame

Fig. 2.8: Tension Members in Structures Tension members are also encountered as bracings used for the lateral load resistance. In X type bracings [Fig.1 (e)] the member which is under tension, due to lateral load acting in one direction, undergoes compressive force, when the direction of the lateral load is changed and vice versa. Hence, such members may have to be designed to resist tensile and compressive forces.

13

The various factors which govern the failure of tension member are: (i) The rupture of net section at end connections where tensile stresses are largest. (ii) (iii) The block shears failure at end connections. The yield strength of cross section.

The 1st two failure modes will governs when the members are connected at ends by bolts where as the yield strength of gross section may be the governing failure mode of tension members connected by welding at ends. The above criteria can be easily demonstrated with the help of using Universal testing frame under diff loading conditions. Thus universal testing frame proves to be an important tool not only for the educational purpose but it can also figure out the actual behavior of only structural component underspecified loading condition. These properties of materials to be used for construction of structure under the different loading conditions.

(b) (a) (c)

(d)

(e)

Fig. 2.9: Cross Sections of Tension Members The tension members can have a variety of cross sections. The single angle and double angle sections [Fig 2(a)] are used in light roof trusses as in industrial buildings. The tension members in bridge trusses are made of channels or I sections, acting individually or built-up [Figs. 2(c) and 2(d)]. The circular rods [Fig.2 (d)] are used in bracings designed to resist loads in tension only. They buckle at very low compression and are not considered effective. Steel wire ropes [Fig.2 (e)] are used as suspenders in the cable suspended bridges and as main stays in the cable-stayed bridges.

14

2.3.2 Behaviour of Tension Members Since axially loaded tension members are subjected to uniform tensile stress, their load deformation behaviour (Fig.3) is similar to the corresponding basic material stress strain behaviour. Mild steel members (IS: 2062 & IS: 226) exhibit an elastic range (ab) ending at yielding (b). This is followed by yield plateau (b-c). In the Yield Plateau the load remains constant as the elongation increases to nearly ten times the yield strain. Under further stretching the material shows a smaller increase in tension with elongation (c-d), compared to the elastic range. This range is referred to as the strain hardening range. After reaching the ultimate load (d), the loading decreases as the elongation increases (d-e) until rupture (e). High strength steel tension members do not exhibit a well-defined yield point and a yield plateau (Fig.3). The 0.2% offset load, T, as shown in Fig. 3 is usually taken as the yield point in such cases. T d b a 0.2% c e

Fig. 2.10: Load Elongation of Tension Members The important factors to be considered while evaluating the tensile strength are the reduction in strength due to bolt holes and due to eccentric application of loads through gusset plates attached to one of the elements. The yield strength of the gross area or the ultimate strength of the net area may govern the tensile strength. The effect of connecting the end gusset plate to only one of the elements of the cross section was empirically accounted for by the reduction in the effectiveness of the outstanding leg, while calculating the net effective area. 2.4 Compression Members 2.4.1 Introduction There are many types of compression members, the column being the best known. Top chords of trusses, bracing members and compression flanges of built up beams and rolled beams are all examples of compression elements. Columns are usually thought of as straight vertical members whose lengths are considerably greater than their cross-

15

sectional dimensions. An initially straight strut or column, compressed by gradually increasing equal and opposite axial forces at the ends is considered first. Columns and struts are termed long or short depending on their proneness to buckling. If the strut is short, the applied forces will cause a compressive strain, which results in the shortening of the strut in the direction of the applied forces. Under incremental loading, this shortening continues until the column "squashes". However, if the strut is long, similar axial shortening is observed only at the initial stages of incremental loading. Thereafter, as the applied forces are increased in magnitude, the strut becomes unstable and develops a deformation in a direction normal to the loading axis. (See Fig. 1). The strut is in a buckled state. Buckling behaviour is thus characterized by deformations developed in a direction (or plane) normal to that of the loading that produces it. When the applied loading is increased, the buckling deformation also increases. Buckling occurs mainly in members subjected to compressive forces. If the member has high bending stiffness, its buckling resistance is high. Also, when the member length is increased, the buckling resistance is decreased. Thus the buckling resistance is high when the member is stocky (i.e. the member has a high bending stiffness and is short) conversely, the buckling resistance is low when the member is slender.

16

A short column fails by compression yield

Buckled shape

A long column fails by predominant buckling Fig. 2.11: Long column vs short column

17

2.4.2 Strength of Compression Members in Practice The highly idealized straight form assumed for the struts considered so far cannot be achieved in practice. Members are never perfectly straight; they can never be loaded exactly at the centroid of the cross section. Deviations from the ideal elastic plastic behaviour defined by Fig. 5 are encountered due to strain hardening at high strains and the absence of clearly defined yield point. Moreover, residual stresses locked-in during the process of rolling also provide an added complexity. Thus the three components, which contribute to a reduction in the actual strength of columns (compared with the predictions from the ideal column curve) are: (i) (ii) (iii) 2.5 Connections 2.5.1 Introduction Steel sections are manufactured and shipped to some standard lengths, as governed by rolling, transportation and handling restrictions. However, most of the steel structural members used in structures have to span great lengths and enclose large threedimensional spaces. Hence connections are necessary to synthesize such spatial Initial imperfection or initial bow. Eccentricity of application of loads. Residual stresses locked into the cross section.

structures from one- and two-dimensional elements and also to bring about stability of structures under different loads. Thus, connections are essential to create an integral steel structure using discrete linear and two-dimensional (plate) elements. A structure is only as strong as its weakest link. Unless properly designed, the

connections joining the members may be weaker than the members being joined. However, it is desirable to avoid connection failure before member failure for the following reasons: To achieve an economical design, usually it is important that the connections develop the full strength of the members. Usually connection failure is not as ductile as that of steel member failure. Hence it is desirable to avoid connection failure before the member failure.

18

Therefore, design of connections is an integral and important part of design of steel structures. They are also critical components of steel structures, since They have the potential for greater variability in behaviour and strength, They are more complex to design than members, and They are usually the most vulnerable components, failure of which may lead to the failure of the whole structure. Thus designing for adequacy in strength, stiffness and ductility of connections will ensure deflection control during service load and larger deflection and ductile failure under over-load. engineer. 2.5.2 Types of Connections Connections are normally made either by bolting or welding. Bolting is common in field connections, since it is simple and economical to make. Bolting is also regarded as being more appropriate in field connections from considerations of safety. However, welded connections, which are easier to make and are more efficient, are usually resorted to in shop fabrications. Two types of bolts are used in bolted connection. The most common type is bearing bolts in clearance holes, often referred to as ordinary bolts or black bolts. They are popular since they are economical, both in terms of material and installation costs.
T
X Bearing Stress (a) Bearing Connection

Hence, a good understanding of the behaviour and design of joints

and connections in steel structures is an important pre-requisite for any good design

T
Clamping Force, P0 Contact Force, P0

Frictional Force T

(b) Friction Connection

Fig. 2.12: Bolt Shear Transfer Mechanism 19

The main disadvantage of bearing type of bolted connections is that the elements undergo some slip even under a small shear, before being able to transfer force by bearing. This is due to clearance between the bolts and the holes. Such a slip causes increased flexibility in the lower ranges of load and unexpected joint behaviour in some situations. In such cases high strength friction grip (HSFG) bolts are used. 2.5.3 High Strength Bolts (IS 3757:1985 & IS 4000:1992) In HSFG bolted joints, high strength bolts (8G or 10K grade) are pre-tensioned against the plates to be bolted together, and so that contact pressure is developed between the plates being joined [Fig. 2(b)]. When external shear force is applied, the frictional resistance to slip between the plates prevents their relative slip. These bolted joints achieve higher stiffness in shear because of frictional resistance between the contact surfaces. Only when the externally applied force exceeds the frictional resistance between the plates, the plates slip and the bolts bear against the bolt holes. Thus even after slip, there is a reserve strength due to bearing. The HSFG bolts are expensive both from material and installation points of view. They require skilled labour and effective supervision. Due to their efficient force transfer mechanism they have become very popular recently. Moreover, their performance is superior under cyclic loading compared to other forms of jointing. High strength bolts are made from bars of medium carbon steel. The bolt of property class 8.8 and 10.9 are commonly used in steel construction. These bolts should confirm to IS 3757. These bolts are often used with two washers. These washers serve two purposes: 1. To distribute the clamping pressure to a larger area of softer metal of fastened parts, and to prevent the nut or bolt head from damaging the component member. 2. To prevent the threaded portion of the bolt from bearing on connected member. The strength of high strength bolts are achieved through quenching and tempering process or low alloying steel. They are less ductile. The materials of bolts do not have a well defined yield point. Instead of using yield stress, so called proof load is used. The proof load is obtained by multiplying tensile stress area (may be taken as Area corresponding to root diameter at thread and in approximately equal to 0.8 times the shank area of bolt) with proof stress. In IS800, the proof stress is taken as 0.7 times the ultimate stress of bolt.

20

Special techniques are used for tightening the nuts to induce a specified initial tension in the bolt, which causes the sufficient friction between faying faces. These bolts with induced initial tension are called High Strength Friction Grip(HSFG) bolts. Due to this friction, the slip in the joint is eliminated and hence the joints with HSFG bolts are called non-slip connection or friction type connections. The induced initial tension in the bolt is called proof-load of the bolt and the coefficient of friction between bolt head and faying surfaces is called the slip factor. The sizes of bolt m16 to M36 are available, bolt of sizes M16, M20, M24 & M30 are commonly used in practice. These bolts are identified by manufacturers identification symbol and the property class. Though the material cost of HSFG bolts are about 50% higher than the black bolts and require special workmanship for installation, they provided the following advantages: (a) HSFG bolts do not provide any slip between the elements connected, especially in close tolerance holes, thus providing the rigid connection. (b) Due to clamping action, load is transmitted by friction only and bolts are not subjected to shear and bearing. (c) Due to smaller number of bolts gusset plate size are reduced. (d) Deformation is minimized.
(e) Since HSFG bolts under working loads do not rely on resistance from

bearing, holes larger than the usual can be provided to ease erection and to take care of lack of fit. Thus the holes may be standard, extra large, or short / long slotted. However, the type of holes governs the strength of connection. (f) Noiseless fabrication, as bolts are tightened with wrenches. (g) The possibility of failure at the net section under the working load is eliminated. (h) Since the loads causing fatigue will be within proof load, the nuts are prevented from loosening and fatigue strength of joint greater and better than the welded and riveted joints. (i) Since the load is transferred by the friction, there is no stress concentration in holes. (j) Unlike riveted joints few person are requires for connections.

21

(k) No heating is required and no danger of tossing of bolt. Thus the safety of worker is enhanced. (l) Alteration, if any (e.g. replacement of the defective bolt) are done easily than in welded or riveted connections. 2.5.4 Bolt Holes Bolt holes are usually drilled. Punching can reduce the toughness and ductility and may lead to brittle fracture. Punched holes should not be used where plastic tensile straining can occur. IS800 allows punched holes only in materials whose yield stress Fy does not exceed 360 MPa and where thickness does not exceed (5600/Fy) mm. Bolt holes are made larger than the bolt diameter to facilitate erection and to allow for inaccuracies in fabrication. The clearance is 1.0mm for bolts less than 14mm and 2mm for bolts between 16mm and 24mm and 3mm for bolts exceeding 24mm. Over size holes and slotted holes are allowable and should not be used often. A oversize hole should not exceed 1.25d or (d+8) mm in diameter, where d is nominal bolt diameter in mm. A slotted hole should exceed the appropriate hole size in width and 1.33d in length, for short slotted hole and 2.5d in length, for long slotted hole. 2.5.5 Spacing and Edge Distance of Bolt Holes The center- to-center distance between individual fasteners in a line, in the direction of load or stress is called the Pitch. The distance between any two consecutive fasteners in a zigzag pattern of bolts measured parallel to the direction of loads/stress is called the staggered pitch. A minimum spacing of 2.5 times the nominal diameter of fasteners is specified in the code to ensure that there is sufficient space to tighten the bolts, prevent the overlapping of the washers and provide adequate resistance to tear-out of bolt. The distance from the center of fasteners hole to the edge of an element (measured at right angles to the direction of load) is called the end or edge distance. The edge distance should be sufficient for bearing capacity and to provide space for bolt head, washers and nut. Maximum edge distance = 12t where = (250/y)0.5 Pitch (min.) Pitch (max.) (a) Parts in tension (b) Parts in compression 2.5 X nominal diameter of bolt 32 t or 300 mm 16t or 200mm whichever is less 12t or 200mm whichever is less

22

(c) Tacking fasteners

32t or 300mm whichever is less 16t 0r 200mm whichever is less for plates exposed to weather.

Where t is the thickness of thinner outside plate or angle. 2.5.6 Connection Design Philosophies Traditional methods of analysis of connection stresses were based on the following assumptions: Connected parts are rigid compared to connectors themselves and hence Connectors behave in a linear-elastic manner until failure. Connectors have unlimited ductility. their deformations may be ignored

However, in reality, connected parts such as end plates, angles etc. are flexible and deform even at low load levels. Further, their behaviour is highly non-linear due to slip, lack of fit, material non-linearity and residual stresses. Ductility of welds in some orientation with respect to direction of loads may be very limited, (e.g., Transverse fillet welds). Even though truss joints are assumed to be hinged the detailing using gusset plates and multiple fastener and welding does not represent hinged condition. However, in practice the secondary moment associated with such a rigid joint is disregarded unless the loading is cyclic. The complexity and variability in strength of connections require a rational design philosophy to account for their behaviour. Keeping in view the large number of joints to be normally designed in a structure and the considerable variability in the design strength, any sophisticated analysis is neither desirable nor warranted. The design should ensure that equilibrium is satisfied, slenderness of the elements is consistent with the ductility demand and the deleterious effect of stress concentration on fatigue strength is considered in cyclically loaded structures. practice in statically loaded systems. The following approach is consistent with connection design requirements in most general cases encountered in

23

The steps to be followed in the proposed rational design approach are enumerated initially. These are illustrated using a simple framing angle connection between a beam and a column of a framed building designed to transfer a shear force of V, as shown in Fig. 6.

Critical section for block shear (a) Connection (b) Freebody Diagram

Fig. 2.13: Simple Framed Angle Shear Connection 2.6 Analysis of Structures In structural design process term analysis refers to the determination of axial forces bending moments shear, torsional moments etc acting on different members of a structure due to applied loads and their combination (static or dynamic). In general design may involve the development of structural layout & system or the arrangement of different members but for the design engineers, design involves the selection of size of members to resist the forces and moments determined in analysis phase safely & economically. In design phase we not only design the members but also their connections and the foundations. So that the loads are transmitted to the soil. For statically determinate structures (simply supported beams, cantilevers, trusses etc.)The analysis is relatively simple & the laws of statistics can be used to determine the forces & moments on each member. The relative stiffness of intersecting members does not affect analysis. After analysis is completed and critical moments and forces in different members are tabulated the design of members are straight forward process using an appropriate method limit state method etc. For statistically determinate structure. There is no need for reanalysis or redesign of members. 24

However for statistically determinate analysis, the procedure is rather complex. A no. of analytical methods have been developed which include slope deflection method, moment distribution method, Kanis method, portal method etc. In these methods assumptions are usually made regarding the distribution of applied load among the members according to relative stiffness of connecting members, the response and behaviour of members and structures to applied loads, the rigidity of joints etc. Moreover to perform the analysis, the proportion of various structural elements should be known in advance for this preliminary design is generally required. Thus in these types of structure, analysis and design are interactive process. After the first cycle of analysis has been completed. The members are designed as per the codal rules-it is usually necessary to re analyze the structure to check the validity of member sizes. For complex structures several cycle of analysis and design may be required (many times three cycles are found to be sufficient). Handbook often provides formulae and coefficients to simplify the preliminary design of continuous beams or simple rigid jointed frame such as portal frames. Various computer programs are available for analysis and design of different types of structure. They include ABACUS, ADINA, ANSYS, ASKA, GTSTRUDL, SAP and STRESS. The above list is not exhaustive. Many of these packages were developed for use in mainframe computers. Recently a number of packages have been developed for use with IBM PC or compatible systems. Notable among them are SAP 2000, STAAD III , and STAAD PRO , ETABS , DAST, LARSA, STRAP, RISA 3D, ROBOT Millennium, SPACEGASS, STRUCAD * 3D,GTSTRUDL and STRUDDS. The windows versions of these packages are also available. These program are quote general in terms of loading geometric configuration and support conditions. With these programs it is now possible to analyze any structure with any complicated geometry subjected to any pattern of loading (static or dynamic) and having any boundary conditions or discontinuity.

25

However, a structural engineer is often guided in his effort by the code of practice. A represents the consensus of opinion of experienced engineers and professionals. The code serves following distinct functions: 1. They ensure adequate structural safety by specifying certain essential minimum requirements of design. 2. They aid the designer in design process. Often the results of sophisticated analysis are made available in form of simple formulae or chat. 3. They ensure consistency among different engineers. 4. They protect the structural engineer from disputes, though codes in many cases do not provide legal protection. 5. In India, the Bureau of Indian standard issues the code and standard handbooks. Committees, representing procedures, designers, educators, fabricators, government bodies and other interested bodies write them. The draft is circulated to a larger section of engineers, designers and professionals. The committee considers their comments and finally Bureau of Indian standards print the book. 6. The code depends upon design philosophies. Various design philosophy have been evolved in different parts of world with regards to structural steel design. 7. The earliest codified design philosophy is working stress method of design (WSM). This method of design is based on linear elastic theory. Now it has been replaced by limit state design philosophy. 2.6.1 Allowable Stress Design (ASD) With the development of linear elastic theories in the 19th century the stress-strain behaviour of new materials like wrought iron & mild steel could be accurately represented. These theories enabled indeterminate structures to be analysed and the distribution of bending and shear stresses to be computed correctly. The first attainment of yield stress of steel was generally taken to be the onset of failure. The limitations due to non-linearity and buckling were neglected. The basic form of calculations took the form of verifying that the stresses caused by the characteristic loads must be less than an allowable stress, which was a fraction of the

26

yield stress. Thus the allowable stress may be defined in terms of a factor of safety" which represented a margin for overload and other unknown factors which Allowable Stress = Yield Stress Factor of Safety

could be tolerated by the structure. The allowable stress is thus directly related to yield stress by the following expression: In general, each member in a structure is checked for a number of different combinations of loading. The value of factor of safety in most cases is taken to be around 1.67. Many loads vary with time and these should be allowed for. It is unnecessarily severe to consider the effects of all loads acting simultaneously with their full design value, while maintaining the same factor of safety or safety factor. Using the same factor of safety or safety factor when loads act in combination would result in uneconomic designs. A typical example of a set of load combinations is given below, which accounts for the fact that the dead load, live load and wind load are all unlikely to act on the structure simultaneously at their maximum values: (Stress due to dead load + live load) (Stress due to dead load + wind load) < allowable stress < allowable stress

(Stress due to dead load + live load + wind) < 1.33 times allowable stress. In practice there are severe limitations to this approach. These are the consequences of material non-linearity, non-linear behaviour of elements in the post-buckled state and the ability of the steel components to tolerate high theoretical elastic stresses by yielding locally and redistributing the loads. Moreover the elastic theory does not readily allow for redistribution of loads from one member to another in statically indeterminate structures. 2.6.2 Limit State Design Limit States" are the various conditions in which a structure would be considered to have failed to fulfil the purpose for which it was built. In general two limit states are considered at the design stage and these are listed in Table 1. Table 2.7: Limit States Ultimate Limit State Strength (yield, buckling) Deflection 27 Serviceability Limit State

Stability against overturning and sway Fracture due to fatigue Brittle Fracture

Vibration Fatigue checks (including reparable damage due to fatigue) Corrosion

Ultimate Limit States are those catastrophic states, which require a larger reliability in order to reduce the probability of its occurrence to a very low level. Serviceability Limit State" refers to the limits on acceptable performance of the structure. Not all these limits can be covered by structural calculations. For example, corrosion is covered by specifying forms of protection (like painting) and brittle fracture is covered by material specifications, which ensure that steel is sufficiently ductile. Limit state may be defined as the acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability of structure before failure occurs. Thus the concept of design with limit state is to achieve acceptable probabilities so that the structure will not become unfit for use and will not reach a limit state. In limit state design are preferred to use the term limit states rather than failure. Thus limit state is a state of impeding failure beyond which a structure ceases to perform its intended function satisfactorily. The reliability design is ensured by requirement. Design action Design strength The limit states are classified as: (a) Limit state of strength (b) Limit state of serviceability (c) Limit state of strength The limit state of strength are those associated with failure (or imminent failure), under the action of probable and most unfavorable combination of loads on structure using appropriate partial safety factors which may endanger the safety of life and property. 2.6.2.1 Partial Safety Factor The major innovation in the new codes is the introduction of the partial safety factor format. A typical format is described below: In general calculations take the form of verifying that S* R*

28

where S* is the calculated factored load effect on the element (like bending moment, shear force etc) and R* is the calculated factored resistance of the element being checked, and is a function of the nominal value of the material yield strength. S* is a function of the combined effects of factored dead, live and wind loads. (Other loads if applicable, are also considered) In accordance with the above concepts, the safety format used in Limit State Codes is based on probable maximum load and probable minimum strengths, so that a consistent level of safety is achieved. Thus, the design requirements are expressed as follows: Sd Rd where Sd = Design value of internal forces and moments caused by the design Loads, Fd Fd = f * Characteristic Loads.

f = a load factor which is determined on probabilistic basis


Rd = Characteristic Value of Resistance/ m Where m = a material factor, which is also determined on a probabilistic basis It should be noted that f makes allowance for possible deviation of loads and the reduced possibility of all loads acting together. On the other hand m allows for uncertainties of element behaviour and possible strength reduction due to manufacturing tolerances and imperfections in the material. Collapse is not the only possible failure mode. Excessive deflection, excessive vibration, fracture etc. also contribute to Limit States. Fatigue is an important design criterion for bridges, crane girders etc. (These are generally assessed under serviceability Limit States) Thus the following limit states may be identified for design purposes: Ultimate Limit State is related to the maximum design load capacity under extreme conditions. The partial load factors are chosen to reflect the probability of extreme conditions, when loads act alone or in combination. Serviceability Limit State is related to the criteria governing normal use. Fatigue Limit State is important where distress to the structure by Unfactored loads are used to check the adequacy of the structure. repeated loading is a possibility.

29

The above limit states are provided in terms of partial factors reflects the severity of the risks.

30

The limit states of strength include: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Loss of equilibrium of structure as a whole or any of its part or component. Loss of stability of structure (including the effect sway) or any of its part including support & foundation. Failures by excessive deformation rupture of structure or any of its parts or components. Fracture due to fatigue Brittle fracture.

The limit states of serviceability include: (a) Deformation and deflection which may adversely affect the appearance or effective use of structure or may cause improper functioning of equipment or services or may cause damage to finishes & nonstructural components. (b) Vibration in structure or any of its components causing discomfort to people damages to structure, its content or which may limit its functional effectiveness. Special consideration shall be given to systems susceptible to vibration such as large open floor area free of partition to ensure that such vibrations are acceptable for the intended use and occupancy. (c) Repairable damage or crack due to fatigue (d) Corrosion , durability (e) Fire

31

CHAPTER III
CHOICE OF SECTION
The design of steel sections is governed by the cross sectional area, section modulus, and radius of gyration. Though IS 808 and IS handbook No.1 list the properties of various sections, due to the limitations of rolling mills only a few sections are available in the market. Therefore, design is governed by not only sectional properties but also the availability of the section. Another factor governing choice is the ease with which sections can be connected. In India ISMB beams are the most commonly produced? So are limited numbers of ISHB sections. Also, only medium channels are available. Only a limited number of unequal angels are available in the market. Also, not all the equalangel sections are available readily in the market. Hence it will be a good idea to get a list of the available sections from steel producers like SAIL and plan the design accordingly. Though IS 800: 2007 code has removed the minimum thickness requirements, it is advisable to use a minimum thickness of 6mm for the main members and 5 mm for secondary members exposed to the atmosphere, especially in coastal areas. Structural steel is probably the most versatile commonly used structural material. Not only its versatility apparent in great variety of structures for which it is used but also in many different forms possible in a single building structure or a complex structure. Many of the properties of structural steel of interest to the design can be described by behaviors of steel during simple tension test.

Fig. 3.1: A Channel Section 32

A channel section has only an axis of symmetry. Due to this it is subjected to twisting or torsion along with bending when used as beam. The various section properties of ISMC 400: 1. Weight = 49.4 Kg/m
2. Sectional Area = 62.93 cm2.

3. Depth of section (h) = 400mm. 4. Width of Flange (b) = 100mm.


5. Thickness of flange (tf) = 15.3mm. 6. Thickness of web (tw) = 8.6mm. 7. Center of gravity (cyy) = 2.42cm. 8. Moment of inertia Ixx = 15082.8cm4, Iyy = 504.8cm4. 9. Radius of Gyration

rxx = 15.48cm, ryy = 2.83cm.

10. Modulli of section zxx = 754.1cm3, Zyy = 66.6cm3. 11. Radius at root (r1) = 15mm 12. Radius at toe (r2) = 7.5mm. 13. Flange Slope=

60.

14. Section Modulus (Plastic) Zpz = 891.03cm3, Zpy= 127.69cm3.

15. Depth between Root Fillets d = 332.8mm


16. Local Buckling Ratios: Flange = 6.5, Web = 38.7, Torsional Constant

Il = 35.33X104 mm4
17. Warping Constant Iw =

152.584 X 109 mm6

33

CHAPTER IV
GENERAL STATEMENT FOR STAAD
STAAD.Pro V8i is the most popular structural engineering software product for 3D model generation, analysis and multi-material design. It has an intuitive, user-friendly GUI, visualization tools, powerful analysis and design facilities and seamless integration to several other modeling and design software products. The software is fully compatible with all Windows operating systems but is optimized for Windows XP. For static or dynamic analysis of bridges, containment structures, embedded structures (tunnels and culverts), pipe racks, steel, concrete, aluminum or timber buildings, transmission towers, stadiums or any other simple or complex structure, STAAD.Pro has been the choice of design professionals around the world for their specific analysis needs. STAAD.Pro is a general purpose program for performing the analysis and design of a wide variety of types of structures. The basic three activities which are to be carried out to achieve that goal: (a) Model generation (b) The calculations to obtain the analytical results (c) Result verification - are all facilitated by tools contained in the program's graphical environment. The design philosophy and procedural logistics for member selection and code checking are based upon the principles of allowable stress design. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing, and failure by stability considerations. The flowing sections describe the salient features of the allowable stresses being calculated and the stability criteria being used. Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the allowable stresses and the most economic section is selected on the basis of least weight criteria. The code checking part of the program checks stability and strength requirements and reports the critical loading condition and the governing code criteria. It is generally assumed that the user will take care of the detailing requirements like provision of stiffeners and check the local effects such as flange buckling and web crippling.

34

4.1 Technical Reference Input Generation: The GUI (or user) communicates with the STAAD analysis engine through the STD input file. That input file is a text file consisting of a series of commands which are executed sequentially. The commands contain either instructions or data pertaining to analysis and / or design. Types of Structures: A STRUCTURE can be defined as an assemblage of elements. STAAD is capable of analyzing and designing structures consisting of both frame, plate/shell and solid elements. Almost any type of structure can be analyzed by STAAD. A SPACE structure, which is a three dimensional framed structure with loads applied in any plane, is the most general. A PLANE structure is bound by a global X-Y coordinate system with loads in the same plane. A TRUSS structure consists of truss members who can have only axial member forces and no bending in the members. A FLOOR structure is a two or three dimensional structure having no horizontal (global X or Z) movement of the structure [FX, FZ & MY are restrained at every joint]. The floor framing (in global X-Z plane) of a building is an ideal example of a FLOOR structure. Columns can also be modeled with the floor in a FLOOR structure as long as the structure has no horizontal loading. If there is any horizontal load, it must be analyzed as a SPACE structure. Specification of the correct structure type reduces the number of equations to be solved during the analysis. This results in a faster and more economic solution for the user. Unit Systems: The user is allowed to input data and request output in almost all commonly used engineering unit systems including MKS, SI and FPS. In the input file, the user may change units as many times as required. Mix and match between length and force units from different unit systems is also allowed. The input-unit for angles (or rotations) is degrees. However, in JOINT DISPLACEMENT output, the rotations are provided in radians. For all output, the units are clearly specified by the program. Structure Geometry and Coordinate Systems: A structure is an assembly of individual components such as beams, columns, slabs, plates etc. In STAAD, frame elements and plate elements may be used to model the structural components. Typically, modeling of the structure geometry consists of two steps: 35

(a) Identification and description of joints or nodes. (b) Modeling of members or elements through specification of connectivity (incidences) between joints. In general, the term MEMBER will be used to refer to frame elements and the term ELEMENT will be used to refer to plate/shell and solid elements. Connectivity for MEMBERs may be provided through the MEMBER INCIDENCE command while connectivity for ELEMENTs may be provided through the ELEMENT INCIDENCE command. STAAD uses two types of coordinate systems to define the structure geometry and loading patterns. The GLOBAL coordinate system is an arbitrary coordinate system in space which is utilized to specify the overall geometry & loading pattern of the structure. A LOCAL coordinate system is associated with each member (or element) and is utilized in MEMBER END FORCE output or local load specification. Global Coordinate System: The following coordinate systems are available for specification of the structure geometry. 1. Conventional Cartesian coordinate system: This coordinate system (Fig. 1.2) is a rectangular coordinate system (X, Y, Z) which follows the orthogonal right hand rule. This coordinate system may be used to define the joint locations and loading directions. The translational degrees of freedom are denoted by u1, u2, u3 and the rotational degrees of freedom are denoted by u4, u5 & u6. 2. Cylindrical Coordinate System: In this coordinate system, (Fig. 1.3) the X and Y coordinates of the conventional Cartesian system are replaced by R (radius) and (angle in degrees). The Z coordinate is identical to the Z coordinate of the Cartesian system and its positive direction is determined by the right hand rule. 3. Reverse Cylindrical Coordinate System: This is a cylindrical type coordinate system (Fig. 1.4) where the R- plane corresponds to the X-Z plane of the Cartesian system. The right hand rule is followed to determine the positive direction of the Y axis.

36

Fig. 4.1: Cartesian (Rectangular) Coordinate System

Fig. 4.2: Cylindrical Coordinate System

37

Fig. 4.3: Reverse Cylindrical Coordinate System Local Coordinate System: A local coordinate system is associated with each member. Each axis of the local orthogonal coordinate system is also based on the right hand rule. Fig. 1.5 shows a beam member with start joint 'i' and end joint 'j'. The positive direction of the local x-axis is determined by joining 'i' to 'j' and projecting it in the same direction. The right hand rule may be applied to obtain the positive directions of the local y and z axes. The local y and z-axes coincide with the axes of the two principal moments of inertia. Note that the local coordinate system is always rectangular.

38

Fig. 4.4: When Global-Y is vertical

Fig. 4.5: When Global-Z is vertical A wide range of cross-sectional shapes may be specified for analysis. These include rolled steel shapes, user specified prismatic shapes etc. Fig. 1.6 shows local axis system(s) for these shapes. 39

Relationship between Global & Local Coordinates: Since the input for member loads can be provided in the local and global coordinate system and the output for member-end-forces is printed in the local coordinate system, it is important to know the relationship between the local and global coordinate systems. This relationship is defined by an angle measured in the following specified way. This angle will be defined as the Beta Angle. Beta Angle: When the local x-axis is parallel to the global Vertical axis, as in the case of a column in a structure, the beta angle is the angle through which the local z-axis (or local Y for SET Z UP) has been rotated about the local x-axis from a position of being parallel and in the same positive direction of the global Z-axis (global Y axis for SET Z UP). When the local x-axis is not parallel to the global Vertical axis, the beta angle is the angle through which the local coordinate system has been rotated about the local x-axis from a position of having the local z-axis (or local Y for SET Z UP) parallel to the global X-Z plane (or global X-Y plane for SET Z UP)and the local y-axis (or local z for SET Z UP) in the same positive direction as the global vertical axis. Figure 1.7 details the positions for beta equals 0 degrees or 90 degrees. When providing member loads in the local member axis, it is helpful to refer to this figure for a quick determination of the local axis system. Reference Point: An alternative to providing the member orientation is to input the coordinates (or a joint number) which will be a reference point located in the member x-y plane (x-z plane for SET Z UP) but not on the axis of the member. From the location of the reference point, the program automatically calculates the orientation of the member x-y plane (x-z plane for SET Z UP).

40

Fig. 4.6: Relationship between Global and Local axes Loads: Loads in a structure can be specified as joint load, member load, temperature load and fixed-end member load. STAAD can also generate the self-weight of the structure and use it as uniformly distributed member loads in analysis. Any fraction of this self-weight can also be applied in any desired direction. Joint Load: Joint loads, both forces and moments, may be applied to any free joint of a structure. These loads act in the global coordinate system of the structure. Positive forces act in the positive coordinate directions. Any number of loads may be applied on a single joint, in which case the loads will be additive on that joint. Member Load: Three types of member loads may be applied directly to a member of a structure. These loads are uniformly distributed loads, concentrated loads, and linearly varying loads (including trapezoidal). Uniform loads act on the full or partial length of a member. Concentrated loads act at any intermediate, specified point. Linearly varying loads act over the full length of a member. Trapezoidal linearly varying loads act over the full or partial length of a member. Trapezoidal loads are converted into a uniform load and several concentrated loads. 41

Any number of loads may be specified to act upon a member in any independent loading condition. Member loads can be specified in the member coordinate system or the global coordinate system. Uniformly distributed member loads provided in the global coordinate system may be specified to act along the full or projected member length. Refer to Fig. 1.3 to find the relation of the member to the global coordinate systems for specifying member loads. Positive forces act in the positive coordinate directions, local or global, as the case may be. Area / One-way Load / Floor Load: Often a floor is subjected to a uniform pressure. It could require a lot of work to calculate the equivalent member load for individual members in that floor. However, with the AREA, ONEWAY or FLOOR LOAD facilities, the user can specify the pressure (load per unit square area). The program will calculate the tributary area for these members and calculate the appropriate member loads. The Area Load and One way load are used for one way distribution and the Floor Load is used for two way distribution. The following assumptions are made while transferring the area/floor load to member load: (a) The member load is assumed to be a linearly varying load for which the start and the end values may be of different magnitude. (b) Tributary area of a member with an area load is calculated based on half the spacing to the nearest approximately parallel members on both sides. If the spacing is more than or equal to the length of the member, the area load will be ignored. (c) Area / Floor load should not be specified on members declared as MEMBER CABLE, MEMBER TRUSS, MEMBER TENSION or MEMBER COMPRESSION or CURVED. Fixed End Member Load: Load effects on a member may also be specified in terms of its fixed end loads. These loads are given in terms of the member coordinate system and the directions are opposite to the actual load on the member. Each end of a member can have six forces: axial; shear y; shear z; torsion; moment y, and moment z. Prestress and Post stress Member Load: Members in a structure may be subjected to prestress load for which the load distribution in the structure may be investigated. The

42

prestressing load in a member may be applied axially or eccentrically. The eccentricities can be provided at the start joint, at the middle, and at the end joint. These eccentricities are only in the local y-axis. A positive eccentricity will be in the positive local y-direction. Since eccentricities are only provided in the local y-axis, care should be taken when providing prismatic properties or in specifying the correct BETA angle when rotating the member coordinates, if necessary. Two types of prestress load specification are available; PRESTRESS, where the effects of the load are transmitted to the rest of the structure, and POSTSTRESS, where the effects of the load are experienced exclusively by the members on which it is applied. Temperature and Strain Load: Temperature difference through the length of a member as well as differences of both faces of members and elements may also be specified. The program calculates the axial strain (elongation and shrinkage) due to the temperature difference. From this it calculates the induced forces in the member and the analysis is done accordingly. The strain intervals of elongation and shrinkage can be input directly. Support Displacement Load: Static Loads can be applied to the structure in terms of the displacement of the supports. Displacement can be translational or rotational. Translational displacements are provided in the specified length while the rotational displacements are always in degrees. Note that displacements can be specified only in directions in which the support has an "enforced" specification in the Support command. Steel Design Consideration As Per IS800 in STAAD: In STAAD implementation of IS:800, the user is allowed complete control of the design process through the use of design parameters. Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with IS:800. Stability Requirements: Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked against the appropriate maximum values. Section 3.7 of IS:800 summarizes the maximum slenderness ratios for different types of members. In STAAD implementation of IS:800, appropriate maximum slenderness ratio can be provided for each member. If no maximum slenderness ratio is provided, compression members will be checked against a maximum value of 180 and tension members will be checked against a maximum value of 400.

43

Truss Members: As mentioned earlier, a truss member is capable of carrying only axial forces. So in design no time is wasted in calculating bending or shear stresses, thus reducing design time considerably. Therefore, if there is any truss member in an analysis (like bracing or strut, etc.), it is wise to declare it as a truss member rather than as a regular frame member with both ends pinned. Deflection Check: This facility allows the user to consider deflection as criteria in the check code and member selection processes. Note that deflection is used in addition to other strength and stability related criteria. The local deflection calculation is based on the latest analysis results. The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified section is capable of satisfying applicable design code requirements. The code checking is based on the IS:800 (1984) requirements. Forces and moments at specified sections of the members are utilized for the code checking calculations. Sections may be specified using the BEAM parameter or the SECTION command. If no sections are specified, the code checking is based on forces and moments at the member ends. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical condition (applicable IS:800 clause no.), governing load case, location (distance from the start) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed out. Code Checking: The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified section is capable of satisfying applicable design code requirements. The code checking is based on the IS:800 (1984) requirements. Forces and moments at specified sections of the members are utilized for the code checking calculations. Sections may be specified using the BEAM parameter or the SECTION command. If no sections are specified, the code checking is based on forces and moments at the member ends. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical condition (applicable IS: 800 clause no.), governing load case, location (distance from the start) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed out.

44

Member Selection: STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis has been performed, the program can select the most economical section that is the lightest section, which satisfies the applicable code requirements. The section selected will be of the same type (I-Section, Channel etc.) as originally specified by the user. Member selection may be performed with all types of steel sections listed in Section 7B.13 and user provided tables. Selection of members, whose properties are originally provided from user specified table, will be limited to sections in the user provided table. Member selection can not be performed on members whose cross sectional properties are specified as PRISMATIC. Member Selection by Optimization: Steel section selection of the entire structure may be optimized. The optimization method utilizes a state-of-the -art numerical technique which requires automatic multiple analysis. The user may start without a specifically designated section. However, the section profile type (BEAM, COLUMN, CHANNEL, ANGLE etc.) must be specified using the ASSIGN command (see Chapter 6). The optimization is based on member stiffness contributions and corresponding force distributions. An optimum member size is determined through successive analysis/design iterations. This method requires substantial computer time and hence should be used with caution Combined Stress: Members subjected to both axial and bending stresses are proportioned accordingly to section 7 of IS: 800. All members subject to bending and axial compression are required to satisfy the equation of Section 7.1.1 (a) for intermediate points, and equation of Section 7.1.1 (b) for support points. For combined axial tension and bending the equation of Section 7.1.2 is required to be satisfied. Cm coefficients are calculated according to the specifications of Section 7.1.3 information regarding occurrence of sides way can be provided through the use of parameters SSY and SSZ. In the absence of any user provided information, sides way will be assumed. Shear Stress: Allowable shear stress calculations are based on Section 6.4 of IS: 800. For shear on the web, the gross sections taken into consideration consist of the product of the total depth and the web thickness. For shear parallel to the flanges, the gross section is taken as 2/3 times the total flange area.

45

Column with Lacings and Battens: For columns with large loads it is desirable to build rolled sections at a distance and inter-connect them. The joining of element sections is done by two ways: (a) Lacing and (b) Batten Double channel sections (back-to-back and face-to-face) can be joined either by lacing or by batten plates having riveted or welded connection.

46

CHAPTER V
RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS
5.1 Analysis for 5.0m span with load acting at center

Fig. 5.1: 5.0m span with load acting at center Table 5.1: Steel Design Table from STAAD (All Units are - KN METER) Member Table Result / FX Critical Cond./ MY Ratio/ MZ Loading / Location

1 ST ISMC400 PASS 74.59 C 2 ST ISMC400 PASS 74.59 C 3 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C

(Indian Sections) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.651 71.66 3 0.00 0.790 -71.66 3 0.00 0.790 -71.66 3 0.00

47

4 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C 5 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C 6 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C 7 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 8 ST ISMC400 PASS 74.59 C 9 ST ISMC400 PASS 74.59 C 10 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C 11 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.996 -112.74 3 1.25 0.651 71.66 3 0.00 0.790 71.66 3 0.00 0.790 71.66 3 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.651 71.66 3 1.25 0.996 -112.74 3 1.25 0.996 -112.74 3 1.25

48

12 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C 13 ST ISMC400 PASS 41.16 C 14 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 15 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 16 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 17 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 18 ST ISMC400 PASS 77.08 C 19 ST ISMC400 PASS 77.08 C

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.996 -112.74 3 0.00

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.207 15.42 3 0.50 0.207 15.42 3 0.50 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.651 71.66 3 1.25

49

20 ST ISMC400 PASS 77.08 C 21 ST ISMC400 PASS 77.08 C 22 ST ISMC400 PASS 35.55 T 23 ST ISMC400 PASS 35.55 T

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.207 -15.42 3 0.50

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.207 -15.42 3 0.50

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.2 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.2 0.00 0.068 3.81 3 0.00 0.068 3.81 3 0.00

5.2 For load acting at center

Fig. 5.2: Variation of Maximum load with respect to different span

50

Table 5.2: Following Listed Below Table Shows the values of Fx, Fy and Mz at nodes 1,4,6&8 when load is acting at center Table 5.2.1: Analysis for 4.0m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 2.309 -2.309 2.309 -2.309 Fy kN 94.094 94.093 94.094 94.093 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -13.359 13.359 -13.359 13.359

Table 5.2.2: Analysis for 4.1m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 2.646 -2.646 2.646 -2.646 Fy kN 92.142 92.142 92.142 92.142 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -13.603 13.603 -13.603 13.603

Table 5.2.3: Analysis for 4.2m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 2.98 -2.98 2.98 -2.98 Fy kN 90.191 90.19 90.191 90.19 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -13.828 13.829 -13.828 13.829

Table 5.2.4: Analysis for 4.3m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 3.311 -3.311 3.311 -3.311 Fy kN 88.239 88.238 88.239 88.238 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -14.034 14.034 -14.034 14.034

51

Table 5.2.5: Analysis for 4.4m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 3.638 -3.638 3.638 -3.638 Fy kN 86.287 86.287 86.287 86.287 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -14.22 14.22 -14.22 14.22

Table 5.2.6: Analysis for 4.5m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 3.981 -3.981 3.981 -3.981 Fy kN 84.836 84.835 84.836 84.835 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -14.475 14.475 -14.475 14.475

Table 5.2.7: Analysis for 4.6m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 4.297 -4.297 4.297 -4.297 Fy kN 82.884 82.884 82.884 82.884 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -14.622 14.622 -14.622 14.622

Table 5.2.8: Analysis for 4.7m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 4.606 -4.606 4.606 -4.606 Fy kN 80.93 4 80.93 80.93 4 80.93 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -14.747 14.747 -14.747 14.747

Table 5.2.9: Analysis for 4.8m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 4.964 -4.964 Fy kN 79.98 1 79.98 Fz kN 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 Mz kN-m -15.05 15.05

52

6 8

3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3

4.964 -4.964

79.98 1 79.98

0 0

0 0

0 0

-15.05 15.05

Table 5.2.10: Analysis for 4.9m span with load acting at center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 5.29 -5.29 5.29 -5.29 Fy kN 78.529 78.529 78.529 78.529 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -15.241 15.241 -15.241 15.241

Table 5.2.11: Analysis for 5.0m span with load acting at center Node 1 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 5.611 Fy kN 77.07 7 77.07 7 77.07 7 77.07 7 Fz kN 0 Mx kN-m 0 My kN-m 0 Mz kN-m -15.415

3 Combination Load Case 3

-5.611

15.415

3 Combination Load Case 3

5.611

-15.415

3 Combination Load Case 3

-5.611

15.415

53

Fig. 5.3: Variation of fx with respect to different span

Fig. 5.4: Variation of fy with respect to different span

54

Fig. 5.5: Variation of MZ with respect to different span

In order to check the adequacy of the actual existing frame we are designing this section with the help of STAAD-Pro.V8i and this results are checked manually by analyzing this frame section with moment distribution method further it is checked by IS Code method.

55

For 5 m span: load acting at center:

Table 5.3: Distribution Factors Joint Member B BA BC BE C CD CB k I / 0.5 I / 2.14 2.667 I I/5 I/5 I / 2.14 0.667 I Sum DF 1 / 1.33 1 / 5.71 1 / 13.33 1 / 1.33 1 / 1.43

56

Table 5.4: Moment Distribution table For load acting at center A AB BA


1 1.33

B BE
1 13.33

C BC
1 5.71

D CD
1 3.33

E DE
1 1.43

F EF
1 1.33

CB
1 1.43

DC
1 3.33

ED
1 5.71

EB
1 13.33

FE

-91.25 +63.81 +31.91 -24.00 -12 -4.50 -0.72 -0.053 -0.107 -2.39 +1.19 -0.448 +0.072 -0.011 -1.507 -5.59 +4.79 -1.05 +0.07 -0.025 +9.58 -2.79 +3.38 -0.168 +0.138 +27.40 -13.7 +4.11 -2.05 +1.45 -0.03 +0.059

+91.25 -27.40 +13.7 -4.11 +2.05 -1.45 +0.03 -0.059 -9.58 +2.79 -3.38 +0.168 -0.138 -63.81 -31.91 +5.59 -4.79 +1.05 -0.07 +2.39 -1.19 +0.448 -0.072 +0.107 +4.50 +0.72 +0.053 +0.24 +12

FEM Bal Co Bal Co Bal Co Bal Co

+0.025 +0.011 -31.46

-15.023 -30.047

+31.46 +73.565 -74.676 +74.676 -73.565

+1.507 +30.047 +15.023

57

Fixed End Moments:


M FCD = M FDC = + wl 145 5 = = 91.25 kN 8 8 wl +146 5 = = + 91.25 kN 8 8

M AB = 15.023 M CB = +73.565 M BA = 30.047 M CD = 74.66 M BE = 1.507 M DC = 74.676 M BC = 31.46 M DE = 73.56 M ED = 31.46 M EB = +1.567 M EF = 30.047 M FE = +15.023

l = 2.14 m For Load acting at centre: Taking the section ISMC400 @ 49.4 kg / m, A = 6293 mm2; h = 400 mm; b = 100 mm tf = 15.3 mm; tw = 8.6 mm; rx = 154.8 mm ry = 28.3 mm; Z xx = 754.1103 mm3 d1 = h 2t f = 400 2 15.3 = 369.4 mm 1. Determination of ac

l 2140 = = 75.62 N/mm2 ry 28.3

From Table 5.1 of IS 800 : 1984 ac = 105.82 mm 2 2. Determination of bc T t f 15.3 = = = 1.78 < 2 t tw 8.6

58

d1 d1 369.4 = = = 42.95 < 85 t tw 8.6 From table 6.1 B of IS 800: 1984, we get bc = 140.52 N/mm 2 3. Determination of Critical Buckling stress f cc =

2 E 2 2 105 = 2 2 x 2140 154.8


f cc = 10328.66

4. Determination of actual stress

accal = bccal =

73 103 = 11.6 N/mm 2 6293 = 97.55 N/mm 2

73.565 106 754.1 10


3

5. Determination of magnification factor Taking Cm = 0.85 Cm 0.85 = = 0.85 accal 11.6 1 1 0.6 1032866 0.6 f cc 6. Check for section

accal bccal Cm + 1 ac bc accal 1 0.6 f cc


11.6 97.55 + 0.85 1 105.82 140.52
0.11 + 0.59 1

0.7 1

59

5.3 Analysis for 5.0 m span with load acting at off center

Fig. 5.6: offcentered loading Table 5.5: Steel Design Table from STAAD (All units are - KN METER) Member Table Result / FX Critical Cond. / MY Ratio / MZ Loading / Location

1 ST ISMC400 PASS 124.59 C

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(B) 0.00 0.986 -90.29 3 0.00

60

2 ST ISMC400 PASS 124.59 C 3 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 4 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 5 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 6 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 7 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 8 ST ISMC400 PASS 124.59 C 9 ST ISMC400 PASS 124.59 C

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(B) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(B) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(B) 0.00 0.986 90.29 3 0.00 0.986 90.29 3 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.820 90.29 3 1.25 0.610 -65.35 3 0.00 0.610 -65.34 3 1.15 0.820 90.29 3 0.00 0.986 -90.29 3 0.00

61

10 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 11 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 12 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 13 ST ISMC400 PASS 51.82 C 14 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 15 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 16 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.610 -65.34 3 1.15 0.820 90.29 3 0.00

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.610 -65.35 3 0.00

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.000 0.00 1 0.00 0.820 90.29 3 1.25

62

17 ST ISMC400 PASS 0.00 T 18 ST ISMC400 PASS 127.08 C 19 ST ISMC400 PASS 127.08 C 20 ST ISMC400 PASS 127.08 C 21 ST ISMC400 PASS 127.08 C 22 ST ISMC400 PASS 44.89 T 23 ST ISMC400 PASS 44.89 T

(INDIAN SECTIONS) SHEAR-Y 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.293 -19.51 3 0.50 0.293 19.51 3 0.50 0.293 19.51 3 0.50 0.000 0.00 1 0.00

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.1(A) 0.00 0.293 -19.51 3 0.50

(INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.2 0.00 (INDIAN SECTIONS) IS-7.1.2 0.00 0.084 4.56 3 0.00 0.084 4.56 3 0.00

63

5.4 For load acting at off center

Fig. 5.7: Variation of Maximum load with respect to different span Table 5.6: Following Listed Below Table Shows the values of Fx, Fy and Mz at nodes 1,4,6&8 when load is acting at off center Table 5.6.1: Analysis for 4.0m span with load acting at off center Node 1 4 6 8 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 2.893 -2.893 2.893 -2.893 Fy kN 160.59 4 160.59 4 160.59 4 160.59 4 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -17.404 17.404 -17.404 17.404

Table 5.6.2: Analysis for 4.1m span with load acting at off center Node 15 16 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 3.315 3.315 Fy kN 156.60 4 156.64 3 Fz kN 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 Mz kN-m -17.667 -17.661

64

17 18

3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3

-3.314 -3.316

156.64 1 156.68

0 0

0 0

0 0

17.66 17.666

65

Table 5.6.3: Analysis for 4.2m span with load acting at off center Node 15 16 17 18 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 3.73 3.73 -3.73 -3.73 Fy kN 152.69 152.69 152.69 152.69 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -17.889 -17.889 17.889 17.889

Table 5.6.4: Analysis for 4.3m span with load acting at off center Node 1 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 4.137 Fy kN 148.73 9 148.73 9 148.73 9 148.73 9 Fz kN 0 Mx kN-m 0 My kN-m 0 Mz kN-m -18.086

3 Combination Load Case 3

-4.137

18.086

3 Combination Load Case 3

4.137

-18.086

3 Combination Load Case 3

-4.137

18.086

Table 5.6.5: Analysis for 4.4m span with load acting at off center Node 15 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 4.564 Fy kN 145.78 7 145.78 7 145.78 7 145.78 7 Fz kN 0 Mx kN-m 0 My kN-m 0 Mz kN-m -18.383

16

3 Combination Load Case 3

4.564

-18.383

17

3 Combination Load Case 3

-4.564

18.383

18

3 Combination Load Case 3

-4.564

18.383

Table 5.6.6: Analysis for 4.5m span with load acting at off center Node 15 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 4.954 Fy kN 141.83 5 Fz kN 0 Mx kN-m 0 My kN-m 0 Mz kN-m -18.522

66

16

3 Combination Load Case 3

4.954

141.83 5 141.83 5 141.83 5

-18.522

17

3 Combination Load Case 3

-4.954

18.522

18

3 Combination Load Case 3

-4.954

18.522

Table 5.6.7: Analysis for 4.6 m span with load acting at off center Node 15 16 17 18 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 5.366 5.366 -5.366 -5.366 Fy kN 138.88 4 138.88 4 138.88 4 138.88 4 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -18.768 -18.768 18.768 18.768

Table 5.6.8: Analysis for 4.7m span with load acting at off center Node 15 16 17 18 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 5.735 5.735 -5.735 -5.735 Fy kN 138.36 6 138.36 6 135.49 8 135.49 8 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -18.814 -18.814 18.898 18.898

Table 5.6.9: Analysis for 4.8m span with load acting at off center Node 15 16 17 18 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 6.125 6.125 -6.125 -6.125 Fy kN 131.9 8 131.9 8 131.9 8 131.9 8 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -19.039 -19.039 19.039 19.039

67

Table 5.6.10: Analysis for 4.9m span with load acting at off center Node 15 16 17 18 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Fx kN 6.556 6.556 -6.556 -6.556 Fy kN 130.02 9 130.02 9 130.02 9 130.02 9 Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 My kN-m 0 0 0 0 Mz kN-m -19.362 -19.362 19.362 19.362

Table 5.6.11: Analysis for 5.0m span with load acting at off center
Node 15 16 17 18 L/C 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 3 Combination Load Case 3 Horizonta l Fx kN 6.933 6.933 -6.933 -6.933 Vertical Fy kN 127.077 127.077 127.077 127.077 Horizonta l Fz kN 0 0 0 0 Moment Mx kN-m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -19.511 -19.511 19.511 19.511 My kN-m Mz kN-m

Fig. 5.8: Variation of fx with respect to different span

68

Fig. 5.9: Variation of fy with respect to different span

Fig. 5.10: Variation of MZ with respect to different span

For 5 m load acting at off centre:

69

Table 5.7: Distribution Factors Joint Member B BA BC BE C CD CB k I / 0.5 I / 2.14 2.667 I I/5 I/5 I / 2.14 0.667 I Sum DF 1 / 1.33 1 / 5.71 1 / 13.33 1 / 1.33 1 / 1.43

70

Table 5.8: Moment Distribution Table for Load acting at off center A AB BA 1 1.33 BE 1 13.33 B BC 1 5.71 CB 1 1.43 C CD 1 3.33 DC 1 3.33 D DE 1 1.43 ED 1 5.71 E EB 1 13.33 EF 1 1.33 FEM -80.64 -40.32 -12.11 +3.53 -4.288 +0.66 -1.104 +7.06 -6.06 +1.32 -2.144 +0.425 +3.02 -1.51 +0.568 -0.284 +0.182 +1.483 +5.69 +2.845 +0.741 +30.32 +15.16 Bal Co Bal Co Bal Co Bal Co F FE

-115.31 +115.31 +80.64 +40.32 -30.32 -15.16 -5.69 -2.845 -0.741 18.746 -1.83 37.84 -3.02 +1.51 -0.568 +0.284 -0.182 -1.976 -7.06 +6.06 -1.32 +2.144 -0.425 +12.11 -3.53 +4.288 -0.66 +1.104 +34.62 -17.32 +5.20 -2.6 +1.84 -0.92 +0.474 -34.62 +17.32 -5.20 +2.6 -1..84 +0.92 -0.474

+39.719 kN m +93.952 kN m -94.016 +94.016 -93.952 -39.719 +1.976 +37.84 +18.746

71

For Load acting at off centre: M FCD = wab 2 l2 wab2 l2

= -115.31kNm MFDC = +115.31 ISMC 400 @ 49.4 kg / m I = 2.14 m A = 6293 mm2; D = h = 400 mm; b = 100 mm
Z xx = 754.1 10 3 mm 3; I xx = 15082.8 10 4 mm 4

rxx = 154.81 mm; ryy = 28.3 mm T = t f = 15.3 mm; t = t w = 8.6 mm d1 = h 2t f = 400 2 15.3 = 369.4 mm

T t f 15.3 = = =1.78 < 2 t tw 8.6 d1 d1 369.4 = = = 42.95 < 85 t tw 8.6


M = 93.952 kNm P = 123 kN l 2140 = = 75.62 ry 28.3

=
From table 5.1 of IS 800: 1984

ac = 105.82 N/mm 2
2. Determination of bc T t f 15.3 = = = 1.78 < 2 t tw 8.6 d1 d1 369.4 = = = 42.95 < 85 t tw 8.6 From table 6.1 B of IS 800: 1984 72

bc = 140.52 N/mm 2
3. Determination of Critical buckling stress f cc =

2 E 2 2 105 = 2 2 x 2140 =10328.66 154.8


P 123 103 = = 19.55 N/mm 2 A 6293

4. Determination of actual stress

accal = bccal =

M 93.952 106 = = 124.58 N/mm 2 3 Z 754.110

5. Determination of magnification factor Cm accal 1 0.6 f cc 6. Check for section = 0.85 0.85 9.77 1 0.6 10328.66

accal bccal Cm + 1 ac bc accal 1 0.6 f cc


19.55 124.58 + 0.85 1 105.82 140.52
0.185 + 0.754 1

0.939 1 Hence it is safe.

73

CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION
Conclusion: The structure is designed with the help of STAAD.V8i. The same structure been with similar loading conditions have been solved by using Moment Distribution Method and for the coming moment a member is checked as per coded provision given in IS 800 : 1984. It has been found out that the result coming from STAAD as well as numerical calculation is similar and both fall under the codal provisions as described. The frame is designed for width ranging from 4.0 m to 5.0 m with the common interval of 0.1 m keeping other constraints fixed. The members are designed for ultimate load. The ultimate load carrying capacity of frame is determined on the basis of Trial and Error. The same is then checked from the manual calculation. The load carrying capacity is determined for both when load acting at centre as well as when load is acting at eccentricity. This eccentricity is kept constant and is kept proportional to width of member. Each section is designed for both cases and is manually checked. A graph is plotted between varying length and ultimate load carrying capacity for both cases of loading. Graphs between the joint Reactions (fx & fy) vs varying length has also been plotted for both cases of loading. It has been observed that as the horizontal length of member increases the joint reaction also increases following a linear path. Whereas in fy with the increase in length it gradually decreases. In 2nd Case of loading the joint reaction fy gradually decrease for the length of 4.6 m then nearly constant up to 4.7 m and got a steep slope from 4.7 4.8 m followed up to 5 m. The another graph plotted between varying length and moment for both loading cases and has been observed that with the increase in length of member the moment is increases, though maximum load decreases as horizontal length of member is increases. Though the structure is designed for the maximum load, hence structure is safe.

74

REFFERENCES
Graham W. Owens and Peter R. Knowles, Steel designers manual, ELBS Fifth Edition (1994). Adams P.F., Krentz H.A. and Kulak G.L., Limit state design in structural steel SI Units, Canadian Institute of Steel Construction (1979).

1. IS:2062 Steel for general structural purposes Specification, Fourth Revision


(1992).

2. IS:961 Specification for structural steel (High Tensile) , (1962). 3. Robert E. Reed Hill, Physical metallurgy principles, Second Ed., EWP, New
Delhi, (1985).

4. IS:1608 Method of tensile testing of steel products (Second Revision) (1995). 5. IS:1757 Method for charpy impact test (V-notch) on metallic material (1988) 6. IS: 8500, Structural steel - Micro alloyed (medium and high strength qualities) Specification, First Revision (1991). Adams P.F., Krentz H.A. Limit State Design in Structural Steel SI Units, Canadian Institute of Steel Construction (1979).

7. Doran D.K., Construction Materials Reference Book, Butterworth Heinemann


(1995). Graham W. Owens and Peter R. Knowles, Steel Designers Manual, ELBS fifth Edition (1994). Jack C. McCormac, Structural Steel Design, Harper & Row Publishers, NY (1981).

8. John H. Bickford, An introduction to the design and behaviour of bolted joints,


(Second Edition), Marcel Dekker Inc., NY,(1990) Radaj D, Design and analysis of fatigue resistant welded structures, Abington Publishing, (1990).

9. IS: 1024 1968, Code of Practice for use of welding in bridges and structures
subjected to dynamic loading, Bureau of Indian Standards.

10. Swamy, R.N. (2000) Educating Engineers, The Structural Engineer, London,
Volume 78 (17)

11. Vesiland, A.L., (Duke University, USA): Private Communication.

75

12. Suresh. V., Rural and Urban Housing: Opportunities for use of steel, Keynote
address at the Seminar on Steel in Building Construction, (Ministry of Steel and INSDAG), September 2000

13. Owens. G. and Wood. A. (1998): World-wide use of Steel in Construction,


Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 46 (1-3).

14. INSDAG and STUP CONSULTANTS (2000): Life Cycle Cost of Viaduct
Structures of Elevated Light Rail Transit System Project, INSDAG, Calcutta.

15. Naithani, K.C., Gupta, V.K., Sarvendra Kumar, Mittal, M.K., Ghosh, S.K.,
Karmakar. D. and Maini P.K. (1999). Cost Economics Study of Composite Construction and its Comparison with traditional R.C. Construction, CECR.

16. Narayanan. R. and Kalyanaraman, V. (2000): Durability and Life Cycle Costs,
National Seminar on Global Standards on Quality Assurance and Reliability in Structures, Association of Consulting Engineers (India), Coimbatore Centre.

17. McGuire W. (1968), Steel Structures, Prentice Hall International Inc., London. 18. Merrit F.S. (1983), Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers, (3rd Edition) McGraw
Hill Book Company, New York.

19. Dowling P.J., Knowles P.R. and Owens G.W., (1988), Structural Steel Design,
The Steel Construction Institute, Butterworths, London.

20. Owens G.W., Knowles P.R : "Steel Designers Manual", The Steel Construction
Institute, Ascot, England, 1994

21. British Standards Institution: "BS 5950, Part-1 Structural use of steelwork in
building", British Standards Institution, London, 1985.

22. AISCLRFD. Load and resistance factor design specification for structural steel
buildings. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Chicago, III, 1993.

23. ASCE Manual No.52. Guide for design of steel transmission towers American
Society of Civil Engineers, 1987.

24. BS-5950. Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: Hot
rolled sections British Standards Institute, London, 1985.

25. CAN3-S16.1-M84. Steel structures for buildings (limit states design), Canadian
Standards Assoc., Rexdale, Ontario, Canada, 48, 1984.

26. Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures, British Standards Institute 1992.


76

27. IS:800-1984. Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi, 1984.

28. Kulak and Wu, Shear Lag in Bolted Angle Tension Members, ASCE, Journal of
Structural Engineering, Vol.123, No.9, Sept.1997, pp.1144-1152.

29. Mueller, W.H., and Wagner, A. L. Plastic behaviour of steel angle columns, Res.
Rept., Bonneville Power Admin., Portland, Oreg., 1985, pp 33-82.

30. Murty, Madugula and S. Mohan, Angles In Eccentric Tension, ASCE, Journal of
Structural Engineering, Vol.114, No.10, October 1988, pp.2387-2396.

31. Nelson, H. M. Angles in Tension, Publication No.7, British Constructional


Steelwork Assoc., United Kingdom, 1953, pp 8-18.

32. Timoshenko S.P. and Gere, J.M: Theory of Elastic Stability, Mc Graw Hill
Kogakusha Ltd.,New York.

33. Chajes,A.: Principles of structural Stability Theory, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,1974 34. Allen,H.G. and Bulson,P.S. : Background to Buckling, Mc Graw Hill Book
Company, 1980

35. Owens G.W., Knowles P.R : "Steel Designers Manual", The Steel Construction
Institute, Ascot, England, 1994

36. Dowling P.J., Knowles P.R., Owens G.W : Structural Steel Design, Butterworths,
London, 1998

37. S.Subraimanian: Design of Steel Structures, As per IS800: 2007: TATA McGraw
Hill.

38. B.C. Punmia: Design of Steel Structures: laxmi Publication Pvt. Ltd. 39. IS800:1984

77