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Transformers

Introduction A device that convert one level of AC voltage into another level of AC voltage through the action of magnetic field. Can be divided into two- step up and step down transformer. Enable transmission of electrical energy over great distances.

Construction of Transformer where V1 I1 N1 E1 V2 I2 N2 Figure 1: Basic construction of transformer E2 = primary voltage = primary current = no of turn at primary = primary induced voltage = secondary voltage = secondary current = no of turn at secondary = secondary induced voltage

Consists of 2 or more windings placed on the same iron core magnetic path. Winding: o Winding connected to the power source o Winding connected to the electrical load o Winding: no of turn, V & vice versa primary winding secondary winding

Core: o Iron core uses ferromagnetic material which provide tight magnetic coupling & high flux density (high permeability) o Iron core construction core type & shell type How transformer works (voltage induced)? o Current flows through primary winding will produce alternating flux depending on its primary voltage (V1), frequency of applied voltage (f1) & number of turns (N1). o This alternating flux passes through the secondary winding but in the opposite direction with respect to the primary flux (Lenz law). o This alternating flux is also called mutual flux. o Mutual flux will induce electromotive force or voltage in secondary winding, E2, depending on the magnitude of mutual flux, frequency (f2) & number of turns at secondary (N2). o Faradays law states that:-The electromotive force (emf) induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit. o Steady current in the primary no effect in the secondary.
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Derivation of EMF Generation Consider a small current called excited current flow in the primary winding and establish an alternating flux based on the Right Hand Rule

Figure 2: Right Hand Rule When there is a flux change with respect to the N turns of coils, the electromotive force (emf) or induced voltage is generated.

Figure 3: The relationship between and E according to Faradays Law It is given by:-

E=

Nd (t ) dt

(1)

Since flux is a sinusoidal function, then

(t ) = max sin t
Replacing (2) into (1), we get:

(2)

E=

Nd ( max sin t ) dt

= N max cos t
In rms value,

E( rms ) =
=

N max

2 N 2 max f
2

= 4.44 fN max

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Thus, the alternating flux induces a sinusoidal ac voltage in the coil given by:-

E ( rms ) = 4.44 fN max


E f N - emf / effective voltage induced (V) - frequency of the flux (Hz) - no. of turns of the coil - peak value of the flux (Wb) - a constant

max
4.44

Thus the value of E1, and E2 are generated as follows:

E1( rms ) = 4.44 fN 1 max


Ideal Transformer

and

E 2 ( rms ) = 4.44 fN 2 max

(3)

Is a transformer which has the following characteristic: o Has no losses o The core is infinitely permeable i.e it has 0 reluctance o All fluxes link all coils (no flux leakage) o The windings have no resistance In an ideal transformer, the apparent power for both windings is the same. S1 = S2 E1I1 = E2I2 From equations (3) and (4) the relationship between E, I and N is given as:

(4)

E1 N1 I 2 = = =a E 2 N 2 I1
The ratio of N1/N2 is called as voltage transformation ration or turn ratio. It determine whether the transformer function as step-up or step-down transformer. If the value of a < 1, the transformer is a step-up transformer (and vice versa). In ideal transformer; o the angle of voltage at primary and secondary windings are the same o the angle of current at primary and secondary windings are also the same o the primary and secondary windings have the same power factor

Power in Ideal Transformer In ideal transformer, the input power is equal to the output power (because all losses are neglected)
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Example 1 A 100 kVA 2300/230 V 50 Hz ideal transformer has 60 turns on the secondary winding. Calculate: a) the approximate value of primary and secondary currents. b) the number of primary turns. c) the maximum value of the flux Example 2 An ideal transformer having 90 and 2250 turns on the primary and secondary respectively and it is connected to a 230 V, 50 Hz source. The load across the secondary draws a current of 2 A at a p.f. of 80% lagging. Calculate: a) the effective primary current b) instantaneous primary current when instantaneous secondary current is 100 mA c) peak flux linked by secondary winding d) draw the phasor diagram

Impedance Transfer Impedance transfer is used in simplifying circuit involving transformer by transferring impedance from one side of a transformer to the other. Let assume the Z2 is connected with the ideal transformer as shown in Figure 4:

Figure 4: Load connected to a transformer At secondary winding, the secondary impedance Z2 is given by:

Z2 =

V2 I2

The secondary impedance seen from primary side is denoted as Z2:

Z2 '=

V1 I1

aV2 I2 / a

= a2

V2 I2

= a2Z2

Z2 '= a2Z2

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Thus, the equivalent circuit for Figure 5 is simplified as follow:

(a)

(b)

Figure 5: Equivalent Circuit (the load seen from primary winding) In similar manner, voltages and currents can be referred to one side or the other using

V1 I 2 = =a V2 I1
The primary impedance seen from secondary side is denoted as Z1:

Z1 ' =

V2 I2

Z1 V1 = 2 2 a I1 a

Z1 ' =
Example 3

Z1 a2

An ideal transformer has a load of Z=1+j4, connected at secondary side. The turn ration of the transformer is 5:1

a) Draw an equivalent circuit with the impedance referred to the primary side. b) For primary voltage of 230V and a short connected across secondary terminal, calculate the
primary current and the current flowing in the short.

Practical Transformer In the real world, transformers are not ideal. The practical transformer (as shown in Figure 6) has the following characteristics: o Iron core produces eddy-current and hysterisis losses which contribute to temperature rise of the transformer o The core is not infinitely permeable o The winding has resistance. o There is flux leakage. The flux produced by the primary is not completely captured by the secondary.
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(a)

(b) where
RP & R S XP & XS Rc Xm Im Ic : the winding resistances on the primary and secondary respectively : the leakage resistances on the primary and secondary respectively : the core resistance - known as shunt / excitation : the magnetizing reactance - very high ohmic value, I very small : the magnetizing current : the core current

Figure 6: Basic construction (a) and schematic symbol (b) of a practical transformer The equivalent circuit of a practical transformer can be simplified by either referring to primary or secondary side The equivalent circuit referring to primary is given by Figure 7:

Figure 7: The equivalent transformer circuit referred to primary winding

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The equivalent circuit referring to secondary is given by Figure 8:

Figure 8: The equivalent transformer circuit referred to secondary winding The above equivalent transformer circuits can be further simplified as follow:

Figure 9: Approximate transformer circuit: (a) referred to the primary side; (b) referred to the secondary side.

Example 4 A distribution transformer has leakage impedance of 0.72 + j 0.92 in the high-voltage winding and 0.007 + j 0.009 in the low-voltage winding. At rated voltage and frequency, the impedance of shunt branch is 6.32 + j 43.7 when viewed from low-voltage side. It turn ratio is 2400:240 V. Draw the equivalent circuit referred to: (a) the primary side and (b) the secondary side, and label the impedances numerically.

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Example 5

a) Refer to the Figure 10(a) below, what will the voltage at the load be? What will the transmission
line losses be?

b) Suppose a 1:10 step-up transformer is placed at the generator end of the transmission line and
a 10:1 step-down transformer is placed at the load end of the line as Figure 10(b), what will the load voltage be now? What will the transmission line losses be now?

Figure 10 (a)

Figure 10 (b)

Losses in Transformer There are a few types of losses occur:

1. Eddy current losses Represent the resistive heating losses Occur when the flux density changes rapidly in the core 2. Hysteresis losses Occur due to nonlinear relationship between magnetic field strength (H) and magnetic
flux density (B) 3. Leakage flux Occur due to the flux that escape the core and pass through one of the transformer winding 4. Copper losses Occur at transformer winding

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Transformer Rating The kVA rating and voltage ratings of a transformer are marked on its nameplate. For example; 10 kVA, 1100/110 V. The voltage ratings indicate that the transformer has two winding. One rated for 1100 V and the other for 110 V. We know that V1/V2 = N1/N2. Therefore, the turn ratio for this transformer is 10. The 10 kVA rating means that each winding is design for 10 kVA. Therefore the current rating for high-voltage winding is 10 000/1100 = 9.09 A and for low-voltage winding is 10 000/110 = 90.9 A.

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