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Hydraulics

Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

4.2 Discharge measurement by Velocity Area Method (Chitale, 1974)


This method comprises measuring the mean velocity V and the flow area 'A' and computing the discharge Q from the continuity equation. The site which satisfies the requirements such as straightness, stability, uniformity of cross-section is chosen for discharge measurement. The requirements of the site are dealt with in detail in standards of the ISI 1192, (1959). The discharge measurement site is then marked by aligning the observation cross-section normal to the flow direction. The cross-section is demarcated by means of masonry or concrete pillars on both the banks, two on each side 30 m apart. ISI 1192, (1959), "Velocity area methods for measurement of flow of water in open channels, Bureau of Indian Standards".

4.2.1 Segmentation
The interval at which the depth of water is measured along the cross-section for channels with different widths is given in Table. Description of Channel Number of Observation (m) verticals Width less than 15 15 Width between 15 and 90 15 Width between 90 and 15 150 Width greater than 150 25 Maximum width of segments (m) 1.50 6.0 15.0 -

The intervals specified are also such that not more than 10 percent and preferably not more than 4 percent variations in the discharge between two adjacent segments occur. The discharge through any segment is also not allowed to be more than 10 percent of the total discharge. For measurement of velocity, the maximum spacing between adjacent verticals is so maintained that the mean velocity does not differ by more than 20 percent with respect to the lower value of the two velocity measurements. In no case less than five velocity verticals are permitted.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Hydraulics

Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

In case of canals allowing the variation of 2 percent in discharge and adopting as 15 verticals as a standard of comparison a lesser number of verticals 15 is adopted. The verticals for depth and velocity measurements are kept the same according to Table shown below. Widths of segments for measurements of depths and velocities in canals Channel capacity m3/s (a) Above 85 (b) Between 15-85 (c) Between 0 - 15 Approximate surface width (m) Above 35 Between 15 - 35 Between 0 - 15 Number of verticals for depth and velocity 11 9 5

Method of marking segments varies according to the method of discharge observation. Pivot point method is common, the details of which are available in the ISI : 1192-1959. Angular, Stadia method and method of linear measurement are also used for locating depth and velocity verticals under special circumstances.

4.2.2 Measurement of Depth


When velocities and depths are smaller and width up to 0.9 m, observations can be made using wading or suspension rods. However, when wading observations are found difficult, sounding rods of wood and bamboo are used. When depths are in excess of about 4.6 m or current is too swift to permit the use of sounding rod, hand line is used for depth measurement. But when the depths are large and velocities are high even the hand-lines cannot be used. Under such circumstances a cable line is lowered by means of a crane. Echo sounders of indicator as well as recorder type are being used for depth measurements.

4.2.3 Measurement of Velocity


For the measurement of velocity the current meters are most commonly used. IS: 3910 - 1966 gives specifications for cup type current meter and IS: 3918 - 1966 gives the code of practice for use of this type of current meter. To obtain a mean velocity in a vertical, velocity distribution observations can be made at a number of points along the vertical. This is done when results are required to be accurate, or for purpose of calibration. In two-point method the velocity observations are

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Hydraulics

Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

made at 0.2 and 0.8 depth below the surface while in one point method observations is made at 0.6 depth below the surface. Both the two-point and one point methods are in common use in India, though sub-surface method comprising making velocity observations just below the surface is also used during floods when other methods are not feasible. In high floods at times, even surface measurement of velocity by current meter may not be possible, float measurements are then used using surface floats, double floats or special types of floats (IS 3911 - 1966). Velocity rods (IS 4858 - 1968) are also used generally for velocity observations in canals. Details of the method are given in IS: 1192 (1959). In adopting the float method or the surface velocity method in which current meter is used, a reduction coefficient is used to change surface velocity into mean velocity in each vertical. Measurements on Indus River in Sind at Mithankot, Sukur and Kotri during 1911-1920 (Indus River commission records, "discharge, silt, velocity and miscellaneous observations", parts I to IV, 1911 - 1920 printed at Commission press 1922, part II, pages 1 to108) showed that reduction coefficient varied between 0.74 and 0.92 when the depth variation was from 2.44 to 13.72 m and surface velocity from 0.19 to 5.09 m/s. The studies in canal were similarly made by Mysore Engineering Research Station at 32 sites. The mean velocity V of the cross-section was obtained by the current meter whereas the surface velocity was measured using floats. The following relationship was obtained
V (m/s) = 0.8529 Vs + 0.0085

A relationship between the surface velocity Vs and the mean velocity V in terms of Chezy C has been developed and is given by:
Vs =1 + 2.5 g / C V V The usual assumption made in practice is that s = 0.85 which corresponds to 'C' value V

of 52.4 m0.5 s-1.


Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Hydraulics

Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

Theoretical considerations based on the logarithmic velocity distribution law indicate that the reduction coefficient would be applicable only to a particular stream for which it has been determined, since it would depend on the relative roughness of the channel, depth, slope, etc., and hence it would be different for different streams, and for fluctuating flood stages even in a given stream. It is therefore, recommended by the BIS that the reduction coefficients should be found out from actual field observations made by a current meter and only if such determination of the coefficient is not possible during high flood stages then the reduction coefficient should be extrapolated to the stage from data collected at lower stages.

4.2.4 Slope-Area Method


In the event of infeasibility of velocity area method due to either rapid rise and fall of stage or lack of equipment, the slope area method is adopted for rough estimation of the discharge. The requirements of the site are mostly similar to those for area velocity method. The cross-sectional area is measured adopting the procedure as in case of area velocity method. The velocity formula used is that of Manning, the energy slope for non-uniform flow . The roughness coefficient value to be used is related to bed material size and condition of the channel. These recommendations are given in Indian Standards Institutions IS : 2912 (1964).

4.2.5 Stage-Discharge Relationships


Regular recording of discharges over a period of time is essential for correct estimation of water resources of river basins and subsequent planning and utilization. Daily discharge observations over a long period are sometimes not feasible. The estimation of the discharge is then achieved by using proper stage discharge relation. The method adopted for the preparation of the stage discharge relationship for the different river basins as well as the the exhaustive instruction for adopting the method of estimation of discharge by establishing stage discharge relationship are contained in the Indian Standard Recommendations IS: 2914(1964).

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Hydraulics

Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

4.2.6 Details of Existing Indian Standards


A - Stream Gauging: 1. Printed Standards / Under Print: (a) Measurement/ Estimation, Analysis and Recording: IS: 1191 IS: 1192 IS: 1193 IS: 1194 IS: 2912 IS: 2913 IS: 2914 IS: 2915 IS: 3918 IS: 6059 IS: 6062 IS: 6063 IS: 6330 (b) Instruments IS: 3910 IS: 3911 IS: 3912 IS: 4073 IS: 4080 IS: 4858 IS: 6064 Reference: Chitale S.V., Discharge Measurement - Technology and Data Analysis, Hydraulics of Alluvial Streams, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, a Status Report Number 3, New Delhi, June 1974. Page 13 to 24. Current meters Surface floats Sounding rods Sounding weights Vertical staff gauge Velocity rods Sounding and suspension equipment. Glossary of terms and symbols Velocity area methods Notches, wiers and flumes Forms for recording measurement Slope area method Flow in tidal channels Stage discharge relation Instructions for collection of data for analysis of errors Use of current meter Weirs of finite crest width Standing wave flume-falls Standing wave flume End depth method for rectangular channels

Indian Institute of Technology Madras