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Biology 226 spring 2012 Presentation 3 March 25,2012

Major Descending ( Motor ) Pathway and spinal Cord Tracts

Direct ( Pyramidal )

Lateral corticospinal tract

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lateral corticospinal tract Lateral corticospinal tract labeled in red at upper left. Latin tractus corticospinalis lateralis, fasciculus cerebrospinalis lateralis Gray's subject #185 759

The lateral corticospinal tract (also called the crossed

pyramidal tract or lateral cerebrospinal fasciculus) is the largest part of the corticospinal tract. It extends throughout the entire length of the medulla spinalis, and on transverse section appears as an oval area in front of the posterior column and medial to the posterior spinocerebellar tract. Its fibres arise from cells in the motor area of the cerebral hemisphere of the opposite side. They pass downward in company with those of the anterior corticospinal tract through the same side of the brain as that from which they originate, but they cross to the opposite side in the medulla oblongata and descend in the lateral funiculus of the medulla spinalis. The lateral corticospinal tract controls movement of ipsilateral limbs(albeit contralateral to the corresponding motor cortex) as it lies distal to the pyramidal decussation. Control of more central axial and girdle muscles comes from the anterior corticospinal tract.[1] [edit]References

Anterior corticospinal tract

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ventral corticospinal tract) Anterior corticospinal tract Anterior corticospinal tract seen in red at bottom center in figure (text tag found at upper-left). Decussation of pyramids. Scheme showing passage of various fasciculi from medulla spinalis to medulla oblongata. a. Pons. b. Medulla oblongata. c. Decussation of the pyramids. d. Section of cervical part of medulla spinalis. 1. Anterior cerebrospinal fasciculus (in red). 2. Lateral cerebrospinal fasciculus (in red). 3. Sensory tract (fasciculi gracilis et cuneatus) (in blue). 3. Gracile and cuneate nuclei. 4. Anterolateral proper fasciculus (in dotted line). 5. Pyramid. 6. Lemniscus. 7. Medial longitudinal fasciculus. 8. Ventral spinocerebellar fasciculus (in blue). 9. Dorsal spinocerebellar fasciculus (in yellow). Latin tractus corticospinalis anterior, fasciculus cerebrospinalis anterior Gray's subject #185 759

The anterior corticospinal tract (also called the ventral corticospinal tract, medial corticospinal tract, direct pyramidal tract, or anterior cerebrospinal fasciculus) is a small bundle of descending fibers that connect the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. It is usually small, varying inversely in size with the lateral corticospinal tract, which is the main part of the corticospinal tract.

It lies close to the anterior median fissure, and is present only in the upper part of the medulla spinalis; gradually diminishing in size as it descends, it ends about the middle of the thoracic region. It consists of descending fibers that arise from cells in the motor area of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere, and that, as they run downward in the medulla spinalis, cross in succession through the anterior white commissure to the opposite side, where they end, either directly or indirectly, by arborizing around the motor neurons in the anterior column. A few of its fibers pass to the lateral column of the same side and to the gray matter at the base of the posterior column.[citation needed] They conduct voluntary motor impulses from the precentral gyrus to the motor centers of the cord. [edit]Additional images

Indrect ( Extrapyramidal ) Pathways

Tectospinal tract
Tectospinal tract Diagram showing posFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

sible connection of long descending fibers from higher centers with the motor cells of the ventral column through association fibers. ("Tectospinal fasciculus" labeled at center right.) Diagram of the principal fasciculi of the spinal cord. ("Tectospinal fasciculus" labeled at center right, in red.) Latin Gray's tractus tectospinalis subject #185 760

In humans, the tectospinal tract (also known as colliculospinal tract) is a nerve pathway which coordinates head and eye movements. It is part of the indirect extrapyramidal tract. Specifically, the tectospinal tract connects the midbrain tectum and the spinal cord. It is responsible for motor impulses that arise from one side of the midbrain to muscles on the opposite side of the body. The function of the tectospinal tract is to mediate reflex postural movements of the head in response to visual and auditory stimuli. The portion of the midbrain from where this tract originates is the superior colliculus, which receives afferents from the visual nuclei (primarily the oculomotor nuclei complex), then projects to the contralateral (decussating ventral to the mesencephalic duct) and ipsilateral portion of the first cervical neuromeres of the spinal cord, the

oculomotor and trochlear nuclei in the midbrain and the abducens nucleus in the caudal portion of the pons. The tract descends to the cervical spinal cord to terminate in Rexed laminae VI, VII, and VIII to coordinate head, neck, and eye movements, primarily in response to visual stimuli. [edit]See also Upper motor neuron Spinotectal tract

Vestibulospinal tract
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Brain: Vestibulospinal tract Vestibulospinal tract is labeled, in red at bottom left. Diagram of the principal fasciculi of the spinal cord. (Vestibulospinal fasciculus labeled at bottom right.) Latin Gray's tractus vestibulospinalis subject #185 760

NeuroLex ID birnlex_1643 The vestibulospinal tract is a neural tract in the central nervous system. Specifically, it is a component

of the extrapyramidal system and is classified as a component of the medial pathway. Like other descending motor pathways, the vestibulospinal fibers of the tract relay information from nuclei to motor neurons.[1] The vestibular nuclei receive information through the vestibulocochlear nerve about changes in the orientation of the head. The nuclei relay motor commands through the vestibulospinal tract. The function of these motors commands are to alter muscle tone, extend, and change the position of the limbs and head with the goal of supporting posture and maintaining balance of the body and head.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Classification 2 Function 3 Anatomy 3.1 Lateral vestibulospinal tract 3.2 Medial vestibulospinal tract 4 Reflexes 4.1 Example of vestibulospinal reflex 4.2 Tonic labyrinthine reflex 4.3 Righting reflex 5 Development 5.1 CNS development

5.2 Specification of ventral motor neurons by SHH 6 Damage 7 Current/Future Research 8 See also 9 External links 10 References [edit]Classification

Main article: extrapyramidal system The vestibulospinal tract is part of the "extrapyramidal system" of the central nervous system. In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement.[2] The system is called "extrapyramidal" to distinguish it from the tracts of the motor cortex that reach their targets by traveling through the "pyramids" of the medulla. The pyramidal pathways, such as corticospinal and some corticobulbar tracts, may directly innervate motor neurons of the spinal cord or brainstem. This is seen in anterior (ventral) horn cells or certain cranial nerve nuclei. Whereas the extrapyramidal system centers around the modulation and regulation through indirect control of anterior (ventral) horn cells. The extrapyramidal subcortical nuclei include the substantia nigra, caudate, putamen,

globus pallidus, thalamus, red nucleus and subthalamic nucleus.[3] The traditional thought was that the extrapyramidal system operated entirely independently of the pyramidal system. However, more recent research has provided a greater understanding of the integration of motor control. Motor control from both the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems have extensive feedback loops and are heavily interconnected with each other.[1] A more appropriate classification of motor nuclei and tracts would be by their functions. When broken down by function there are two major pathways: medial and lateral. The medial pathway helps control gross movements of the proximal limbs and trunk. The lateral pathway helps control precise movement of the distal portion of limbs.[1] The vestibulospinal tract, as well as tectospinal and reticulospinal tracts are examples of components of the medial pathway.[1] [edit]Function

The vestibulospinal tract is part of the vestibular system in the CNS. The primary role of the vestibular system is to maintain head and eye coordination, upright posture and balance, and conscious realization of spatial orientation and motion. The vestibular system is able to respond correctly by recording sensory information from hairs cells in the labyrinth of

the inner ear. Then the nuclei receiving these signals project out to the extraocular muscles, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex to execute these functions.[4] One of these projections, the vestibulospinal tract, is responsible for upright posture and head stabilization. When the vestibular sensory neurons detect small movements of the body, the vestibulospinal tract commands motor signals to specific muscles to counteract these movements and re-stabilize the body. The vestibulospinal tract is an upper motor neuron tract consisting of two sub-pathways: The medial vestibulospinal tract projects bilaterally from the medial vestibular nucleus within the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the ventral horns in the upper cervical cord (T6 vertebra).[5] It promotes stabilization of head position by innervating the neck muscles, which helps with head coordination and eye movement. The lateral vestibulospinal tract provides excitatory signals to interneurons, which relay the signal to the motor neurons in antigravity muscles.[6] These antigravity muscles are extensor muscles in the legs that help maintain upright and balanced posture. [edit]Anatomy Medulla Spinalis Latin medullae spinalis


subject #185 753

[edit]Lateral vestibulospinal tract The lateral vestibulospinal tract is a group of descending extrapyramidal motor neurons, or efferent fibers.[2] This tract is found in the lateral funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The lateral vestibulospinal tract originates in the lateral vestibular nucleus or Deiters nucleus in the pons.[2] The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the pons.[2] Lateral vestibulospinal fibers descend uncrossed, or ipsilateral, in the anterior portion of the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord.[2][7] Fibers run down the total length of the spinal cord and terminate at the interneurons of laminae VII and VIII. Additionally, some neurons terminate directly on the dendrites of alpha motor neurons in the same laminae.[2] [edit]Medial vestibulospinal tract The medial vestibulospinal tract is a group of descending extrapyramidal motor neurons, or efferent fibers found in the anterior funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. The medial vestibulospinal tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus or Schwalbe's nucleus.[2] The Schwalbe's nucleus extends from the rostral end of the inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla oblongata to the caudal portion of the pons.[2]

Medial vestibulospinal fibers join with the ipsilateral and contralateral medial longitudinal fasciculus, and descend in the anterior funiculus of the spinal cord.[2] [7] Fibers run down to the anterior funiculus to the cervical spinal cord segments and terminate on neurons of laminae VII and VIII. Unlike the lateral vestibulospinal tract, the medial vestibulospinal tract innervates muscles that support the head. As a result, medial vestibulospinal fibers run down only to the cervical segments of the cord.[2] [edit]Reflexes

The vestibulospinal reflex uses the vestibular organs as well as skeletal muscle in order to maintain balance, posture, and stability in an environment with gravity. These reflexes can be further broken down by timing into a dynamic reflex, static reflex or tonic reflex. It can also be categorized by the sensory input as either canals, otolith, or both. The term vesitbulospinal reflex, is most commonly used when the sensory input evokes a response from the muscular system below the neck. These reflexes are important in the maintenance of homeostasis.[8] [edit]Example of vestibulospinal reflex The head is tilted to one side which stimulates both the canals and the otoliths. This movement stimulates the vestibular nerve as well

as the vestibular nucleus. These impulses are transmitted down both the lateral and medial vestibulospinal tracts to the spinal cord. The spinal cord induces extensor effects in the muscle on the side of the neck to which the head is bent, and flexor effects in the muscle in the side of the neck away from the direction of the displaced head. [edit]Tonic labyrinthine reflex The tonic labyrinthine reflex is a reflex that is present in newborn babies directly after birth and should be fully inhibited by 3.5 years.[9] This reflex helps the baby master head and neck movements outside of the womb as well as the concept of gravity. Increased muscle tone, development of the proprioceptive and vestibular senses and opportunities to practice with balance are all consequences of this reflex. During early childhood, the TLR matures into more developed vestibulospinal reflexes to help with posture, head alignment and balance.[10] The tonic labyrinthine reflex is found in two forms. Forward: When the head bends forward, the whole body, arms, legs and torso curl together to form the fetal position. Backwards: When the head is bent backward, the whole body, arms, legs and torso straighten and extend.

[edit]Righting reflex The righting reflex is another type of reflex. This reflex positions the head or body back into its "normal" position, in response to a change in head or body position. A common example of this reflex is the cat righting reflex, which allows them orient themselves in order to land on their feet. This reflex is initiated by sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and the somatosensory systems and is therefore not only a vestibulospinal reflex.[8] [edit]Development [edit]CNS development Four stages in the development of the neural tube in the human embryo Main article: neural development During the gastrulation stage of vertebral development, the blastula divides into three distinct germ layers. These three layers are the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. The ectoderm is the outermost of these layers and eventually becomes the nervous system, the epidermis, and the lining of various external orifices. The next stage in the development of the nervous system is neurulation which is the name for organogenisis of the nervous system. This stage begins with the formation of the notochord, a thin layer of mesodermal cells in the most dorsal portion of the embryo. The notochord

signals the ectodermal cells above it to form the neural tube.[11] The formation of the neural tube is done specifically by the folding of the neural plate into a circle which is accomplished with the help of the medial and dorsolateral hinge point cells. This structure, the neural tube, gives rise to the brain and spinal cord.[12] [edit]Specification of ventral motor neurons by SHH When the neural tube begins to form into spinal cord, there are two different plates, the alar and basil plates. These two plates are separated by the sulcus limitans. The alar plate will turn into the dorsal horn, consisting of sensory neurons and the basil plate will turn into the ventral horn consisting of motor neurons. The differentiation of the ventral horn is achieved by the secretion of sonic hedgehog, or SHH from the notochord during neural tube development. The SHH produced by the notochord travels extracellularly, to the most ventral side of the neural tube.[13] It was determined through experimentation that the notochord is essential in floor plate formation. This was shown by inserting a second notochord at a different location near the neural tube and observing the formation of a second, ectopic, floor plate.[14] In a normal neural tube, the floor plate separates the right and left sides of the basil plate. In this way, the floor plate mediates which neurons will cross the mid line, an important aspect of proper ipsilateral and bilateral neuron formation. SHH is a critical morphogen in

determining the fate of the ventral part of the neural tube. The high SHH concentration in the ventral most portion leads to the inhibition of cellular proliferation which causes the floor plate to become thin relative to other parts of the neural tube. Once formed, the floor plate is signaled to produce more SHH. The gradient of SHH present within the neural tube establishes several domains of interneuron and motor neuron progenitors as well as oligodendrocyte precursors.[15] It is important to note that SHH is not the only signaling molecule exerting an effect on the developing neural tube. Many other molecules, pathways, and mechanisms are active (e.g. RA, FGF, BMP), and complex interactions between SHH and other molecules are possible. The vestibulospinal tract is one of these four motor tracts developed from these progenitor cells. [edit]Damage

A typical person sways from side to side when the eyes are closed. This is the result of the vestibulospinal reflex working correctly. When an individual sways to the left side, the left lateral vestibulospinal tract is activated to bring the body back to midline.[7] Generally damage to the vestibulospinal system results in ataxia and postural instability.[16] For example, if unilateral damage occurs to the vestibulocochlear nerve, lateral vestibular nucleus, semicircular canals or lateral

vestibulospinal tract, the person will likely sway to that side and fall when walking. This occurs because the healthy side "over powers" the weak side in a way that will cause the person to veer and fall towards the injured side.[6] Potential early onset of damage can be witnessed through a positive Romberg's test.[6] Patients with bilateral or unilateral vestibular system damage will likely regain postural stability over weeks and months through a process called vestibular compensation.[16] This process is likely related to a greater reliance on other sensory information. [edit]Current/Future Research

Recent research has shown that damage to the medial vestibulospinal tract alters vestibular evoked myogenic potential in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM),[17] which are involved in head rotation. The vestibular evoked myogenic potential is an assessment of the sacculo-collic reflex and a test of function in otolithic organs. Also, lesions to the tract impair ascending efferent fiber signaling, which led to nystagmus.[17] There is has also been recent research to determine if there is a difference in vestibulospinal function when there is damage to the superior vestibular nerve as opposed to the inferior vestibular nerve and vice versa. They defined vestibulospinal function by ability to have proper posture, as well as by self reported

dizziness. The results were determined by using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) as well as the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI). It was determined that subjects with damaged inferior spinal nerve performed worse on the posture test than the control group, but performed better that patients with superior vestibulo nerve damage. With this they determined that the superior vestibular nerve plays a larger in balance than the inferior vestibulo nerve but that they both play a role. In terms of the DHI is was concluded that there was no difference between the patients with the two different impairments.[18] Vestibular compensation after unilateral or bilateral vestibular system damage can be accomplished by sensory addition and sensory substitution. Sensory substitution occurs when any remaining vestibular function, vision, or light touch of a stable surface substitute for the lost function. Postural sway and gait ataxia can be reduced by augmenting sensory information for balance control. Recent research has shown that as little as 100 grams of light touch of a fingertip can provide enough sensory reference to reduce sway and ataxia during gait.[16] [edit]See also Gait abnormality Spinal cord injury Upper motor neuron

Rubrospinal tract
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Rubrospinal tract

Rubrospinal tract is labeled in red on the left of the diagram.

Schematic representation of the chief ganglionic categories (Rubrospinal tract not labeled, but red nucleus visible near center) Latin Gray's tractus rubrospinalis subject #192 870

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) The rubrospinal tract is a part of the nervous system. It is a part of the lateral indirect extra-pyramidal tract. Contents [hide] 1 Function

2 Path 3 See also 4 References 5 External links [edit]Function In humans, the rubrospinal tract is one of several major motor control pathways. It is smaller and has fewer axons than the corticospinal tract, suggesting that it is less important in motor control. It is one of the pathways for the mediation of voluntary movement. The tract is responsible for large muscle movement as well as fine motor control, and it terminates primarily in the cervical spinal cord, suggesting that it functions in upper limb but not in lower limb control. It primarily facilitates Flexion in the upper extremities (see decorticate posture). It is small and rudimentary in humans. In some other primates, however, experiments have shown that over time, the rubrospinal tract can assume almost all the duties of the corticospinal tract when the corticospinal tract is lesioned. [edit]Path In the midbrain, it originates in the magnocellular red nucleus, crosses to the other side of the midbrain, and descends in the lateral part of the brainstem tegmentum.[1]

In the spinal cord, it travels through the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord in the company of the lateral corticospinal tract. [edit]See also Upper motor neuron

Reticulospinal tract
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Reticulospinal) Brain: Reticulospinal tract Reticulospinal tract is labeled in red, near center in figure (text tag at left). NeuroNames hier-802 NeuroLex ID birnlex_1471 The reticulospinal tract (or anterior reticulospinal tract) is an extrapyramidal motor tract which travels from the reticular formation. Contents [hide] 1 Functions 2 Components 3 Clinical significance

4 See also 5 External links [edit]Functions 1. Integrates information from the motor systems to coordinate automatic movements of locomotion and posture. 2. Facilitates and inhibits voluntary movement, influences muscle tone. 3. Mediates autonomic functions 4. Modulates pain impulses 5. Influences blood flow to lateral geniculate [edit]Components The tract is divided into two parts, the medial (or pontine) and lateral (or medullary) reticulospinal tracts (MRST and LRST). The MRST is responsible for exciting anti-gravity, extensor muscles. The fibers of this tract arise from the caudal pontine reticular nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus and project to the lamina VII and lamina VIII of the spinal cord (BrainInfo) The LRST is responsible for the inhibiting excitatory axial extensor muscles of movement. The fibers of this tract arise from the medullary reticular formation, mostly from the gigantocellular nucleus, and descend the length of the spinal cord in the anterior part of the

lateral column. The tract terminates in the gray spinal laminae (BrainInfo). The sensory tract conveying information in the opposite direction is known as the "spinoreticular tract". [edit]Clinical significance If the superior colliculus is damaged, it is called decerebration and causes decerebrate rigidity. The reticulospinal tracts also provide a pathway by which the hypothalamus can control sympathetic thoracolumbar outflow and parasympathetic sacral outflow. [edit]See also Upper motor neuron