Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

Sanskrit - Locative Absolute Page 1 of 2

Sanskrit - Locative Absolute.



The locative is used to express the place in which, on which or at which, something occurs.

a. But the locative is also employed to express the notion of with regard to, in respect to, with
reference to something - a relation that might be called the locative of respect or specification. Known as
the locative absolute.
eg skilled in horses ie in respect to horses. H T

If a participle is joined with this type of locative with regard to so-and-so or such-and-such having been
ed then the whole phrase consisting of a noun or pronoun plus a participle may easily pass over into the
sense of when (or since) so-and-so or such-and-such was or had been ed.

eg 4[

4 P4 4 @ 1 1 HT|4 H* HH3 literally with regard to many soldiers 4[

T
P 4 T having been killed [3 4 in the battle, the king was stricken with remorse, but in better English
when, or since, many soldiers had been killed in the battle, etc. With a pronoun: 31H|"3 "
H3| P3* HH3 when he 31H came H"3 the teacher was very happy - literally: with
regard to him having come etc.

Sometimes a locative absolute is used without noun or pronoun, consisting generally of a verb of saying in
the neuter of the locative and following direct speech; thus 9 343 when this was said.

b. On the other hand, the expression by the locative of a condition of things in which anything takes place,
or of a conditioning or accompanying circumstance, passes over into a well-marked absolute construction.

Transitional examples are: [ c| P1 3d3 [ Hd d (RV.) I call to thee at the arisen sun
(when the sun has risen),
I call at midtime of the day; H91H 43 S9 H 4|9 (MBh.) and even in case of an offense
committed, there is no anger on my part.

c. The normal condition of the absolute construction is with a participle accompanying the noun: thus,
13| 4[ 4 PHH| H| (RV.) when the barhis is strewn and the fire kindled ;
4H T H 9|3 (MBh.) a propitious time having arrived; HP7|| 1||13|H3s|H+4
7gHP (H.)
the night having drawn to a close, and the moon resting on the summit of the western mountain.

d. But the noun may be wanting, or may be replaced by an adverbial substitute (as evam, tatha, iti) : thus,
4 3 when it rains ; [P ] H13H3 after sunset; Hdc1 qH| (S) while there is seen [some
part] of the sun;
c HH|43 (s.) with these words half uttered;
H1H|H PHHH3 (MBh.) it being fully assented to by us;
9H 343 4H| (MBh.) it being thus spoken by Kali;
3| 43 P3 (H.) it being thus accomplished.

So likewise the participle may be wanting (a copula sati or the like having to be supplied): thus, dre bhaye
the cause of fear being remote;
while, on the other hand, the participle sati etc. is sometimes redundantly added to the other participle: thus,
tath krte sati - it being thus done.

Sanskrit - Locative Absolute Page 2 of 2
e. The locative is frequently used adverbially or prepositionally (1116): thus, -arthe or -krte - in the matter of,
for the sake of; agre - in front of; rte without; sampe - near.

304. The pregnant construction by which the locative comes to express the goal or object of motion or
action or feeling exercised occurs:

a. Especially with verbs, as of arriving, sending, placing, communicating, bestowing, and many others, in
situations where an accusative or a dative (or a genitive, 297a) might be looked for, and exchangeable with
them : thus,

sa id devesu gacchati (RV.) that, truly, goes to (to be among') the gods,
imam no yajam amrtesu dhehi (RV.) set this offering of ours among the immortals,
ya asicanti rasam osadhsu (AY.) who pour in the juice into the plants (or, the juice that is in the plants);
m prayacche "svaredhanam (H.) do not offer wealth to a lord;
paptamedinyam (MBh.) he fell to (so as to be upon) the earth;
skandhe krtv (H.) putting on the shoulder;
samzrutya prvamasmsu (MBh.) having before promised us.

b. Often also with nouns and adjectives in similar constructions (the instances not always easy to separate
from those of the locative meaning with reference to: above, 303a): thus,
day sarvabhtesu compassion toward all creatures;
anurgam naisadhe (MBh.) affection for the Nishadhan;
rj samyag vrttah sad tvayi (MBh.) the king has always behaved properly toward thee.

305. The prepositions construed with the locative (1126) stand to it only in the relation of adverbial elements
strengthening and directing its meaning.