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1.Because they helps hosts to communicate in a common way. 2.Ethernet. 3.

message format, message size, timing, encoding, and message patterns. 4.Proprietary means that its copyright network , only maker knows how the protocol is implement. 5.It is opposed to opensource or freeware or to standard. 6.Ethernet is standard. 7. benifits of standard protocols Facilitate design Simplify product development Promote competition Provide consistent interconnections Facilitate training Provide more vendor choices for customers 8. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)committees are responsible for approving and maintaining the standards for connections, media requirements and communications protocols. 9.It is referred to committee that equipes for maintaining standard of ethernet. 10.Ability for Ethernet to improve over time is one of the main reasons that it has become so popular.For example ethernet has changed very much from 10 mbps to 100gbps. 11.host - ip address , ethernet card -mac address . 12-Cables of copper or optic fibre. 13.It Defines frame format, frame size, timing and encoding. 14.When a host receives a message format the messages into the frame layout that is specified by the standards. Frames are also referred to as Protocol Data Units (PDUs). 15.Format for ethernet includes : start of framer delimiter preamble for sequencing and timing length and type of frame frame check sequence to detect transmission errors. 16. 1518 max 64 min 17.They are not processed by receiving host. 18.A MAC address indicates the individual identity of a specific host, but it does not indicate where on the network the host is located. 19.That it is impossible to identify one host on a internet. 20.Ethernet generates a large amount of broadcast traffic in order to communicate with other host which: slow down network performance consume bandwidth. 21.Hierarchical design model. 22. It consists of smaller, more manageable groups that allow local traffic to remain local. Only traffic that is destined for other networks is moved to a higher layer. 23.Advantages are : increased efficiency optimization of function increased speed 24.The hierarchical design has three basic layers: Access Layer - to provide connections to hosts in a local Ethernet network. Distribution Layer - to interconnect the smaller local networks. Core Layer - a high-speed connection between distribution layer devices. 25.IP addressing scheme is a logical addressing scheme that can identify the location of a host on network.

26.Ip address is compared to address of a person where he lives. 27.It is also called logical because it is assigned logically based on where the host is located. 28-29-31.One part identifies the local network. The network portion of the IP address will be the same for all hosts connected to the same local network. The second part of the IP address identifies the individual host. Within the same local network, the host portion of the IP address is unique to each host. 31.We get to know the address of a person. 32.They are mandatory because they are like both the name and address of a person are required to send a letter.