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Latin Christendom: The civilization of Latin Christendom was a blending of Christian Greco-Roman Germanic traditions.

It was at a time when Europe was constantly changing hands. With all the bending of the cultures of the time Germanic, Roman, Previous Christian views they all came together. The Petrine Doctrine: The Petrine Doctrine is based upon Catholic tradition, which proclaims the legitimacy and supremacy of the Pope over all other bishops of the Catholic Church. Expounded by Pope Leo I. Pope Leo I 440 - 461: Expounded the Petrine Doctrine. Leo the great. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun in 452 and persuading him to turn back from his invasion of Italy. Papacy from 440 461. Gelasius I 492 496: proclaimed the doctrine of the two swords: Church and Empire. The Church has heavier burden and is superior to the State in spiritual matters. Gregory the Great 590 604: real founder of the Papal States. Theodoric the Great 454 -526: King of the Ostrogoths, ruler of Italy. Memories of his reign made him a hero of Germanic legend as Dietrich von Bern. Pepin 752-768: The first King of the Franks of the Carolingian dynasty. Donation of Pepin 754-756: provided a legal basis for the formal organizing of the Papal States, which instated papal historical rule over civil authorities. Justinian 527-565: (The great). During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire. Justinian Code 534: Corupus Iurus Civilis or the Justinian Code was the result of Emperor Justinian's desire that existing Roman law be collected into a simple and clear system of laws, or "code." Muhammad 570-632: The founder of the religion of Islam. He is considered by Muslims and Bah's to be a messenger and prophet of God, and by Muslims the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets. Islam 610: The monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God. Created by Muhammad. Quran 610: The central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God. Charles Martel 686 741: Charles the Hammer. He is remembered for winning the Battle of Tours in 732, in which he defeated an invading Moorish army and halted northward Islamic expansion in Western Europe. Alfred the great 849 - 899: Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, and by his death had become the dominant ruler in England. Alfred was a learned and merciful man who encouraged education and improved his kingdom's legal system and military structure.

Charlemagne 768 814: (Charles the great) King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in Rome. missi dominici (plural of missus dominicus) : Performed important intermediary functions between royal and local administrations. Charlemagne chose the first missus dominicus from his most trusted retainers. Carolingian Renaissance 8th 9th century: A period of intellectual and cultural resurgence in Europe with the peak of the activities coordinated during the reigns of the Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. Cluny Abbey 910: A Benedictine monastery, Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine. Cluniac reform movement: A series of changes within medieval monasticism of West focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor. Treaty of Verdun 843: A treaty between the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charlemagne, which divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms. It ended the three year long Carolingian Civil War.

Gothic architecture High-Late Medieval Period): Characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Scholasticism 1100-1500: A method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics (scholastics, or schoolmen) of medieval universities in Europe. St. Thomas Aquinas 1225 1274: An immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived as a reaction against, or as an agreement with, his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. Summa Theologica 1265-1274: The best-known work of Thomas Aquinas, It is intended as a manual for beginners in theology and a compendium of all of the main theological teachings of the Church. It is unfinished. The Battle of Hastings 1066: The battle marked the last successful foreign invasion of the British Isles. William the Conqueror 1066 1087: The first Norman King of England.

Domesday Book 1086: The record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales. Henry II 972 1024: The fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Ottonian dynasty.

Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122 -1204: One of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. King John 1166 1216: A revolt at the end of his reign led to the signing of the Magna Carta which laid down some guidelines for the Constitution of the United Kingdom. Magna Carta 1215: A charter in which laws were laid down. Edward I 1239 1307: Involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. Model Parliament 1295: A term used for the 1295 parliament first coined by Frederic William Maitland. Philip II Augustus 1165-1223 : The last king of the franks and the first king of France. Louis IX 1214 1270: King of France from 1226 until his death. Philip IV the Fair 1268-1314: King of France from 1285 until his death. Frederick Barbarossa 1122 1190: A German holy Roman Emperor. Frederick II 1194 1250: One of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. Enemy to the popes. Dynasty collapsed after his death. Pope Gregory VII 1028- 1085 : Known for playing a part in the Investiture Controversy/his dispute with Henry IV about the election of Popes by Cardinals. Also helped develop the relationship between popes and emperors. Henry IV 1050 1106: King of the Romans, and Holy Roman emperor until his abdication. Involved in the investiture controversy. Concordat of Worms 1122: An agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Henry V near the city of Worms, brought an end to the first power struggle between the papacy and the holy roman emperors. Pope Innocent III 1161 1216: One of the most powerful and influential popes in the history of the papacy. Convoked the Fourth Lateran Council. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 10001300). Rapidly increasing population in Europe. The Late Middle Ages was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th to the 16th century (c. 13001500). Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, such as the Great Famine of 13151317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Pope Boniface VIII 1235 -1303

Great Schism 1378 1417: A split within the catholic church when 2 men simultaneous claimed to be the true pope. Avignon Papacy 1309 - 1376: A time where the papacy was absent from Rome and instead resided in Avignon, France, in which 7 popes reigned. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 10001300) during which the population rapidly increased bringing great social and political change from the preceding era