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Warm-Up 12/13/11

If a population has the following genotype

frequencies AA = 0.42, Aa = 0.46, and aa =

0.12 what are the allele frequencies?

A = 0.42 a =0.12

A =0.6 a = 0.4

A = 0.65 a = 0.35

A = 0.76 a = 0.24

A = 0.88 a = 0.12

Chapter 21 Genes Within

Populations

21.1 Genes vary in natural populations

21.2 Why do allele frequencies change in populations? 21.3 Selection can act on traits affected by many genes.

Natural Selection

Natural Selection

18.1 MICROEVOLUTION

Population -- all the members of a single species

Evolution that occurs within a population = microevolution

Population genetics studies variations in gene pools

Evolution that occurs within a population = microevolution Population genetics – studies variations in gene pools

Gene pool total of all the alleles in the population

Alleles chromosome sections that code for specific proteins traits

Examples: Humans have alleles for

blue eyes / brown eyes /green eyes curly/straight hair blood type A / B / O / AB

Hardy-Weinberg Principle

Why do allele frequencies change in populations?

– They won’t as long as the following assumptions are

met.

The population size is very large

Random mating is occurring

No mutation takes place

No genes are input from other sources (no immigration takes place)

No selection occurs

Hardy-Weinberg Equation

(p + q) 2 = p2 + 2pq + q2

p2 = individuals homozygous for the dom allele

2pq = individuals heterozygous

q2 = individuals homozygous for the rec allele

5 Factors that alter proportions enough to deviate from Hardy-Weinburg

1. Mutation

2.

Gene Flow (immigration into and emigration

out of a population)

3.

Non-random mating

4.

Genetic drift (random change in allele

frequencies)

5.

Selection

1. Mutation

Generally so low that they DO NOT effect

Hardy-Weinburg

1 in 100,000 cells mutates

Ultimate source of genetic variation

2. Gene Flow

1) movement of alleles from one population to another, by

migration

2) Increases variation 3) Continued gene flow decreases diversity, gene pools

become more similar

4) Can prevent speciation from occurring

3) Continued gene flow decreases diversity, gene pools become more similar 4) Can prevent speciation from

Example of GENE FLOW

Each rat snake represents a separate population of snakes

These snake remain similar and can interbreed

This keeps their gene pools somewhat similar

They are considered subspecies

remain similar and can interbreed • This keeps their gene pools somewhat similar • They are

Figure 18.3

3. Nonrandom Mating

1. Nonrandom mating individuals of certain genotypes mate with one

another more commonly than would be expected on a random basis

2. Inbreeding is mating between relatives to a greater extent than by chance.

a. Inbreeding does not change the allele frequencies.

b. However, inbreeding decreases the proportion of heterozygotes.

a. Inbreeding does not change the allele frequencies. b. However, inbreeding decreases the proportion of heterozygotes.

3. Assortative mating occurs

when individuals mate with those

that have the same phenotype.

5. Sexual selection occurs when

males compete for the right to reproduce and the female selects males of a particular phenotype. (guppies, lions)

when males compete for the right to reproduce and the female selects males of a particular
when males compete for the right to reproduce and the female selects males of a particular

4. GENETIC DRIFT

In a small population

particular alleles change drastically by chance alone.

Occurs when founders start a new population or after a bottleneck

alleles change drastically by chance alone. • Occurs when founders start a new population or after

Bottleneck Effect caused by a severe reduction in

population, reduces overall diversity. Ex Cheetah

Bottleneck Effect – caused by a severe reduction in population, reduces overall diversity. Ex Cheetah

FOUNDER EFFECT

The founder effect is an example of genetic drift where rare alleles or combinations occur in higher frequency in a population isolated from

the general population.

Dwarfism in Amish communities

Polydactylism in Amish communities

in a population isolated from the general population. Dwarfism in Amish communities Polydactylism in Amish communities

5. Selection

Artificial Selection

Traits are selected

Natural Selection

Environment determines which individuals will

produce the most offspring

3 Conditions for Natural Selection

1. Variation must exist among individuals in a

population

2. Variation among individuals results in differences in the number of offspring surviving

in the next generation

3. Variation must be genetically inherited

Measuring Fitness

Fitness The number of surviving offspring left in

the next generation.

Most fit phenotype is assigned a fitness value of 1

Relative fitness compares the fitness of one phenotype to another

Frequency-Dependent Selection

The fitness of a phenotype depends on its

frequency within a population

Negative Frequency-Dependent

Rare phenotype is favored by selection

Promotes variation

Positive Frequency-Dependent

Common phenotype is favored by selection

Eliminates variation

Heterozygous Advantage

Heterozygous Advantage

Forms of Selection

1. Directional Selection

One phenotype is favored over another

Causes a shift in the overall appearance of the species

Ex: horses get larger

One phenotype is favored over another Causes a shift in the overall appearance of the species

2.

STABILIZING SELECTION

occurs when extreme phenotypes are eliminated and the intermediate phenotype is favored.

2. STABILIZING SELECTION occurs when extreme phenotypes are eliminated and the intermediate phenotype is favored.

Human babies have an average size

Too big and they can't get through birth canal

Too small and they have low

survivability

babies have an average size Too big and they can't get through birth canal Too small
babies have an average size Too big and they can't get through birth canal Too small
babies have an average size Too big and they can't get through birth canal Too small

DISRUPTIVE SELECTION -- occurs when extreme

phenotypes are favored and can lead to more than one distinct form.

-- occurs when extreme phenotypes are favored and can lead to more than one distinct form.

CAN LEAD TO SPECIATION

Imagine this scenario

Sleebos come in many sizes, the most common Sleebo is 4

inches long, but some can be 10 inches and others can be as

small as 1 inch.

island. Small sleebos are able to hide under rocks and avoid being eaten. Large sleebos are too big for the predator to eat.

A new predator is introduced to the Sleebo

What will happen to the Sleebo population?

are too big for the predator to eat. A new predator is introduced to the Sleebo

Types of Selection

Types of Selection

MACROEVOLUTION

MACROEVOLUTION • Evolutionary change above the species level • Speciation – the splitting of one species

Evolutionary change above the

species level

Speciation the splitting of one species into two or more species

speciation is the final result of

changes in gene pool

What is a Species?

A group of actually or potentially interbreeding

populations (isolated from other groups)

Gene flow can occur between populations of the same species

interbreeding populations (isolated from other groups) • Gene flow can occur between populations of the same

Hybrids occur when members of different species produce offspring

Lion + Tiger = Liger

Tiger + Lion = Tigon

Hybrids occur when members of different species produce offspring Lion + Tiger = Liger Tiger +
Hybrids occur when members of different species produce offspring Lion + Tiger = Liger Tiger +

Biochemical genetics uses DNA hybridization techniques to determine relatedness of organisms;

the phylogenetic species concept uses DNA/DNA

comparisons

Hyenas are now placed with the cat
Hyenas are now placed with the cat

family due to DNA sequencing.

SPECIATION

Flycatcher species

Empidonax minimus

Empidonax virescens

Empidonax tralli

What stops these species

from mating with each other?

Figure 18.10a

Figure 18.10b

Figure 18.10c

B. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATING MECHANISMS

PREZYGOTIC

Habitat Isolation

Temporal Isolation

Behavioral Isolation

Mechanical Isolation

Gamete isolation

• Temporal Isolation • Behavioral Isolation • Mechanical Isolation • Gamete isolation Damselfly penises
• Temporal Isolation • Behavioral Isolation • Mechanical Isolation • Gamete isolation Damselfly penises

Damselfly penises

B. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATING MECHANISMS

POSTZYGOTIC

Zygote mortality

Hybrid sterility

F2 fitness

B. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATING MECHANISMS POSTZYGOTIC • Zygote mortality • Hybrid sterility • F2 fitness

TEMPORAL ISOLATION

TEMPORAL ISOLATION

MODES OF SPECIATION

Allopatric Speciation

Populations

separated

geographically

Variations

accumulate

Reproductive isolation

separates the population

Populations separated geographically • Variations accumulate • Reproductive isolation • separates the population

SYMPATRIC SPECIATION

Sympatric speciation

would occur when

members of a single population develop a difference without

geographic isolation

Ex. Apple Maggot flies

choosing a particular type

of apple (Sympatric

Speciation)

Ex. Mate preference

geographic isolation Ex. Apple Maggot flies choosing a particular type of apple (Sympatric Speciation) Ex. Mate

Sympatric vs Allopatric

Sympatric vs Allopatric

ADAPTIVE RADIATION

A single ancestral species

become several different

species

ADAPTIVE RADIATION A single ancestral species become several different species

Speciation

Speciation
Speciation
Speciation

Evolutionary Pace

Evolutionary Pace

WORD ATTACK!

1.

Phyletic Speciation / Divergent Speciation

2.

Mechanical Incompatibility

3.

Gamete Incompatibility

4.

Hybrid Inviability

5.

Behavioral / Temporal / Habitat / Geographic Isolation

6.

Adaptive Radiation

7.

Fitness / Relative Fitness

8.

Premating Isolation / Postmating Isolation

9.

*Allopatric / Sympatric Speciation

10.

Disruptive / Directional / Stabilizing

Selection

11.

Polymorphism

12.

Sexual Selection / Nonrandom Mating / Assortive Mating

13.

Gene Pool / Gene Flow / Genetic Drift

14.

Microevolution / Macroevolution