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# Ans.1 Clearly, the capacitors are in parallel. Therefore, Ctot = C1 + C2 = 4F + 6F = 10F Charge on C1 = 4 x 10-6 F x 20 V = 8.0 x 10-5 C = 80 C.

## Charge on C2 = 6 x 10-6 F x 20 V = 12.0 x 10-5 C = 120 C. Total charge = 48 C + 72 C = 200 C.

Ans.2 The capacitors in series are connected one after the other in a row, back to back. In case of series capacitors, positive plate of one capacitor is attached to the negative plate of the successive capacitor. The distribution of charges from the battery results in equal charges appearing on each one of the capacitors connected in series. Also note that the sum of the potential difference across each capacitor is equal to the total potential difference. Therefore, V1 +V2 = V, which can be written in terms of charge as

## This further gives,

Ans.3 Here capacitors of 20 f and 20 f are joined in parallel, combined capacitance isC=20+20 =40 f. As C and C are in series, their resultant capacitance is 30 f, we have

## It has been clear that capacitors form wheatstone bridge arrangement. As

, hence bridge is balanced. (The point R and S are at the same potential) As no charge can accumulate on , which thus become ineffective.

Between P and Q two series combinations ( ) and ( ) are connected in parallel. If C and C are the equivalent capacitances of these combinations then,

Ans.5 In case of parallel arrangement, one end of all capacitors is attached to the same

junction and the other end of all capacitors is connected to each other at another junction. The potential difference is the same across each of them.

The charge on each capacitor will not necessarily be the same if they have different capacitances because while the charging of the capacitors, the charges developed across the capacitor plates will be proportional to the capacitance of each capacitor since q=C V and V is the same for capacitors in parallel. Now, for two capacitors in parallel, the total charge Q stored across an equivalent capacitor is divided between the two capacitors. Let the charges be Q 1 and Q2. Thus Q = Q1 + Q2 Then we can write

## since the potential difference or voltage V is the same across each

Hence, the equivalent capacitance of a set of capacitors in parallel is the sum of the individual capacitances.

Ans. 6 lets identify which capacitors are in series and which are in parallel. C2 and C3 are in series.

Their effective capacitance is Or So the circuit is rearranged and the equivalent network looks like,

Then, C1 and C23 are in parallel. , net capacitance = C123 =C1 + C23 = 200 pF C4 is now in series with C123. So the net equivalent capacitance will be,

Ans 7. Here Q=20 C= a. Electric Field at the centre of the sphere is zero, because intensity at any point inside a hollow sphere is always zero. b. Electric Field on the outer surface of the sphere is-

Ans. 8 Let us suppose that q is an isolated point charge situated at centre of sphere of radius

According to Coulombs law electric field intensity at every point on the surface of the sphere is

where

## is a unit vector directed from +q to the surface element.

Consider a small area element dS represented by vector Where is a unit vector along outdrawn normal to the area element.

## Integrating over closed surface area of the sphere, we get

Hence If there are point charges, Therefore = , each will contribute to the electric flux.

where Q=

Hence total electric flux over the closed surface S in vacuum is 1/ contained inside S.