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IMEKO 2002, Tampere, Finland

Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Machinery, Technical University of Aachen Abstract: Companies in the industrialised western nations mostly achieve an increase of their productivity by raising the energy input into their production plants. The extension of the power density introduced into a process, e.g. in the form of an increase of speed, bears the danger of induced process-disturbing oscillations. These oscillations heighten the wear of the plant and imprint themselves to an undue degree into the work piece, if the oscillations are carried out by the tool. Well known consequences are chatter-marks on rolled strip or felt markers on press parts of paper machines. To confront the growth of these difficulties the Institute for Mining and Metallurgical Machinery of the RWTH Aachen developed the vibration monitoring system MiDaS (R&D project, by Mannesmann Demag H ttentechnik MDS Walzwerktechnik). In addition to conventional systems for vibration measuring, MiDaS offers a wider range of on-line functions, which can be used as mobile or stationary measuring and monitoring devices. Moreover, as a monitoring system MiDaS can be integrated into the process control system of the machine to be monitored and thereby safeguard and document the machinery condition and the product quality. Keywords: machine monitoring, quality control, oscillation control INTRODUCTION The aim of rolling processes is to shape a work piece according to premeditated dimensions and to obtain particular material characteristics by means of plastic deformation. What happens when a work piece is rolled is that it is formed under compressive conditions between two or more rotating, rotationally symmetrical tools. Figure 1 schematically shows the construction of a quarto roll stand which is used for rolling strips.

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a quarto roll stand. The direction in which the strip is rolled is perpendicular to the plane of projection.

IMEKO 2002, Tampere, Finland

Rolling is the most important processing method for metal produced metallurgically by melting. Here, flat rolling plays a major part. A broad range of plates, strips, sheets and foils are produced in hot and cold-rolling mills. The demands made on quality assurance differ with the end product. Accuracy as to the thickness of sheets manufactured for the car industry or for lithographic purposes has to be within the range of mm; even the slightest irregularity of texture or surface roughness is prone to render entire strips useless. What forms a challenging task in this context is the process tolerance and quality standard required of rolling plants, which usually operate with several megawatt of power, rotating roll masses between 20 and 100 tons and rolling speeds of up to 2000 m/min. The response of rolling mill companies to international competition and global pressure towards a rise of productivity is above all an increase of the rolling speed. This is particularly true for cold-rolling mills in which steel and aluminium strips are manufactured. However, higher speeds increase the power density in the process as well as the plant's potential to react with vibrations. Under certain operating conditions, vibrations or spurious oscillations may occur, which again effect gauge chatter or chattermarks on the rolling stock. Gauge chatter are periodical faults in thickness or shape of the strip or regular shades on the surface of the strip aslant the rolling direction. Heavy vibrations of the roll stand may even cause ruptures of the strip.

Figure 2: (Selection of) strip faults in consequence of roll stand vibration

The analysis, monitoring and correction of strip imperfections caused by the vibration of roll stands is a separate field of research in rolling mill technology. The Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Machinery (IBH) has been studying the effects of vibration on rolling mills for several years. The IBH's main objectives in this fields of research and development have been the theoretical analysis and description of the phenomenon as well as the development of computer-aided monitoring systems, with which the product quality is continually monitored and assured. ROLL STAND VIBRATIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE STRIP QUALITY Roll stand vibrations effect the rolled strip, whenever the deforming contours of the work rolls move relative to the strip. Depending on the direction in which the work rolls move, faults occur at more or less regular intervals across the strip, perpendicular to the rolling direction [1], [2], [3] (see figure 3).

IMEKO 2002, Tampere, Finland

Figure 3: Degrees of vibration-free (a.) and possible strip errors (cross-section in lengthwise direction of the strip): thickness pincher (b.), shape pincher (c.) or periodical deformations of the surface structure (d.) (highly exaggerated presentation)

The strip errors shown in figure 3 rarely occur in such a pure form as presented here. A thickness pincher, for instance, requires an antiphase vibration of the lower half of the roll set against the upper half. However, on account of the different masses and spring rigidity of the two vibration systems, a frequency deviation and thus a dynamic error interpretation is likely. The strip shows a mixture of the strip errors presented. The amplitude and wave length of periodical strip faults depends on the vibration system and the vibration frequency. Two ranges of frequencies are differentiated in roll stands: vibrations vertical to the roll stand, roll stand-vibrations: torsional chatter, torsional vibration of the main drive [4]: gage chatter or third-octave chatter [5], [6]: roll chatter or fifth-octave chatter: 1 Hz up to 15 Hz 5 Hz up to 20 Hz 100 Hz up to 300 Hz 500 Hz or higher

In addition, a differentiation of interfering frequencies into those which are proportional to the speed and those which are not may help to describe the phenomenon of vibration and its manifestations [7], [8] (see figure 5). causes of speed-proportional incitations: material damaged by gage chatter polygonal roll shape (rotundity error) due to vibration of the roll grinding machine balance error and eccentricity of the rolls roll bearing and tooth error drive irregularities, e. g. due to displacement of shaft causes of speed-independent incitations: natural vibration of the roll stand fluctuation of front tension non-homogeneity of material slip effects (stick-slip) drive vibration (e. g. drive regulation) chatter marks due to excessive free motion (e. g. locking or hit)

IMEKO 2002, Tampere, Finland

Figure 5: Example of a speed-proportional vibration incitation: a. damage of a roll bearing; b. regular rotundity error of a roll barrel

The vibrations observed in rolling stands can also be classified in accordance with the different vibrational types known in physics: Free vibrations occur when a single trigger pulse affects oscillatory systems. As soon as the pulse has been triggered, the rolling stand or parts of it oscillate with their own natural frequency. Separately excited vibrations in rolling stands are in general the direct effect of deficient plant or process conditions or alternatively of plant damages, such as for instance when the roller lock, the roll bearings or the drive train have too much play. Self-starting oscillations [9] result from the interaction of various process parameters in connexion with the simultaneous supply of power to maintain the vibration process. What is known as the third-octave chatter of rolling stands, can be put down to self-excitation. Parametrically excited vibrations can be traced back to periodically changing system parameters (e. g. variation of controlled quantities). MONITORING OF ROLL STANDS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE In most cases, direct measures against the oscillation of roll stands cannot be taken, since the installation of vibration dampers is usually impossible for reasons of construction. Moreover, process parameters such as lubrication, front tension or rolling force can in most cases not be altered to a sufficient degree. Therefore, it must be guaranteed that plants are operating with roll speeds of which the oscillation level will not adversely affect the product quality. A vibration monitoring system for rolling mills was developed at IBH in close cooperation with industrial partners [10]. In contrast to common systems, the new device continuously monitors and analyses time and frequency of the vibration signals. The measured data and the results of the quality diagnosis are displayed online. To measure the vibration of the roll stand, two tri-axial, piezo-electric acceleration sensors are mounted on the bearings of the work rolls (built-in part) on the drive side. After an amplification and low-pass filtration, the signals are digitised and transmitted to a data processing unit and a computer. The result of the quality diagnosis is displayed online in the control unit. Figure 10 schematically shows the construction of the vibration measuring system.

IMEKO 2002, Tampere, Finland

Figure 10: construction of the vibration monitoring system for quality assurance in roll stands developed at IBH.

The monitoring system can be installed either stationary for a continuous quality assurance or as a mobile measuring device. For a permanent monitoring and documentation of the strip quality the system is imbedded in the control unit of the roll stand and it communicates bilaterally with the process control system. In the time and frequency spectrum, the following information on quality are extracted online from the measuring data:

information on the present strip quality as the true result of the diagnosis are displayed online in the control unit. Should the desired strip quality not be achieved, the system will suggest a modification of the rolling speed. These information facilitate a quality-oriented operation of the plant. - For each strip rolled a data record characterising the strip quality, also called fingerprint, is stored long-term in a data base. - The data measured before and after an irregular interference, for instance a strip rupture, are recorded and stored into an alarm archive. They are available for a later reconstruction of the occurrence. If the monitoring system is used as a measuring device, numerous means are available to process and graphically display the measured data in the time and frequency spectrum. The use of an efficient hardware to record and process data makes all the system's functions available in both online as well as offline mode. What is special about the system is the display of detected spurious oscillations as coloured frequency bands in the spectra of the vibration signals (static and speed-proportional). Thereby, analysis is considerably facilitated, since a direct assignment of measured excess amplitudes to known causes of excitation is possible. Moreover, the measured signals can be used for maintenance tasks, for instance the allocation of a measured spurious oscillation to a speed-related frequency strip in a kinematic roll bearing frequency.

IMEKO 2002, Tampere, Finland

The vibration monitoring system has already proven its efficiency in a range of European operational measurements and stationary installations. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Nessler, G. L.; Cory, J. F.: Identification of chatter sources in cold rolling mills. in: Iron and Steel Engineer, January 1993. Markworth, M.: Querwellen auf kaltgewalztem Band. in: Stahl und Eisen 114, Nr. 11, 1994. Verein Deutscher Eisenh ttenleute (Hgb.): Oberflchenfehler bei kaltgewalztem Bend und Blech. Verlag Stahleisen mbH, D sseldorf, 1967. Seeliger, A.; Koch, St.; Poschmann, M.: Gekoppelte Schwingungssimulation elektromechanischer Antriebe. in: VDI-Berichte number 1220, 1995. Hanl, K.: Untersuchung hochfrequenter St rschwingungen an schnell laufenden Kaltwalzanlagen. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Umformtechnische Schriften Band 28, Verlag Stahleisen, 1991. Hanl., K.: Eigenschaften von Brummerschwingungen an schnell laufenden Kaltwalzanlagen und Ma nahmen zu ihrer Verminderung. VDI-Berichte number 957, 1992 Mackel, J.; Asch, A.; Geropp, B.: unpublished reports, Institute for mining and metallurgical machinery, 1991-1996. Mackel, J.; Asch, A.; Seeliger, A.: Brummerschwingungen an Walzger sten vollkontinuierlicher Walzanlagen: Detektion, Verifikation, Vermeidung. in: VDI-Berichte number 1220, 1995. Pfeiffer, F.: Das Phnomen der selbsterregten Schwingungen. in: VDI-Berichte number 957, 1992. Lukmann, F.; Cerv, H.: Ein Anlagen berwachungssystem mit qualitts- und instandhaltungsbezogener Auswertung, Proceedings of AKIDA 96. Verlag der Augustinus Buchhandlung, Aachen, 1996.

Contact point: Prof. Dr.-Ing. A. Seeliger, Institut f r Bergwerks- und H ttenmaschinenkunde, RWTH Aachen, W llnerstr. 2, D-52056 Aachen, Germany, Phone Int +49 241 803845, Fax Int +49 241 8888 227 E-Mail: mogli@ibh.rwth-aachen.de