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Observer Based Position and Speed Estimation

of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

Bhim Singh, Senior Member IEEE, Prerna Gaur, Senior Member IEEE, and A.P.Mittal, Senior Member IEEE

maintenance. The use of speed sensors also compromised on

ruggedness and reliability of the drive. Hence, the control and
Abstract--This paper presents Position sensorless Interior operation of IPM drive without a rotor position sensor would
Permanent magnet synchronous motor drive using a discretized enhance its applicability to many sensitive applications and
Extended Kalman Filter algorithm (EKF) . An observer based
provide a backup control in sensor based drives during sensor
speed estimator which can be used for the state estimation of a
non linear dynamic system in real time is presented here. Speed failures [1]-[5]. It is possible to estimate the speed signal from
and position estimation of IPM is simulated using MATLAB and machine terminal voltages and currents using DSP. An
results of step variation in speed, load perturbation and flux observer based speed estimator which can be used for the state
weakening are presented to substantiate the proposed estimation estimation of a non linear dynamic system. The improved
of the speed. method of speed estimation uses a plant model and a feedback
loop with measured plant variables.
Index Terms-- Sensorless control, Extended Kalman Filter
algorithm (EKF). Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous II. MODEL OF IPM
Motor (IPM).
The dynamic model of PMSM motor can be written in state
I. INTRODUCTION space derivation form as [6].
pid = ( vd − Ri d + ω rL qi q ) L d
A MONG AC motors, the interior permanent magnet (1)
synchronous motor (IPM) has high power density and piq = ( v q − Riq − ω rL did − ω r λ f ) L q (2)
torque to inertia ratio that makes it the most popular candidate pω r = ( T e − T l − B ω r ) J (3)
for replacing DC motors for servo applications[1]-[12]. The pθ r = ω r (4)
IPM with sinusoidal flux distribution is preferred over the one
The electromagnetic torque (Te) is expressed as:
with trapezoidal flux distribution due to lower torque ripple. 3 p
In IPM based adjustable speed drives, two current sensors and Te = [λ f iq + ( L d − L q )id iq ] (5)
2 2
an absolute rotor position sensor are normally taken as its
integral part. An absolute rotor position is required for closed A. Sensorless Control Based on EKF
loop speed and position control in both vector and scalar
controlled drives of IPM. For an IPM the rotor position
information is fed back to the controller which generates the
stator voltages according to the rotor position. Hence the rotor
is always in synchronism with the rotating magnetic field, the
rotor and stator fluxes are always at right angles under normal
operating conditions, thus giving maximum torque. A speed
signal is also required in indirect vector control in whole speed
range, and in direct vector control for the low speed range,
including zero speed start up operation. However, position
sensors increase the size and are costly as compared to the
cost of low power motor, and also require regular
Fig. 1. Structure of EKF.
B. Singh is with Electrical Engineering department, IIT New Delhi-
110016, India. (e-mail: bhimsinghr@gmail.com). The block diagram of Kalman filter is shown in Fig.1. A
P. Gaur is with Instrumentation and control engineering Division, Netaji kalman filter provides an optimum observation from noisy
Subhas Institute of Technology. Dwarka, New Delhi-110075, India. (e- sensed signals (actual id and iq in case of IPM) and processes
A.P.Mittal is with Instrumentation and control engineering Division, Netaji
that are disturbed by random noise. This assumes that
Subhas Institute of Technology. , Dwarka, New Delhi-110075, India. (e-mail: measurement noise and disturbance noise are uncorrelated.
mittalap@yahoo.com) The Kaman filter approach is viable and computationally
0-7803-9772-X/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE efficient candidate for online estimation of the speed and rotor

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position. This is possible because a mathematical model pωr = 3∗ p((Ld − Lq )id ∗iq + λf ∗iq ) /(4∗J) −(B∗ωr +Tl ) / J (11)
describing the PM motor dynamics is sufficiently well known.
B. State Observer
The above equations contain the states id , iq , ω rm and θ rm ,
where the later two variables are estimated. The dynamic
model of the machine in state variable form can be expressed
dX and (12)
= f ( X ) + BU
Y = CX (13)
Where X = [id iq ω mr θ mr ] is the state vector,
U = [ v d v q ] is the input vector, Y= [ i d i q ] T is the

output vector, and the matrices f ( X ) and B are parameter

Fig. 2. Phasor diagram corresponding to an error between the actual and matrices and C is a constant matrix. The stator phase voltages
assumed rotor position.
in dq rotor frame can be expressed in terms of their abc-
reference frame values. If one can measure the motor phase
The rotor position can be determined based on measured current ia, ib, ic then those can also be transformed to rotor
voltages and currents. The Consider that motor is running at a reference dq frame, in the similar way as for voltages. The
speed ωr whereas the model starts with an assumed rotor speed state equation of the motor is given in (12). This state equation
ωrm. The assumed rotor position θrm lags behind the actual can be used for the design of state observer. Now if one wants
rotor position θr by δθ radians. As shown in Fig.2. they are to estimate the only some of the state
related to the actual and assumed or model speed as follows:
variables say [id iq ]T then the standard form of the state

θ r = ω r dt (6)
observer equation is given by:
θ rm = ∫ ω rm dt (7) d(X )
= f ( X , V ) + G ( Iˆ − I ) (14)
δθ = θ r − θ rm = ∫ (ω r − ω rm ) dt (8)
V is the estimated input vector and is equal to [v d v q ] . It is
obtained by transforming the phase voltage (va,, vb, vc) into
rotor reference frame using the estimated rotor position, not
the actual rotor position. The phase voltages are measured
from the terminals of the motor. I = [id iq ] , obtained by
transforming the measured value of phase current ( ia, ib, ic)
into rotor reference frame using the estimated rotor
position. Iˆ = [iˆd iˆq ] , is the estimated value obtained by the
solution of (14). In (14), G is the observer gain matrix, which
is the result of tuning the system in such a way, that (14)
becomes stable.G matrix can be given as:
 g11 g 12 
  (15)
G =  g 21 g 22 
Fig. 3. Block diagram for sensorless control of IPM. g g 3 2 
 31
The line diagram in Fig.3 shows the observer based speed
estimation block. The machine model is utilized to compute Using this matrix, the matrix equation (14), can be expressed
the stator currents. Substituting value of Te in (3) the state in detail as:
equations can be expressed purely in terms of state variables. R ω r Lq 1
pi d = − id + iq + v d + g 11 ( iˆd − i d ) (16)
Thus one can achieve the state equations as given below: L d L L d d

R L q iq 1 + g 12 ( iˆq − i q )
pi d = − id + ω rm Sin θ rm + Vd (9)
Ld Ld Ld ω r Ld (− R ) −λf 1
pi q = − id + iq + ωr + vq
Ld −R λ 1 Lq Lq Lq Lq (17)
piq = −ω r id + iq + f ωr Cosθ rm + Vq (10)
Lq Lq Lq Lq + g 21 ( iˆq − i q )

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p ω r = 3 ∗ P (( L d − L q )i d ∗ i q + λ f ∗ i q ) /( 4 ∗ J )
− ( B ∗ ω r + Tl ) / J + g 31 (iˆd − i d ) + g 32 ( iˆq − i q ) (18)

+ g 32 ( iˆq − i q )
In any motor the electrical time constant is much smaller than
the mechanical time constant, that is electrical sub dynamics
are much as faster as compared to that of mechanical. So any
error in electrical quantities can be used as feedback to rectify
the estimated values of both electrical and mechanical
quantities. This is the basic concept used in the observer
model defined by (16), (17) and (18).


An observer block for sensorless control of IPM is developed
in MATLAB. Three phase voltages and currents are taken as
input to the observer. Using Kalman filter and (14) to (18) the
Fig. 5. Three phase to two phase converter block.
observer block is simulated. The flux weakening block is also
added in the model to run the IPM motor above the base speed The Three phase to two phase converter block as shown in
[7], [8]. Fig.5.is used for the above purpose.
B. Speed Estimation Block block.

Fig. 6. Speed estimation block.

Fig. 4. MATLAB model of the observer based IPM drive.
The speed estimation block as shown in Fig.6 is developed
In order to get desired output voltage and current the IGBT using (18) in which g31 and g32 are the gains which need to be
based inverter of Fig.4 is triggered with the help of pulses that determined by hit and trial method to achieve the desired
are generated using PWM techniques at 16 kHz. Estimated estimation of speed and the angle.
angle and estimated speed are calculated using gain matrix of
(15) and are the output of the observer block which in turn are IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
fed back to the PI speed controller of the model in order to Simulation tests have been carried out in MATLAB in
minimize the speed error and to run the motor at the desired order to evaluate the theoretical behavior of the proposed
reference speed. The value of id is zero on or below the base sensorless control scheme such as starting performance, speed
speed. The flux weakening block is developed to get different
reversal , step change in load torque , step change in speed and
values of id in order to achieve the speed higher than the rated
flux weakening etc[11],[12]. The simulation of observer
speed. There are speed estimation and position estimation
block inside the observer block of the model. based sensorless drive system has been developed and
implemented including a 2kW, 3 phases, 4 pole IPM
A. Three Phase to Two Phase Converter block. synchronous motor with a rotor inertia of 0.0001278 kgm2
The input to the observer are three phase voltages and currents damping of 9.4 × 10 -5 Nm/rad/sec and a 16 kHz current
id and iq .The three phase voltages Va ,Vb and Vc are first regulated PWM inverter[9],[10]. To see the response of the
converted in Vd an Vq to be utilized using (16),(17) and (18)in drive for wide range of speed, the motor was made to run at
simulation. half speed, at rated speed and above the rated speed.

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A. Response of Speed Reversal To see the performance of the motor from half of the base
The motor was run at 340 rad/sec i.e. approximately at half of speed to the base speed, the step variation in speed from
the base speed. The response of the reversal of speed from 340 340rad/sec to the speed of 750 rad/sec.is applied. The settling
rad/sec to -340 rad/sec in 0.0125 sec is satisfactory and load time from the speed of 340 rad/sec. to 750 rad/sec. is 0.02 sec
perturbation of 1Nm to 2 Nm at 0.06 sec is achieved and the performance in this duration is satisfactory. The load
perturbation of 1 Nm to 2 Nm at 0.06 sec to 1.0 sec is
achieved at the constant speed of 340 rad/sec according to
Fig.8. There is negligible error between actual and estimated
angle .
C. Response of Flux Weakening
To see the response of the motor up to the base speed in
starting and then in flux weakening i.e. above the base speed,
the reference speed was applied in step of 700 rad/sec(near
base speed) to 1400 rad / sec. (near double the base speed), at
starting and at 0.08 sec respectively.

Fig.7. Simulated response of speed reversal and step variation in load.

at constant speed of 340 rad/sec The fig. also show the torque,
estimated and actual speeds, estimated and actual angles.
There is negligible error between actual and estimated speeds
and angle. The motor attains the speed of 340 rad/sec.in 0.016
sec. and it takes 0.014 sec in reversing the speed. A small dip
in speed at load perturbation at 0.06 to 0.1 sec. is seen in the
B. Response of step change in speed

Fig.9. Simulated response of step variation in speed with flux weakening.

The motor reaches the base speed in 0.04 sec. hence a smooth
start up to the base speed is seen according to the Fig.9. The
response of the flux weakening with constant speed of 1400
rad./sec is also achieved in 0.04 sec. as shown in Fig.9.The
frequency increases as the speed is increasing. The error
between actual angle and the estimated angle is negligible.

The developed sensorless algorithm for IPM drive has been
found quite suitable to provide satisfactory performance for a
wide speed range during steady state and dynamic operating
conditions such as step response, load perturbation, starting
performance and reversal of speed. The proposed sensorless
technique can also be used successfully in flux weakening
mode for speeds above the base speeds of the IPM
synchronous motor. Hence the proposed scheme can be
utilized successfully for eliminating the speed sensor.
Fig. 8. Simulated response of step variation in speed and load.

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VI. APPENDIX [9] B. K. Bose, “A High Performance Inverter Fed Drive System of an
Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor”, IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications, Vol. 24, No.6, , pp 987-997, Nov./Dec. 1988.
MOTOR PARAMETERS [10] J. P. Verster and J. H. R. Enslin, “Practical Design Approach for PWM
Rated speed 780(rad/sec) Technique Controllers in the Application of Permanent Magnet
Permanent magnet synchronous motor parameters Synchronous Machine (PMSM) Drives”, CD-324, Fourth International
Type IPMSM Conference on Power and Variable Speed Drives,17-19 July 1990,
Motor rating 2 HP London, UK. , pp 40-45.
Number of phases 3 [11] R. Krishnan and R. Gosh, “starting algorithm for permanent magnet
Number of poles 4 brush less DC -motor drive with no position sensor”, in Proc. of IEEE
Base current 8 Amp Power Electronics Specialist Conference, 1989.
Rated voltage 240 V [12] Jainhua Quain and M. A. Rahman, “Analysis of Field Oriented Control
Stator resistance per phase 1.22 ohm for Permanent Magnet Hystersis Synchronous Motors”, IEEE
Stator flux linkages per phase due to rotor magnet Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 29, No.6, pp 1156-1163,
0.1432V/ (rad/sec) Nov./Dec. 1993.
Moment of inertia 0.001278Kg/m2
Viscous coefficient 0.000094Nm/
d-axis inductance 11.5 mH LIST OF SYMBOLS
q-axis inductance 9.5 mH Symbol Quantity Unit
Phase voltages of stator winding Volt
Va , Vb , Vc
λ a , λb , Flux linkages of phases a, b, c Volt/(rad/sec)

[1] M. A. Rahman and T. A. Little and G. R. Slemon, “Analytical Models λc

for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors”, IEEE ia, ib, ic Phase current of stator winding Ampere
Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. Mag-21, No.5, pp 1741-1743. Sept.
1985. λf Stator flux linkage due to permanent

[2] Eike Ritcher, T. J. E. Miller and T. W. Neuman and T. L. Hudson , “The R Stator resistance per phase Ohm
Ferrite Permanent Magnet AC Motors – A Technical and Economical
Assesment ”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, VOL. 1A-21, P Number of poles
NO.4, PP 640-650,May/June 1985, ωr Rotor speed radian/second
[3] Peter Vas, “Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control”, Oxford Te Electromagnetic torque Newton-meter
University Press, 1998.
[4] Bimal K. Bose, “Modern Power Electronics and AC-Drives”, Pearson P Differentia operator d/dt
Education Asia, Low Price Edition (LPE), 2003. d-axis and q-axis voltage Volt
[5] A.Consoli, G.Scarcella and A.Testa, “Industry Application of Zero- Vd , Vq
Speed Sensorless Control Technique for PMSM,” IEEE Trans. Ind. App.
Vol. 37, No. 2, pp 513-159 March/April 2001
id, iq d-axis and q-axis current Amperes
[6] M. A. Rahman and T. A. Little, “Dynamic Performance Analysis of λd , λq d-axis and q-axis flux Volt/(rad/sec)
Permanent Magnet Motors”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus linkages
and Systems, Vol. PAS-103, No.6, June 1984, pp 1277-1282.
[7] P. K. HO. AND C. K. LEE, “Modeling and Simulation of a Permanent Ld, Lq d-axis and q-axis inductances Henry
Magnet Synchronous Motor Under the Flux-weakening Control”,IEEE
Transactions on Industry Applications,VOL.34,no.4, pp 462-
DC-link voltage Volt
Thomas M. Jahns, “Flux Weakening Regime Operation of an Interior
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive”, IEEE Transactions on Kg/meter2
Industry Applications, Vol. 1A-23, No.4, pp 681-689 July/Aug. 1987.
J moment of inertia

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