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SICE Annual Conference 2008

August 20-22, 2008, The University Electro-Communications, Japan

Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor Using Sliding Mode Observer


with Variable Boundary Layer
Min Yeong Jang, Bong Su Jang, Jun Ik Jeong, Yong Hun Park, and Young Ahn Kwon
School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea
(Tel : +82-51-510-2372; E-mail: yawkwon@pusan.ac.kr)

Abstract: The vector control in the speed and torque controlled ac drive is typically implemented through measuring
the rotor speed or position. However, speed and position sensors require the additional mounting space, reduce the
reliability in harsh environments and increase the cost of a motor. Therefore, many studies have been performed for the
elimination of speed and position sensors. This paper investigates an improved sliding mode observer for the speed
sensorless control of an induction motor. The proposed control strategy is the sliding mode observer with a variable
boundary layer for a low-chattering and fast-response control. zmulation and experimentation have been performed to
verify the proposed control algorithm.

Keywords: induction motor, sensorless control, sliding mode observer

1. INTRODUCTION

The vector control in the speed and torque controlled ωe


ac drive is widely used for a high performance
application. The vector control of an induction motor is
typically implemented through measuring the rotor bs θ sl
speed or position. However, speed and position sensors qs βs ωr
ds
require the additional mounting space, reduce the θe
reliability in harsh environments and increase the cost of ar
a motor. Various control algorithms for the elimination θr
of speed and position sensors have been proposed[1-5]:
algorithms using state equations, model reference αs as
adaptive systems (MRASs), Luenberger or Kalman-
filter observers, saliency effects, sliding mode controls,
artificial intelligences, direct controls of torque and flux,
and the current error correction. Most sensorless cs
algorithms are based on the flux and speed estimations
which are obtained from the voltage equations, and so Fig. 1 The real, stationary and synchronously rotating
they are sensitive to the electrical and mechanical reference axes
parameters. This paper investigates an improved sliding
mode observer for the speed sensorless control of an ª Ȝ abcs º ª L s L sr º ªi abcs º
induction motor. The sliding mode control is typically « »=« T »« » (2)
robust to the plant parameter variation and system ¬Ȝ abcr ¼ ¬(L sr ) L r ¼ ¬i abcr ¼
disturbance[6,7]. However, a sliding mode control has a where ( f abcs )T = [ f as f bs f cs ] ,
chattering problem due to the control discontinuity and
switching action. The proposed sliding mode control in ( f abcr )T = [ f ar f br f cr ] ,
this paper is using the sliding mode observer with a
variable boundary layer for a low-chattering and R s = diag[ R s Rs Rs ] ,
fast-response control. The proposed algorithm is R r = diag[ Rr Rr Rr ] ,
verified through the simulation and experimentation.
‫ڍ ڌ‬

‫ڍ ڌڍ ڌ‬

ª º
«L ls + L ms − L ms − L ms »
‫ڍ ڌڍ ڌ‬

2. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF « »
INDUCTION MOTOR Ls = « − L ms L ls + L ms − L ms » ,
‫ڍ ڌ ڍ ڌ‬

« »
« »
Fig. 1 shows the real, stationary and synchronously «¬ − L ms − L ms L ls + L ms »
rotating axes of a 3-phase symmetrical induction motor. ¼
‫ڍ ڌڍ ڌ‬

The voltage and flux equations in the real axes may be ª º


expressed as «L lr + L ms − L ms − L ms »
‫ڍ ڌڍ ڌ‬

« »
Lr = « − L ms Llr + L ms − L ms » ,
ª v abcs º ªR s + pL s pL sr º ªi abcs º
‫ڍ ڌ‬

« »
« »=« T »« » (1) « »
¬ v abcr ¼ ¬ p(L sr ) R r + pL r ¼ ¬i abcr ¼
«¬ − L ms − L ms L lr + L ms »
¼

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ª 2ʌ 2ʌ º d ωm
« cos ș r cos (ș r + ) cos (ș r − ) » T=J + Dωm + TL (21)
3 3 dt
« 2ʌ 2ʌ »
L sr = Lms «cos (ș r − ) cos ș r cos (ș r + )» where J is the inertia coefficient and D is the friction
« 3 3 »
« 2ʌ 2ʌ » coefficient, ω m is the mechanical speed of the rotor,
«cos (ș r + 3 ) cos (ș r − 3 ) cos ș r » and TL is the load torque.
¬ ¼

3. IMPROVED SLIDING MODE OBSERVER


From (1) - (2), α - and β - axis voltage and flux FOR SENSORLESS INDUCTION MOTOR
equations in the stationary reference frame fixed to the
stator may be expressed as This paper proposes a novel sensorless control
algorithm based on the sliding mode observer. In
general the sliding mode observer for a motor control is
vαs = R s i αs + pλαs (3)
implemented through the error between the measured
v βs = Rs i βs + pλβs (4) and estimated currents[8-10]. In an induction motor, the
error between the measured and estimated currents is
0 = Rr iαr + pλαr + ωr λβr (5) used to construct sliding mode surfaces so that after
0 = Rr i βr + pλβr − ωr λαr (6) sliding mode happens, the estimated fluxes are driven to
converge to real ones exponentially.
λαs = Lls iαs + Lm (iαs + iαr ) = Ls iαs + Lm iαr (7) From (3) - (10), the state equations of the sliding
λβs = Lls i βs + Lm (iβs + iβr ) = Ls i βs + Lm iβr (8) mode observer in the stationary reference frame may be
expressed as
λαr = Llr iαr + Lm (iαs + iαr ) = Lr iαr + Lm iαs (9)
λβr = Llr i βr + Lm (i βs + i βr ) = Lr i βr + Lm iβs (10) d xˆ
= A xˆ + B v + K u ( i − ˆi ) (22)
dt s s s
3 dθ r
where L m = L ms , ω r = . ˆi = C xˆ
2 dt (23)
s

From (1) - (2), d - and q - axis voltage equations in Ȝˆ = D xˆ (24)


r
the reference frame with the synchronously rotating where ^ means the estimated value, K is the switching
speed of ω e may be expressed as gain, u is switching function, and

v ds = R s i ds + pλ ds − ω e λ qs (11) ªi º ªi º ªλ º
Įs Įr » ªvα s º
x=« s », i = « », Ȝ = « , v =« »,
v qs = Rs iqs + pλds + ωe λds (12) «¬Ȝ r »¼ s «¬i ȕs »¼ r «λ » s « vβ s »
¬ ȕr ¼ ¬ ¼
0 = Rr idr + pλdr − (ωe − ωr )λqr (13)
‫ڌ‬

0 = Rr iqr + pλqr + (ωe − ωr )λdr (14) ªA A º § R −σ · ª1 0º


A = « 11 12 » , A = − ¨¨ s + ¸ « »,
¸
«¬A 21 A 22 »¼ 11
λds = Lls ids + Lm (ids + idr ) = Ls ids + Lm idr (15) ©σ Ls σ Tr ¹ ¬0 1¼
λqs = Lls iqs + Lm (iqs + iqr ) = Ls iqs + Lm iqr (17)
L ª 1/ Tr ωr º L ª1 0 º
A = m « » , A 21 = m « » ,
λdr = Llr idr + Lm (ids + idr ) = Lr idr + Lm ids (18) 12 σ L L ¬ − ωr 1/ Tr ¼ Tr ¬0 1¼
s r

λqr = Llr iqr + Lm (iqs + iqr ) = Lr iqr + Lm iqs (19)


ª− 1 / Tr − ω r º L2m L
A
22
=« » , σ = 1 − , Tr = r ,
The electromagnetic torque in the synchronously ¬ ω r − 1 / Tr ¼ L s Lr Rr
rotating speed reference frame may be expressed as
ªB º 1 ª 1 0º ª0 0º
B = « 1» , B = « » , B =« »,
3 P Lm «¬B2 »¼ 1 σL ¬ 0 1 ¼ 2 ¬0 0¼
Te = (λdr iqs − λqr ids ) (20) s
2 2 Lr
ª1 0 0 0º ª0 0 1 0º
where P is the number of poles. C=« » , D=« ».
¬0 1 0 0¼ ¬0 0 0 1¼

The mechanical equation of a motor may be expressed


The proposed sliding mode control in this paper is
as using the sliding mode observer with a variable

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boundary layer for a low-chattering and fast-response Fig. 4 (a), (b) and (c) show the speed responses in the
control. Fig. 2 shows the variable boundary layer of the speed commands of 20rpm, 50rpm and 800rpm and in
proposed sliding mode observer. the no load.

φ φ 30
200rpm 50rpm

u 200rpm u 20

Speed [rpm]
Variable
10
Boundary
layer
Real Speed
0
u 50rpm 30
0 1 2 3 4 5

s
20

Speed [rpm]
10

Estimated Speed
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time [sec]
G
(a)
Fig. 2 Control input with a variable boundary layer

The rotor speed is estimated from the currents and 50

fluxes obtained in (22) as follows:

Speed [rpm]
25

ω r = K p (k 1 sgn(iˆαs − iαs )λˆβr − k 2 sgn(iˆβs − i βs )λˆαr ) Real Speed


(25)
0
0 1 2 3 4 5

+ K i ³ (k 1 sgn(iˆαs − iαs )λˆ βr − k 2 sgn(iˆβs − i βs )λˆαr ) dt 50


Speed [rpm]

The overall system of the proposed sensorless control


25

algorithm is shown in Fig. 3. 0


Estimated Speed
0 1 2 3 4 5

Time [sec]
ids* PI
νds να s Space
G
ω r* iqs* νqs
Vector
Rotation
νβs Vector Vdc (b)
PI PI PWM

θe
iqs iαs 800
Vector
Speed [rpm]

ids Rotation

400

iβs
ωr Proposed 0
Real Speed
IM 0 1 2 3 4 5
SMO
 800
Speed [rpm]

400
Fig. 3 Configuration of the overall system
Estimated Speed
0
0 1 2 3 4 5

4. SIMULATION Time [sec]


G
(c)
The simulation has been performed to verify the
proposed control algorithm applied to a sensorless Fig. 4 Speed responses in the speed command of
induction motor. Table 1 shows the specification of the (a) 20 rpm (b) 50 rpm (c) 800 rpm
induction motor used in the simulation and
experimentation. As shown in Fig. 4, the proposed sensorless control
algorithm has good speed responses in the low and high
speeds.
Table 1 Motor specification
Fig. 5(a) and Fig. 5(b) are the simulation results
obtained for the comparison with the sliding mode
Rated Power 3 hp Rr 1.5 Ω
control algorithm without variable boundary layer in
Rated Voltage 220 V Ls 245 mH case of considering the parameter variation. Fig. 5(a)
and Fig. 5(b) show the speed responses in case the rotor
Pole Numbers 4 Lr 247 mH
winding resistance is increased by 30% of the nominal
Rs 2.7 Ω Lm 236 mH value and the load torque of 6Nm is applied in the
middle of the operation of 200rpm. As shown in the

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figures the proposed sensorless control algorithm has an
improved and robust performance.
50

Speed [rpm]
300
25
Speed [rpm]

200 Real Speed


0
0 1 2 3 4 5

Real Speed 50
100

Speed [rpm]
4 6 8 10 12 14
300

25
Speed [rpm]

200 Estimated Speed


0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time [sec]
100
Estimated Speed
G
4 6 8
Time [sec]
10 12 14
(b)G
G
(a)
800

Speed [rpm]
300

400
Speed [rpm]

200 Real Speed


0
0 1 2 3 4 5

Real Speed 800


100 Speed [rpm]
4 6 8 10 12 14
300

400
Speed [rpm]

200 Estimated Speed


0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time [sec]
100
Estimated Speed G
4 6 8 10 12 14 (c)G
Time [sec]
G Fig. 6 Experimental speed responses in the speed
(b)G command of
Fig. 5 Speed response in the rotor resistance increased (a)20 rpm (b) 50 rpm (c) 800 rpm
by 30% with the load variation (200rpm, 0ൺ6Nm) G
The proposed sensorless control algorithm has good
(a) without variable boundary layer
speed responses in the low and high speeds same as the
(b) with variable boundary layer
simulation result.
Fig. 7 is the experimental result obtained for the
5. EXPERIMENTS AND DISCUSSIONS comparison with the sliding mode control without
variable boundary layer in case that the rotor resistance
The experimentation has been performed to verify the
is increased by 30% of the nominal value, and the load
proposed algorithm applied to a sensorless induction
torque 6Nm is applied in the middle of the operation of
motor. The Intel-Pentium microprocessor system is used
the speed command 200rpm.
for the digital processing of the proposed algorithm.
As shown in the experimental results, the proposed
Fig. 6 (a), (b) and (c) show the experimental speed
sensorless control algorithm has an improved and robust
responses in the speed commands of 20rpm, 50rpm and
performance.G
800rpm and in the no load.
300
30
Speed [rpm]

20
Speed [rpm]

200

10

Real Speed
Real Speed 100
0 4 6 8 10 12 14
0 1 2 3 4 5 300
30
Speed [rpm]

20
Speed [rpm]

200

10

Estimated Speed
Estimated Speed 100
0 4 6 8 10 12 14
0 1 2 3 4 5
Time [sec]
Time [sec]
G G
(a) (a)

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the proposed algorithm shows a better performance in
300 the parameter variation compared to the conventional
algorithm.
Speed [rpm]

200

REFERENCES
Real Speed
100
300
4 6 8 10 12 14 [1] Edited by K. Rajashekara, A. Kawamura, and K.
Matsuse, Sensorless Control of AC Motor Drives,
IEEE Press, 1996.
Speed [rpm]

[2] J. Holtz, " Sensorless control of induction motor


200

drives," Proc. IEEE, vol.90, pp.1359–1394, Aug.


Estimated Speed
100
4 6 8 10 12 14
2002.
Time [sec] [3] P. Vas, Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque
G Control, Oxford Univ. Press, 1998.
(b)G
[4] Y. A. Kwon and S. H. Kim, “New scheme for
Fig. 7 Experimental speed response in the rotor speed-sensorless control of induction motor‚” IEEE
resistance increased by 30% with the load variation Trans. Ind. Electr., vol.51, pp.545-550, June 2004.
(200rpm, 0ൺ6Nm) [5] Z. Yan and V. Utkin, “Sliding mode observers for
electric machines- an overview,” IEEE Proc IECON,
(a) without variable boundary layer
pp.1842-1847, 2002.
(b) with variable boundary layer
[6] J. J. Slotine, "Sliding Controller Design for
Nonlinear Systems," Int. J. Contr., Vol. 40, No. 2,
6. CONCLUSIONS pp.421-434, 1984.
[7] V. Utkin, J. Guldner and J. Shi, Sliding Mode
This paper proposed a novel speed sensorless control Control in Electromechanical Systems, Taylor and
algorithm of an induction motor based on the sliding Francis, 1999.
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implemented through the error between the measured C. Cortizo, "Speed control of permanent magnet
and estimated currents. The error between the measured motors using sliding mode observers for induced
and estimated currents is used to construct sliding mode
EMF position and speed estimation," IEEE Proc
surfaces so that after sliding mode happens, the
IECON, pp.1023-1028, 1995.
estimated fluxes are driven to converge to real ones [9] F. Parasiliti, R. Petrella, and M. Tursini, “Adaptive
exponentially. The proposed sliding mode control in this sliding mode observer for speed sensorless control
paper is using the sliding mode observer with a variable of induction motors,” IEEE IAS Annual Meeting, pp.
boundary layer for a low-chattering and fast-response 2277-2283, 1999.
control. [10] J. Li, L. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “An adaptive sliding
The simulation and experimental results indicate that mode observer for induction motor sensorless speed
the proposed algorithm shows good speed responses in control,” IEEE IAS Annual Meeting, pp.1329-1334,
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