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Torque Sensorless Control of Induction Motor

Karel Jezernik* and Miran Rodiþ+


*
University of Maribor / FERI, Maribor, Slovenia, karel.jezernik@uni-mb.si
+
University of Maribor / FERI, Maribor, Slovenia, miran.rodic@uni-mb.si

Abstract- In this paper the torque and speed sensorless machine parameters and external disturbances. For both,
induction motor (IM) control is presented. The main idea controller and observer, there are used nonlinear control
consists in utilizing the best qualities of the both nonlinear principles, namely estimated EMF and machine terminal
structures of the motor observer and the current controller.
Motor observer is based on flux error between modeled and voltage built a nonlinear feedforward control, sliding
measured quantities. In addition, the rotor flux observer is mode principle based on state variable errors are used as
using combination of the feedforward and feedback terms in feedback to guarantee stability of control system. The
order to enhance the sensitivity of the observer. Torque and proposed method is investigated and verified in hardware
stator current control as well as the rotor flux observer are in the loop simulation experimentally.
based on the sliding mode theory, which results in high
degree of robustness towards parameters variation and the II. DYNAMIC MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTOR
external disturbances. Proposed control scheme is
implemented on DSP system extended with FPGA where A. Machine Dynamics
event-driven current controlled modulator is realized. DSP Control of induction motor (IM) is still a challenging
serves for time discrete speed control and observer, while problem due to its nonlinear dynamics, limited possibility
time critical current control is implemented on FPGA. to measure or estimate necessary state variables and
Results demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed presence of the switching converter with its own
estimation and control method.
nonlinearity as a power modulator in control loop. The
Keywords—sliding mode control, sensorless control, dynamics of IM consist of mechanical motion (4),
induction motor dynamics of stator electromagnetic system (1) and the
dynamics of the rotor electromagnetic system (2):
I. INTRODUCTION diss 1 § s s Lm dȌ rs ·
¨ us  Rs is  ¸, (1)
Recent theoretical advances in the field of hybrid and dt V Ls © Lr dt ¹
discrete event-systems, and significant increase of the d < rs Lm s ª Rr ª1 0º ª 0 1º º s
computational power available for the control of the Rr is  «  « 0 1»  pZr «1 0 » » Ȍ r , (2)
dt Lr ¬ Lr ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼¼
power electronic systems are inviting both the control and
the power electronics communities to adopt traditional 2 Lm s s
Te p Ȍ r u is , (3)
control schemes associated with power electronics 3 Lr
applications. In order to raise the performance and d Zr 1
efficiency of the drive applications, faster and more Te  TL , (4)
dt J
sophisticated current control schemes are required. The
conventional current control scheme consisting of where Zr is mechanical rotor angle speed, the two
T
discrete-time current controller and pulse-width dimensional complex space vectors Ȍ s ¬ª < sa  < sb ¼º ,
T T T
modulator is replaced with the new sequential switching Ȍ r ¬ª < ra , < rb ¼º , us ¬ª usa , usb ¼º , is ¬ªisa , isb ¼º are
current control strategy. Inherent switching operation of stator and rotor flux, stator voltage and current,
the three phase bridge requires adopted control principles. respectively, Te is motor torque, TL is load torque, J is
Hysteresis controllers can be a good alternative for such
inertia of the rotor and p is the number of pole pairs.
applications. They are robust to system parameter One of the most important issues in implementing direct
variations, exhibit very good dynamics, require simple torque control (DTC) or field oriented control (FOC)
implementation and enable direct control of the bridge strategies for IM is to obtain real-time instantaneous flux
transistors without special modulators. Their main level and orientation with sufficient accuracy for the entire
drawback is a limited control of transistor switching speed range, from almost standstill to high speed level. The
frequency. [1],[2]. difficulty in flux estimation lies with the non-linear
In this paper by combining the variable structure induction machine model, which is characterized by speed
system and Lyapunov design [3] a novel sliding mode dependent and time varying parameters. In order to
algorithm of controller/observer for induction motor is
illustrate this non-linear behavior of IM control let us
developed. This control method is based on estimation of express the derivation of developed electrical torque of IM
the rotor flux and speed of IM and is due to use of sliding from (3). This yields for torque variation:
mode principle robust against variation of load torque,

2283
978-1-4244-1742-1/08/$25.00 
c 2008 IEEE

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dTe § Rs R · 2 p Lm ­ ĭ ı  īsign ı
¨  r ¸ Te
dt © V Ls V Lr ¹ 3 V Ls Lr
Ȍr u us  pZr Ȍ s • Ȍr ,(5) V ıT ĭ ı  0 Ÿ ® , (9)
¯ĭ ı  Dı ; D ! 0
where u indicates cross product and • indicates dot where ī is diagonal or matrix with predominant T
product. It can be recognized from (5), that torque diagonal, sign ı ª¬ sign V 1 , ˜˜˜, sign Vm º¼ and D is
variation is the sum of two terms. The first term depends positive definite matrix.
on the stator (Rs) and rotor (Rr) resistance and reduces the If vector function ĭ ı is selected to be
absolute value of the torque (Te). The second term ĭ ı  īsign ı then resulting control will be
represents the effect of the applied control voltage vector discontinuous and manifold (7) will be reached in finite
( us ) on the torque and is dependent on the operating time. If ĭ ı is selected as ĭ ı  Dı ; D ! 0 then
condition of IM. It can be noted that some switching resulting control is expected to be continuous and sliding
voltage vectors may cause positive torque variation at mode manifold will be reached in infinite time. The
low dynamic EMF value and negative torque variation at asymptotic stability of the solution ı ı x r , x 0 will
high value of back induced voltage. be guarantied in this case.
The crucial point in control of IM is to make the Both solutions will be applied to the electrical motor
electromagnetic torque and the flux of IM independently control. Implementing multiple loop control of a drive,
controllable. Similarly to torque variation, the rotor flux most of computational time is denoted to the inner
variation can be described from (1) and (2) as: current control loop calculation and generation of space
d Lr 1 § dis · vectors for proper drive current signal. For this time
Ȍr ¨ Ȍr • us  Rs is • Ȍr  V Ls • Ȍs ¸ . (6) critical operation of current control, the FPGA
dt Lm Ȍr © dt ¹
implementation for new event-driven current controlled
The variation of the rotor flux is determined with the modulator (EDCCM) based on discontinuous control
dot product between rotor flux and applied input voltage ĭ ı  īsign ı of current error will be used.
vector and depends mostly on stator parameters Continuous sliding mode control in form
variation Rs , V Ls . Both torque and flux variations are ĭ ı  Dı ; D ! 0 will be implemented in rotor flux
highly nonlinear in applied control voltage us regarding observer. The continuous control function will then be
IM rotor flux of machine Ȍ r . The conventional control 1
u(t ) uequ  GB ı , (10)
method of IM is based in case of FOC on Tsimplification
T
of rotor flux components Ȍ r ª¬ < rd  < rq º¼ > < rd , 0@ . where uequ is continuous function [5]. For
The DTC method replaces the IM coupling with implementation the approximation of error function
hysteresis control. ı x r , x will be written in discrete time form after
In real IM control rotor flux in q-axis will not be zero applying Euler's approximation
and FOC method is due variations of mostly parameters, ı (( k  1)Ts )  ı ( kTs )
GB ueq ( kTs )  u( kTs ) (11)
inappropriate in sensorless drives applications. The DTC Ts
method is in principle speed sensorless, but due to use of Here Ts is the sampling time and k Z  . By
voltage stator model of IM and approximation of stator discretizing (10) and combining it with (11) one can
resistance Rs ~ 0 in the flux model, current and torque eliminate the ueq ( kTs ) from (10) and arrive to the
variation by low speed are slightly higher then in case of following discrete time version of the control (10)
nominal speed [4][5]. 1
uk uk 1  GBTs DT
s  I ık  ı k 1 . (12)
B. Control Procedure
Proposed algorithm ensures the sliding mode existence
The design of sliding mode system consists generally in manifold (7) and thus ensures the robustness of the
of two procedures: design of the switching surface and closed loop system behavior against external disturbance
design of the sliding mode controller [5]. The switching and the parameters’ changes. The control algorithm (12)
surface is designed to obtain a design performance for the has a feedforward term expressed by uk 1 and feedback
system output variables. In VSS control, the goal is to term determined with control error dynamics and will be
keep the system motion on the manifold S , which is used in speed controller of IM.
defined as:
S ^ y : V y, t G y` 0; V y d  y , (7) III. PROPOSED VSC TORQUE AND FLUX CONTROL
d
SCHEME
where y , y are state variables of desired and estimated
value and ı is control error. A. An Event Driven Induction Motor Current Control
The sliding mode control [5] should be chosen such Consider an IM together with the voltage source
that the candidate Lyapunov function satisfies the inverter (Fig. 1). Based on the transistor switch pattern,
Lyapunov stability criteria. This can be assured for instantaneous control input is determined and thus a
V ı T ı / 2 ! 0 and V ı T ı  0, ı ĭ(ı ) . (8) distinctive structure of the IM as dynamical system is
There can be many different ways of selecting function determined. Applying proper switching among possible
ĭ ı . For the application in electrical drive control two values, the system can be forced to follow desired
particular forms may be of interest: transitions among possible structures and thus exhibit

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­ DC link voltage
°
Protection ® Load current
° Powerstage Temperatur e
¯

Enable
Steering Enable
Reset
d
i
d RESE
P4 P1 ­Tr1
Z d isd ı u °
°Tr 2 Tr1 Tr3 Tr5

T5&T6
dq

T1&T2
T8
T4 °°Tr 3 U DC
d ab ® IM
 i
q  ı T ı  0 °Tr 4
Ȍr is T7 °Tr 5 Tr 2 Tr 4 Tr 6
P3 P2 °
°¯Tr 6
Sect T3

Observer is
us
State Petri Net is
us ^
DSP / FPGA
Fig. 1. Block diagram of event-driven sliding mode control of IM.

desired motion [7]. This allows application of the control. v0 , v7 are two zero vectors, while v2 , v6 are
discrete-event driven approach [8], [9] to the IM control two nearest adjacent live output voltage vectors to this .
system. Each transistor switch pattern is considered as With the use of the discrete event system theory, four
discrete state of the system and the change of the output voltage vectors v0 , v7 , v2 and v6 are recognized
transistor switch pattern is considered as a transition of
as discrete states of the system.
the system among discrete states. The transition of the
discrete system among discrete states can be considered
as occurrence of an event. To control the transitions of
V3 V2
the system among the discrete states, some additional Sect 3 Sect 2
3 2 3 2
conditions are introduced. The switching matrix plays the 4 0 0 1
role of switching elements determining the power 0 0 0 0
exchange between energy storage elements, introducing
change in the structure of the system and has making 3 0 3 2 Us 0 2
design in the framework of switching control a natural V4 4 0 4 1 0 1 V1
choice. The aim of this paper is to present an application Sect 4 5 0 5 6 0 6 Sect 1
of switching control in switching power inverters which
0 0 0 0
is embedded in FPGAs environment.
4 0 0 1
Considering the drive current error as conditions for Sect 5 5 6 5 6 Sect 6
the transitions, a discontinuous current control is
achieved which is fast, robust and simple for V5 V6
implementation. To achieve safe and manageable drive Fig. 2. Stator voltage VS sector allocation.
operation, monitoring and protection functions should be
included. They are event-driven inherently, as they react
on the change of logic conditions. Space vector The design of the current control system involves the
representation of the inverter output voltages vi (i=0,..,7) selection of the transition between system structures such
actual and in stationary frames of coordinates, are that the desired tracking of the motor current is obtained.
depicted in Fig. 2. The inverter output voltage vectors are The transition involves the selection of the appropriate
stationary while the stator voltage vector is rotating with output voltage vectors and thus it is very suitable for the
the stator frequency. Six active switching vectors of the application of the sliding mode framework. By defining
three phase transistor inverter result in six output voltage current loop control error as ıi isd  is where isd , is are
vectors denoted v1 … v6 and the zero vector denoted v7 desired and actual stator current of motor. The selection
or v0 depending on the connection of the switches. of the voltage vector that will ensure the stability of the
According to the signs of the projection of the stator current tracking can be realized by analyzing the
voltage Us on the phase voltages ports us1 , us 2 and us 3 , derivative of the candidate Lyapunov function.
1 T 1 T
the phase plane is divided into six sectors denoted Sect 1 V ı ı = isd  is isd  is , (13)
2 2
… Sect 6. When the stator voltage vector is in particular
Derivatives of current control error may be expressed as
sector a subset of inverter vectors is selected for the
d d
realization of the control. In Fig. 2, the stator voltage
dt
is  is dtd isd  L1 us  Rs is  er , (14)
space vector us is in sector 1. In this sector voltage s

vectors v0 , v7 , v2 and v6 are selected for the IM current where us is voltage control input, Rs is is resistive

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voltage drop and er is EMF of the motor. Rewriting (16) Boolean matrices C, S, F and R. The recursive, matrix-
in the flux oriented frame of references it is easy to prove based formalism for description of event-driven systems
that the selection of the control inputs as discontinuous and algorithms is illustrated in Fig. 4 and the
control having sign opposite to the sign of the corresponding equations are denoted by:
corresponding current error guaranty the tracking of the ªT1 º ª P1 º
desired current. The actual implementation of such « » «P »
ª SR º T
« 2» m « 2» ªTr1 º
algorithm requires that one determine the changes of the «S » «T3 » « P3 » «Tr »
« S » « 2»
ON OFF state of the inverter switches. The mapping of « » « »
« ST » T ¬ P ¼ «Tr »
the control from the rotor flux vector oriented frame of u « « »4
», x « »,
4
, y « 3» , (17)
references to the stationary frame of references may be « sign( u s 1 ) » T5 ª 1 º « Tr4 »
« » «0»
done by projecting the errors in the current loop to the «sign(us 2 ) » «T6 » «Tr5 »
orts of the phase vectors as depicted by the following « » m « » « »
sign( u ) «T » 0
¬ s3 ¼
« 7»
« 0 » ¬Tr6 ¼
relations: « »
«¬T8 »¼ 0
¬ ¼
S R 1  sign( A) / 2, S S 1  sign( B ) / 2,
(15)
ST 1  sign(C ) / 2 u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 P1 P2 P3 P4
where T1 ª 1 x x 1 0 0º T1 ª0 1 0 0º
A i d
sa  isa T2
« x x 0 1 0 0»
« »
T2
«0
«
1 0 0»
»
B  i  isa / 2  3 isbd  isb / 2 ,
d
(16) T3 « x 1 0 1 0 0» T3 «0 0 1 0»
sa « » « »
C T4
« 0 x 1 1 0 0» , S T4
«0 0 0 1» ,
C  isad  isa / 2  3 isbd  isb / 2 T5 « 1 x x 1 0 0» T5 «0 0 1 0»
« » « »
Notice that if SR, SS, ST equal to zero simultaneously, no T6 « x x 0 1 0 0» T6 «0 0 1 0»
current is delivered to the motor. T7 « 1 0 x 1 0 0» T7 «0 1 0 0»
« » « »
B. Petri Net Discrete-event Based Controller T8 «¬ 0 x 1 1 0 0»¼ T8 «¬1 0 1 0»¼ (18)
P1 P2 P3 P4
Events represent allowed transition among the discrete
states i.e. allowed switching. The structure of the T1 ª1 0 0 0º P1 P2 P3 P4
«1 0 0 0»
proposed strategy is represented by Petri Net graph (Fig. T2
« »
Tr1 ª0 1 1 1º
3) [10],[11]. T3 «0 1 0 0» Tr 2
«0 1 0 1»
« » « »
F T4
«0 0 1 0» , R Tr 3 «0 0 1 1»
P3
«0 « »
T5 0 0 1» Tr 4
«1 0 0 0»
T5 V1 « »
T6 «0 0 0 1» Tr 5 «1 0 1 0»
«0 « »
T7 0 1 0» Tr 6 ¬1 1 0 0¼
T6 « »
T8 «¬ 0 1 0 0»¼
P4 T3

V7 T4
T7 uc ( k ) C u u ( k ) , (19)
x(k ) F u m( k ) & uc , (20)
T8
m( k  1) m( k )  M T x ( k ) , (21)
v0 y( k ) R u m ( k ) . (22)
T1 V6
P1
P2

T2

Fig. 3. PN-graph of the switching sequence in Sector 1.

The PN-graph from Fig. 3 can be described in the


matrix based recursive form. The proposed design has
inputs u, events x, discrete states m and outputs y denoted
by logical vectors. m denotes initial discrete state. Their
0

components take values 0 and 1, where 1 means that the


appropriate input is set, an event has occurred, the state is Fig. 4. Recursive description of event driven systems.
active or output is set, while 0 means the opposite. The
Inputs u denotes switching conditions SR, SS, ST of the
structure of the DES, describing the relations among the
Lyapunov stability criteria and signs of the drive stator
particular variables u, x, m and y is denoted using

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phase voltages us1 , us 2 and us 3 , where sign(x) = 1 torque variation of the IM, expressed by the variation of
denotes positive and sign(x) = 0 negative values. Events x the rotor flux and torque:
denote conditions for occurrence of transitions among 1 t Td
up ³ +Te d W, +Te Vm ed . (27)
discrete states. Discrete states m correspond to the J 0 Ȍr
appropriate output voltage vectors and outputs y denote The switching function of the VSC orientation controller
the transistor gate signals for the generation of C p takes into account the torque variation:
corresponding output voltage vectors (Fig. 4).
Proposed algorithm ensures the current tracking. The dVp
 D p V p 0, V p +Te sign Zˆ Ted . (28)
components of the reference current are generated by the dt
outer loop controllers (flux and torque/velocity The source of the connection between the torque error
controllers) and the reference current vector can be then and the rotor flux error is the influence of the stator
written as: resistance error, when the torque is applied. The discrete
ˆ
Ȍ form of the orientation correction signal becomes:
r 3 Lr Ted
isd j . (23) Kp
Lm ˆ
2 p Lm Ȍ C p : u p (k ) u p ( k  1)  1  T D V (k )  V (k  1) (29)
r s p p p
Ts
IV. ROTOR FLUX OBSERVER Correction input signals, influence the magnitude and
orientation of the magnetic flux error, make the proposed
This rotor flux observer, is based on the stator
observer robust to the parameter uncertainties variations.
equation, where the derivative of the estimated stator flux The resulting diagram of both, an amplitude and phase-
is calculated from measured stator voltage and current. controlled, variable frequency two phase oscillator is
The observer equation (24) represents the first order shown in Fig. 5, which is suitable for providing the
vectorial differential equation. The stator voltage us and estimated stator and rotor fluxes of the IM.
current is serve as control input to the estimated stator
flux Ȍ ˆ . The measured value of the stator voltage is used u sa  R̂ i sa
s s

instead of the commonly used reference voltage, in order VL̂s


 ˆ
to avoid voltage error influence due to power-stage non- Lr
< ra

linear behavior: ˆ 
Lm
< r
d ˆ ˆ u  ju . ˆ
Ȍ s uˆ s  Rˆ s is  uˆk , uˆk Ȍ r m p (24) um Cm

Cp up
< r
dt
Non-modeled dynamic is set as a remaining signal uˆk , <rd
Lr
calculated from the magnitude error of the rotor flux Lm
 ˆ
<
'Ȍ r . VL̂s
rb

The stator parameters of the IM appear in the rotor flux u sb


 R̂ s i sb
observer; i.e. stator resistance Rˆ s and stator
Fig. 5. Block diagram of rotor flux observer.
inductance Lˆ . The influence of the stator inductance
s
variation is small, but stator resistance changes
The estimated synchronous speed will be now
significantly during the operation. The variation of the
expressed with cross product:
stator resistance 'Rˆ impacts on the estimated rotor flux
s ˆ
1 dȌ ˆ .
and, due to this, on the variation of the IM's torque. Zˆs 2
s
uȌ s (30)
ˆ
Ȍ dt
The influence of the rotor flux variation's magnitude is s

compensated by introducing a non-linear magnitude and The estimated speed is computed entirely from the
orientation feedback compensator in the observer. The estimated torque, rotor flux and it's time derivative:
switching function of the VSC flux magnitude controller ˆ
Cm is set to the error between the reference and Ȍˆ u dȌ r
ˆ
dt  2 Rr Te .
r
Zˆr (31)
estimated rotor flux magnitude: ˆ
2
3 p 2
ˆ
2
p Ȍr Ȍr
d Vm ˆ .
 Dm Vm 0, Vm Ȍ dr  Ȍ r (25) The resulting estimated speed is subjected to high
dt
The discrete part of the resulting unknown offset voltage noise levels due to the derivative term that can be reduced
um is: by employing low pass filters.

Km V. RESULTS
Cm : um ( k )
Ts
1  T D V
s m m ( k )  Vm ( k  1) . (26)
The simulation program in Matlab/Simulink
environment of the sensorless sliding mode IM control
The variation of the stator resistance 'Rˆ s impacts to the
was developed. The sliding mode torque and flux

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2288 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 2008)

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