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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.

380315-T

EFFECTIVE STRENGTH TESTS


PRACTICAL TESTS REQUIREMENT
BY WONG KIM YUEN

10/17/2008

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

CONTENT
Effective strength tests References Samples Duration Equipment Calibration

10/17/2008

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

EFFECTIVE STRENGTH TESTS


The two routine compression tests with pore water pressure (pwp) measurements are:

CU Consolidated Undrained Triaxial CD Consolidated Drained Triaxial


What is the I in CIU and CID?

10/17/2008

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

What is the I in CIU and CID?


The I is the abbrev for Isotropic
Terminology:
Isotropic The value of permeability in the horizontal direction is the same as in the vertical direction Isotropic Consolidation - consolidation due to the application of three equal principal stresses, i.e., 1 = 2 = 3
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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

Test Description:

CU Triaxial - The sample is allowed to saturate and consolidated under the applied confining and back pressures prior to the start of the test. The volume change is monitored by measuring the water and/or air expelled during the saturation to consolidation stage. Once consolidation is completed, the sample is then isolated from the back pressure and no drainage is permitted during the shearing test. The calculated rate of strain can be as slow as 0.032mm/min to measure the pore water pressures and stresses. From a set of tests on 3 specimens, Mohr circles of effective stress and total stress at failure can be plotted. The effective cohesion and effective shear angle values can also be determined.
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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

Test Description:
The sample is allowed to saturate and consolidated under the applied confining and back pressures prior to the start of the test. The volume change is monitored by measuring the water and/or air expelled during the saturation to consolidation stage. Once consolidation is completed, the back pressure remains connected to the sample and drainage is permitted during the shearing test at sufficiently slow strain rates to avoid the development of excess pore pressures. The calculated rate of strain can be as slow as 0.015mm/min to measure the pore water pressures, stresses and volume changes. From a set of tests on 3 specimens, Mohr circles of effective stress and total stress at failure can be plotted. The effective cohesion and effective shear angle values can also be determined.
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CD Triaxial -

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

References
Test Standard For CU - BS1377:1990: Part 8, Method 7 For CD - BS1377:1990: Part 8, Method 8 Publications
Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing, Vol. 3 by KH Head Soil Technicians Handbook by KH Head The Measurement of Soil Properties in Triaxial Test by AW Bishop & DJ Henkel
10/17/2008 Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement 7

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

SAMPLES
Preparation of test samples is dependant on three important factors:

Sampling Techniques Size of Test Sample Sample Condition

10/17/2008

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
Test samples are obtained from specified sampling techniques such as:

Undisturbed Samples Reconstituted Compacted Samples

10/17/2008

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

Undisturbed Samples
60mm sampler (mild or stainless steel tube) 72mm piston sampler (stainless steel tube) 72mm Mazier sampler (pvc)
Block sampling

Reconstituted Compacted Samples


Disturbed soil from bulk sampling compacted in split mould to specified moisture and density in relation to predetermined MDD and OMC
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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

SIZE OF TEST SAMPLE


Diameter x Length, mm 38x76, 50x100, 70x140 or 72x144 Min.preparation length for Undisturbed Samples 38mm = 100mm or 300mm for 3 specimens 50mm = 125mm or 375mm for 3 specimens 70mm = 165mm or 495mm for 3 specimens 72mm = 170mm or 510mm for 3 specimens
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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

SAMPLE CONDITION
The portion available for test specimens is particularly important when considering the representative condition of undisturbed samples. Field log recovery length is subject to laboratory observations as follows:

Sampling disturbance Actual representative length for tests


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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

DURATION
The duration of tests is determined by specific requirements and procedures as follows:

Requirement

Sample Size - 38, 50 or 70 Undrained or Drained CU or CD


Procedure

Saturation & consolidation properties of soils Different rates of strain for CU and CD
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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

INDICATIVE DURATION
For a CU Triaxial Test at a Stain Rate of 0.032 mm/min and shearing 3 specimens at the same time
Sample Size, mm 38 50 70 DURATION
10/17/2008

Saturation and Consolidation 24 to 48 hr 24 to 48 hr 24 to 48 hr 1 to 2 DAYS

Percentage of Strain and approximate Failure Time 5% 2 hr 2.5 hr 4 hr 10% 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 15% 6 hr 7.5 hr 12 hr 1 DAY
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20% 8 hr 10 hr 16 hr

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

INDICATIVE DURATION
For a CD Triaxial Test at a Stain Rate of 0.015 mm/min and shearing 3 specimens at the same time
Sample Size, mm 38 50 70 DURATION
10/17/2008

Saturation and Consolidation 24 to 48 hr 24 to 48 hr 24 to 48 hr 1 to 2 DAYS

Percentage of Strain and approximate Failure Time 5% 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10% 8 hr 10 hr 16 hr 15% 12 hr 15 hr 24 hr 20% 16 hr 20 hr 32 hr

1 to 2 DAYS
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Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

EQUIPMENT
Description of triaxial test equipment and ancillary systems

3 No. 70mm Triaxial Cells (for samples size


ranging 38mm, 50mm and 70mm; with working pressures up to 1,700 kPa)

Accessories (for the 3 different sample sizes) Pressure System (continuous constant pressure
control of 0 to 1,700 kPa fully variable. For 3 specimens concurrent testing - 3 Lines for Cell Pressures and 3 Lines for Back Pressures)
10/17/2008 Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement 16

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

EQUIPMENT
Description of triaxial test equipment and ancillary systems

Modular Pressure Panel System

(with 200mm Test Gauge of 1,700 kPa capacity, 10 kPa div., control valves and pipework)

2 No. 1,000 kPa capacity and 1 No. 1,700 kPa capacity, with 1 kPa accuracy)

4-Channel Pore Pressure Readout 3 No. Pore Pressure Transducers (preferably

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Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

EQUIPMENT
Description of triaxial test equipment and ancillary systems

3 No. Twin-burette Volume Change Units


capacity per burette x 0.2ml accuracy) capacities) 0.01mm per div.)

(100ml

3 Sets Load Rings ( 3 No. for each 1 kN , 2 kN and 4.5 kN 3 No. Deformation Dial Gauges (25 mm travel at 3 No. 10kN compression Load Frame (for
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concurrent shearing of 3 specimens)


10/17/2008

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

EQUIPMENT
Catalogue references of triaxial test equipment and ancillary systems can be obtained from the following:

ELE International Ltd (http://www.eleint.co.uk) Wykeham Farrance Eng. Ltd


(http://www.wfi.co.uk)

GDS Instruments Ltd

(http://www.gdsinst.com)

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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

CALIBRATION
Suggested maximum intervals between routine checks and full calibrations of triaxial test equipment (Reference K.H.Head)
Equipment Dial gauges Load rings Press.Transducer Test gauge Elec.Readout unit
10/17/2008

Routine Check before use Free movement Correct operation Direction of movement (+ or -) Zero reading Monthly

Full Calibration 2 years 2 years 1 year 6 months 1 year 20

Vol. Change gauge Interface meniscus

Effective Strength Tests - Practical Tests Requirement

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SOILPRO TECHNICAL SERVICES SDN BHD http://www.soilpro.com.my Co.No.380315-T

CALIBRATIONS
Intervals between calibrations may be subject to national standards recommendation or specification. The new ISO17025 General requirements for the competence of calibrating and testing laboratories, allows flexibility in the calibration interval by having the calibration due open dated, that is, Calibration Certificates must not contain recommendations of calibration interval except when agreed upon with client.

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