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# MSA 1 Revision Package 2012 Solutions

## Chapter 1: Partial Fractions, Surds, Indices, Trigonometry Solutions

1
(a)
2
3 1 3 1
2 1 (2 1)( 1)
x x
x x x x
+ +

+
=
2 1 1
A B
x x
+
+
Using Cover-Up Rule,
1
3( ) 1
1
2
1
3
1
2
A
+

,
3(1) 1 4
2(1) 1 3
B
+

+
.
2
3 1 1 1 4
2 1 3 2 1 1
x
x x x x
+
_
+

+
,
(b)
2
2 2
2 5 15
(2 )(1 2 ) 2 1 2
x x A Bx C
x x x x
+ + +
+
+ +
Using Cover-Up Rule,
2
2
2 5(2) 15(2)
1 2(2)
A
+ +

+
= 8.
2 2
2 5 15 (1 2 ) ( )(2 ) x x A x Bx C x + + + + +
0: 2 2 3 x A C C +
: 5 2 1 x B C B
2
2 2
2 5 15 8 3
(2 )(1 2 ) 2 1 2
x x x
x x x x
+ +
+
+ +
(c)
2
2 2
2 1
(1 ) 1
x x A B C
x x x x x
+
+ +

Using Cover-Up Rule,
2
2
2(1) 1 1
2
1
C
+

2 2
2 1 (1 ) x x Ax B x Cx + + +
1
0
:1
: 1 0
x B
x A B A

2
2 2
2 1 1 2
(1 ) 1
x x
x x x x
+
+

(d)
2
3 23 45 14 45
3
( 3) ( 3)
14 45
( 3) 3
x x x
x x x x
x A B
x x x x
+ + +
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
Using Cover-Up Rule,
45 14( 3) 45
15, 1
3 3
A B
+

2
3 23 45 15 1
3
( 3) 3
x x
x x x x
+ +
+
+ +
.
(e)
3
3 2
2 2
2 16
2
8 ( 2)( 2 4)
( 2)( 2 4) 2 2 4
x x x
x x x x
x A Bx C
x x x x x x

+ +
+
+
+ + + +
Using Cover-Up Rule,
2
2
2
3
3 2
2 1
2 2(2) 4 6
( 2 4) ( )( 2)
1
0: 0 4 2 2
3
1
: 0
6
2 16 1 1 2
2
8 6 2 2 4
A
x A x x Bx C x
x A C C A
x A B B A
x x x
x x x x

+ +
+ + + +

+

_
+

+ +
,
(f)
2
3
2 2 2 2 2
3 2
3
2
0
3
2 2 2 2 2
3 1
( 1) 1 ( 1)
3 1 ( )( 1)
: 3
: 0
: 0 3
:1 1
3 1 3 1 3
( 1) 1 ( 1)
x Ax B Cx D
x x x
x Ax B x Cx D
x A
x B
x A C C
x B D D
x x x
x x x
+ + +
+
+ + +
+ + + + +

+
+
+
+
+ + +
2 is obtuse, so cos and tan are both negative.
(a)
1 sin cos
2 2
+

1 cos
2 2
+ x
2 2
1 cos x

2
1 cos x
(b)
2
1
cos
sin
tan
x
x

(c)
2
1 2
cos sin 2 2 sin
x x

(d)
2
2 2
2 2
2 1
1
sin cos 2 cos
x
x x

3(a)
( ) ( )
( )
4
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
_ _
+

, ,
+

3
3(b)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
10 51 10 51
10 51 2 10 51 10 51 10 51
20 2 10 51 10 51
20 2 (100 51)
6
1
+
1
]
+ + +
+

3(c)
1
125 175 28
20
1
5 5 5 7 2 7
2 5
1
5 5 3 7 5
10
51
5 3 7
10
+ +
+ +
+ +
+
4
2 5 2 2 5 2 5 2
5 2 5 2 5 2
10 10 2 10 2
5 2
12 3 10
3
4 10
+ + +

+
+ + +

+
g
4, 10 a b
4
Chapter 2: Binomial Expansion Solutions
1 [NJC/2006/CT/1]
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
5 1
f
1 2 1 2
( 2) 5( 2) 1
By cover-up rule, 1.
( 2) 1
5 1 ( )( 2) ( 1)
Compare coeff. of
: 1 1 2.
: 5 2 5 4 1.
5 1 2 1 1
.
1 2 1 2
x x Ax B C
x
x x x x
C
x x Ax B x x
x A A
x A B B
x x x
x x x x
+ + +
+
+ + + +
+ +

+
+ + + + +

+
+ + +

+ + + +
2 1 1 1
2
2 3
2
2 3
3 2
2 3
2 1 1
f ( ) (2 1)(1 ) 2 (1 )
1 2 2
1 ( 1)( 2) ( 1)( 2)( 3)
(2 1)(1 ...) (1 ...)
2 2 2! 2 3! 2
1
( 2 2 1) 1
2 2 4 8
1 9 9 31
.
2 4 8 16
x x
x x x
x x
x x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x

+
+ + +
+ +
_ _
+ + + + +

, ,
_
+ + +

,
+
2
Validity : 1 and 1
2
1 and 2
1 1 1
x
x
x x
x x
< <
< <
< < <
2 [ACJC/2006/CT/3]

3
3
3
x
x
+

=
1
3
1
3
1
3
x
x
_
+

,
=
1 1
3 3
1 1
3 3
x x

_ _
+

, ,
=
2 2
1 1 1 2
1 1
9 81 9 81
x x x x
_ _
+ + + + +

, ,
L L
5

2
2 2
1
9 81
x x + +
Valid for 1
3
x
< 3 3 3 x x < < <
Substitute
1
3
x

3
1
3
3
1
3
3
+

=
3
3
10
10
3
8
8
3

3
10
2

2
2 1 2 1 785
1
9 3 81 3 729
_ _
+ +

, ,
3
785 1570
10 2
729 729
_

,
3 [CJC/2006/CT/8]
(a)
= +
x + 4 = A(x
2
+ 4) + (Bx + C)(x + 1)
Let x = 1: 3 = 5A A =
Let x = 0: 4 = + C C =
Compare coeff of x
2
:
0 = + B B =

= +
(b)
= (4 x)
1/2
= 4
1/2
(1 )
1/2
= [1+ ( )( ) + ( )
2
+ ...]
= (1 + + + ...)
= + + x
2
+ ...
Expansion valid for 1 < < 1
6
4 < x < 4
Let x = 1:
+ +

4 [TJC/2006/CT/2]
x 9
= 3
( ) ( )
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

,
_

...
9 ! 2 9 2
1
1 3
9
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
x x x

= ...
216
1
6
1
3 ...
648
1
18
1
1 3
2 2
+

,
_

+ x x x x
Let x =
3
2

2
3
2
216
1
3
2
6
1
3
3
2
9

,
_

,
_

1403
2430
1403
486
5 3
486
1403
3
25

,
_

or
810
1403
486
1403
.
5
3
3
486
1403
3
3 5

5 [HCI/2006/CT/8]
(i)
( )
2
2
1
1 3
1 1 ... 1 ...
2.1 4 32
m
m m
x x x
m x x
a a a

_ _ _
+ + + + + +

, , ,
So solve
1
4
m
a
______(1) and
( )
2
1
3
2 32
m m
a

_____(2)
to obtain 2 a and
1
2
m
Expansion valid for 2 2 2 x x < < < .
(ii) Fourth term
( ) ( )
3
3
1 2
5
...
3.2.1 128
m m m
x
x
a

_

,
.
(iii)
7
The expansion to first four terms is
1
2
2 3
1 3 5
1 1
2 4 32 128
x
x x x

_
+ +

,
Substitute
2
17
x to get
1
2 3
2
1 1 2 3 2 5 2
1 1
17 4 17 32 17 128 17

_ _ _ _
+

, , , ,

1
2
16
1.030773
17
17
1.030773
4
17 4 1.030773 4.12

Alternatively, substitute
1
8
x to get
1
2 3
2
1 1 1 3 1 5 1
1 1
16 4 8 32 8 128 8

_ _ _ _
+ +

, , , ,

1
2
17
0.97014
16
4
0.97014
17
4
17 4.12
0.97014

6 [JJC/2006/FE/6]
2
2
4 3 2
f ( )
(2 1)( 1)
x x
x
x x

+
2
2 1 1 ( 1)
A B C
x x x
+ +
+ +
Multiply throughout with
2
(2 1)( 1) x x + ,
2 2
4 3 2 ( 1) (2 1)( 1) (2 1) x x A x B x x C x + + + + [M1]
Put 0.5 x , 2 A .
Put 1 x , 1 C . [A1.5]
Put 0 x , 1 B .
Hence
2
2
4 3 2
f ( )
(2 1)( 1)
x x
x
x x

+
2
2 1 1
2 1 1 ( 1) x x x
+
+ +
. [A0.5]
8
1 1 2
1 1 2
2(2 1) ( 1) ( 1)
2(1 2 ) (1 ) (1 )
y x x x
x x x

+ + +
+ + +
[M0.5]
2 3 2 3
2 1 2 (2 ) (2 ) 1 y x x x x x x 1 1 + + + + + +
] ]
K K [M1]
2 3
( 2)( 3) ( 2)( 3)( 4)
1 ( 2)( ) ( ) ( )
2! 3!
x x x y

1
+ + + + +
1

]
K [A0.5, A0.5, A0.5]
2 3 2 3 2 3
2 1 2 4 8 1 1 2 3 4 x x x x x x x y x x 1 1 1 + + + + + + + + +
] ] ]
K K K
2 3
2 3 10 13 x x y x + + + +K
Expansion is valid if | 2 | 1 x < and | | 1 x <
Taking the intersection of both ranges,
1
2
1 1
2 2
x
x
<
< <
Coefficient of
n
x
2(2) ( 1) ( 1) ( 1)
n n n
n + +
1
2 ( 1)
n n n
x n
+
+
Chapter 3: AP/GP Solutions
1 [TJC/2006/CT/1]
5 --- (1)
1
a
r

For
3 6 9
, , , ,... a ar ar ar ,
3
4 --- (2)
1
a
r

(2) (1)
3
1 4
1 5
r
r

( ) ( )
2
2
1 4
5 1 1
4 4 4 5
r
r r r
r r

+ +
+ +
2
4 4 1 0 r r +
9
2
2 1
8
16 16 4 t

+ t
r
For sum to infinity, 1 r < .
1 2
.
2
r
+

2 [HCI/2006/CT/3]
1 2 3
9 T T T + +

3 3 9 a d +

3 (1) a d +
2 1
57
n n n
T T T

+ + 3 ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) 57 a n d n d n d + + +
( 2) 19 (2) a n d +
121
n
S
1
[2 ( 1) ] 121 (3)
2
n a n d +
(1) (2) 2 ( 1) 22
1
sub into (3): (22) 121
2
11
a n d
n
n
+ +

3 [CJC/2006/CT/9]
(a) T
1
= 3 + 7(1) = 10
T
k
T
k1
= 3 + 7k [3 + 7(k1)]
= 7 = constant.
Therefore the series is an A.P.
S
100
= [2(10) + (1001)7]
= 35 650
(bi) a = 4.88 (1)
= 10 (2)
(1) (2): 1 r
3
= 0.488
r
3
= 0.512
r = 0.8, a = 2
(ii) Required sum
= a
2
+(ar)
2
+(ar
2
)
2
+to k terms
= a
2

10
= 4
= 11.11(1
k
64 . 0
).
4 [IJC/2006/CT/11]
(a) P =
150
2
[2a + (150 1)d]
= 150a + 11175d ------ (1)
Sum of the first 40 even-numbered terms
=
40
2
[2(a + d) + (40 1)(2d)]
= 20(2a + 80d)
=40a + 1600d ---------- (2)

Given that 40a + 1600d =
4
15
(150a + 11175d) 2760
40a + 1600d = 40a + 2980d 2760
1380d = 2760
d = 2
a = 15000 kg, r = 0.95,
S

=
15000
1 0.95
= 300000 kg
u
n
< 800
(15000)(0.95)
n 1
< 800
(0.95)
n 1
<
8
150
11
lg(0.95)
n 1
< lg
8
150
(n 1)lg0.95 < lg
8
150
n > 58.15
Therefore, n = 59 years of extraction.
5 (i)

1
1
Time taken on th day 45(0.985) .
45(0.985) 30
30
( 1) ln(0.985) ln
45
30
1 ln ln(0.985)
45
27.8
least number of days =28.
n
n
n
n
n
n

<
<
>
>

From (i), Tony has to train daily for 28 days to obtain the Running award.
28
1
1
28
Total time spent running over 28 days
= 45(0.985)
45(1 0.985 )
1 0.985
1035.12 mins (>15 hrs = 900 mins)
n
n

## Thus, Tony is putting himself at risk of having asthma.

6 [RJC/2006/FE/9]
(a) A.P.: first term a, common difference d
16
16
(2 15 ) 322
2
1
2 15 40 (1)
4
S a d
a d
+
+
G.P. with common ratio between consecutive terms:
12
5 13
1 5
2
2
4 12

4
( 4 ) ( 12 )
16 4 0
4 (4 ) 0
or 0 (rejected AP is increasing)
4
u u a d a d
u u a a d
a d a a d
d d a
a
d d
+ +

+
+ +

Q
Substituting
4
a
d into (1) gives
23 1 7
40 7,
4 4 4
a
a d
(b)
1 0
2
2 1
3
3 2
641 990
641 990
641 990
641 990
n
n
u ru r
u ru r
u ru r
u r

The
i
u s form a geometric progression with first term 641 990 and common ratio r.
15
15
614990 u r
15
1
15
300 000 641 990
300 000
0.9505
641 990
0.951 (3 s.f.)
r
r
r

_

,

7 [AJC/2006/CT/6a]
(i) Given GP. Common ratio =
1
2
x +
.
If the sum does not exist
1

2
x +

1
3 or 1 x x
(ii) When x =
1
3
, common ratio =
1 1 2
1 =
2 3 3
_
+

,
13
Odd-numbered terms:
2 4
2 2
2, 2 , 2 ,...
3 3
_ _

, ,
GP. T
1
= 2, common ratio =
2
2 4
=
3 9
_

,
S

=
2
4
1
9
_

,
=
18
5
8 [AJC/2006/CT/6b]
(i) Number of integers in each row:
1, 3, 5, 7, (AP. T
1
= 1, common difference = 2)
Total number of integers in the first n rows,
S
n
= ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 + 1 2
2
n
n 1
]
=
2
n
(ii) Last integer per row: 1= 1
2
, 4 = 2
2
, 9 = 3
2
, 16 = 4
2
,
last integer of the n
th
row =
2
n
[Method 1]
Number of integers in n
th
row = 2n 1
Last integer in the n
th
row = n
2

First integer in the n
th
row = [last term in (n1)
th
row] + 1
= ( )
2
1 1 n +
sum of all integers in n
th
row
= ( )
( )
2
2
2 1
1 1 +
2
n
n n

1
+
1
]
=
2
2 1
2 2 2
2
n
n n

1
+
]
= ( )
2
2 1 1 n n n
1
+
]
[Method 2]
14
Number of integers in n
th
row = 2n 1
First integer in the n
th
row (read from right to left) = n
2

sum of all integers in n
th
row
= ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 1
2 2 1 1 1
2
n
n n

1
+
]
=
2
2 1
2 2 2
2
n
n n

1
+
]
= ( )
2
2 1 1 n n n
1
+
]
[Method 3]
Number of integers in n
th
row = 2n 1
First integer in the n
th
row= [last term in (n 1)
th
row] + 1
= ( )
2
1 1 n +
sum of all integers in n
th
row = ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1
2 1 1 2 1 1 1
2
n
n n

1
+ +
1
]
=
( )
( )
2
2 1
2 2 2 2 2
2
n
n n n

1
+ +
]
=
2
2 1
2 2 2
2
n
n n

1
+
]
= ( )
2
2 1 1 n n n
1
+
]
9
(a) ( ) T 1203 3 4 1
n
n +

301 n
Number of terms in new sequence
300
5
20
= 75
a = 15 and d = 16
Sum of all the terms in the new sequence ( ) ( ) ( )
75
2 15 75 1 16
2
1 +
]
= 45525
(b) Amount of money at the end of ten years

( ) ( )
2 10
1.05 1.05 .... 1.05 X X X + + + ( )
9
1.05 1 1.05 ... 1.05 X
1
+ + +
]
15

( )
10
1.05 1.05 1
1.05 1
X
1

## \$13.2 (Correct to 3 s.f.) X

(c) Set
( ) 1.05 1.05 1
30
1.05 1
n
X
X
1

]
>

( ) 21 1.05 1 30
n
X X
1
>
]

( )
30
1.05 1
21
n
> + 18.186108 n >
Least value of n = 19.
16