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. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING According to Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers every human being must philosophize because first of all philosophy is everybodys business; every time we reason, we use philosophy. WHY DO WE NEED TO STUDY PHILOSOPHY? a.) It helps us clarify issues, discriminate among options and make better decisions. Philosophy helps us to choose the better choice or options. b.) Philosophy has a practical side. Philosophy is something that we can do. It helps us to be critical and with the help of philosophy, we protect ourselves from destructive ideas. c.) Philosophy can be a pleasurable and inspirational element in our life. It helps us to recognize the truth and the false, real and unreal. d.) Philosophy assists us to the truth of commitment and that commitment involves faith. As according to Samuel Butler You can do very little with faith but you can do nothing without it. This means that thinking should guide our faith not faith guiding our thinking. TECHNIQUES: 1. remain open-minded 2. be perceptive 3. be critical PHILOSOPHICAL ATTITUDE a.) Tolerance- respecting the idea of others - openness b.) In philosophy, we use dialogue which philosophers called great conversations. Philosophy is not something one simply learns, it is also something one lives. It is not only learned in the classroom but more on reflections. THE ADVENTURE AND THE RISK OF PHILOSOPHY -According to Albert North Whitehead Philosophy is an adventure of ideas and that little knowledge is a dangerous thing. When we say adventure, we start with little knowledge, then more knowledge to greater knowledge. RISKS: a.) Risk of failure b.) Risk of direct self-awareness c.) Risk of disturbance of early pattern or action or thought. -Doors once open are hard to close- when you learn or know something, it is hard to be unlearned. POPULAR PHILSOPHY: AN EXERCISE Ways of Learning Philosophy: 1. Consider the thoughts of other ordinary people. 2. Consider the reflections of other ordinary people about life.

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Philosophy comes from the Greek words (philos) which means love and (sophia) which
means wisdom

It is a branch of human science which deals with the formal reasons and formal principles of things
knowable through the natural light of human reason alone. It is a human science because philosophy is not just a gathering of knowledge but a organized body of knowledge. It deals with the proper reasons and formal principles of things because philosophy searches for what is essential and it is more on formal features rather than with the physical or material features of a thing. o This makes philosophy different from the positive sciences such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics etc. Positive sciences deal with the physical or material constituents and physical principles of things, while philosophy goes beyond the physical or the material features of a thing and it studies the nature of life and its principle. o Take for example the definition of man. Positive science: Man is a member of the Genus Homo, Family Hominidae, Order Primates, Class mammalia, characterized by erect posture and opposable thumb, distinguished by the ability to communicate by means of organized speech and to record information in a variety of symbolic systems Philosophy: Man is a rational animal, that is, a being having an organic sensitive body and a rational soul, which through the specific rational faculties of reason and will is capable of abstract knowledge through discovery, inference or education, and is also capable of discretionary free action, of culture and progress, and of communicating with his kind by means of articulate voice and other meaningful signs. Knowable through the natural light of human reason alone because man alone has the capability to think and rationalize. According to Blaise Pascal, The heart has reason in which reason itself cannot understand PHILOSOPHY is the science of things. Philosophy includes everything as its object as seen in their final causes. It tries to go down into the foundational principles. PHILOSOPHY is also an attempt to reach a systematic knowledge of the different aspects of reality. It is an attempt to reach answers, and conclusions which can still be open for revisions. o Because philosophy is systematic, it should be orderly, consistent, comprehensive and logical knowledge. That is why we cannot understand something if it is disorderly.

WHY DOES MAN PHILOSOPHIZE? To understand ourselves better Man is searching for wisdom It is the cry of the human heart and mind. Man seeks answers to his questions. Man is intelligent BEGINNINGS OF PHILOSOPHIZING Wonder Doubt Limits situation (crisis) Metaphysical uneasiness- related with spiritual things-inner restlessness For Socrates, philosophy is knowing ourselves that is why Socrates would say Know Thyself. Philosophy is really a discovering of our own selves and knowing more of our own selves the basic questions in philosophy. Some of these basic questions are as follows: 1. Who am I? What is Man?

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING 2. 3. 4. Where am I going? What is my future and destiny? What should I do to make my life happy?

With this, we can conclude that philosophy is all about the MEANING OF LIFE. To see the meaning of life, the following questions must be asked again of ourselves: 1. What is the supreme purpose and goal of human living?

2. What consists of mans perfection and happiness?

3. 4. 5. What is the ultimate objective of human strivings? Is it ever attainable? What is the summum bonum of human existence? What is the remedy and cause of human suffering?

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Name: ____________________________Date:_________________ Course: ____________________________________ Answer the following comprehensively: Define and explain philosophy in your own words. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ What is your philosophy in life? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ What is the importance of studying philosophy and logic in your life as a student? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Gk. (logike) which means word or thought the science and art of correct thinking

Gk. (kosmos) which means universe a study on the universe or the physical world

Gk. ( (psyche) which means mind or soul on living beings, vital operations and the principle of life (soul)

Gk. ( ethos) which means morality On the morality of human acts


Lt. ens or on which means being on beings in general

Gk. (theos) which means God on the First Cause of universal contingent beings

Lt. episteme which means knowledge on the validity of human knowledge

Gk. (anthropon) which means man a study about man

a study about the state or government


a study of man in relation with the society he lives in

study of art and beauty

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Name: ________________________________Date: _______________ Course: _______________________________ Answer the questions comprehensively. As a social being, how should a person relate with other people? (On social philosophy) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Is morality really important to human beings? Why? (On Ethics) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ Explain: Absolute beauty is completely independent of the senses (On aesthetics) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ If you are to choose, how will you arrange the world? Why? (On Cosmology) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ If I lie, do I conceal the truth to others or to myself? (On Epistemology) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Arroyo 2007 6


C. MEANING/DEFINITION OF LOGIC science and art of correct thinking It is an organon meaning instrument. It is an instrument for discovering and presenting truths. It is through logical methods that sciences discover truths. The ability to reason is inherent to man. We have this so called COMMON SENSE. This is what we call Natural Logic and this guided man to the use of fire, of water etc. But common sense is prone to mistakes; we need therefore a systematized instruction on how to build up our natural talents and how to use them effectively. Therefore, we need the science and art of logic to develop the habit of confident reasoning. Logic is a SCIENCE. SCIENCE is a systematic body of knowledge. Logic is a science because it is a body of knowledge that is systematically arranged and confirmed to be true. Logic is an ART ART is the habit of doing something with a certain degree of order and harmony. It is also a normative science which means it uses rules to be followed. Logic is an ART because it is a practical science which leads to the formation of the habit of thinking easily, orderly and properly. Logic is the science and art of correct THINKING. Thinking refers to any or to all the movements of the mind such as imagining, recalling, memorizing, comprehending, analyzing, day-dreaming or solving problems. In logic, thinking means inference. INFERENCE- getting a truth or conclusion from something formerly known to the thinker. 2 KINDS OF INFERENCE 1. Inductive Inference draws a universal or general conclusion from a series of individual interrelated facts. 2. Deductive Inference draws a particular conclusion on the basis of assumed common or universal principles. Premises (statements) Evidence Conclusion (statement) What is claimed to follow from the evidence Examples: All cats are animals. Felix is a cat. Therefore, Felix is an animal. All salesmen are extroverts. Mario is a salesman. Therefore, Mario is an extrovert WHY SHOULD WE STUDY LOGIC? We begin our solution to this question by observing that everyone obviously desires to know. This selfevident assertion simply means that a human being is so constituted that he cannot help wanting to know. A human being is a knowing being. All human beings then in varying degrees want to know why things are so. An obvious sign of this is that even as kids we often ask for the why of things. We are insatiably curious. premise premise conclusion

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Logic then is a tool in helping us find out why things are as they are. An axe is an tool for cutting down a
tree. A sharp axe is an efficient instrument for cutting down a tree. The power of thinking is an instrument for knowing the why and wherefore of things but thinking sharpened by skill in logic is an efficient instrument for scientific knowing. IDEOGENESIS (how is an idea being formed in the mind?) Perception/SensationApprehensionAbstraction = IDEA To have an idea, there should be an encounter between the subject and the object. This is called PERCEPTION or SENSATION. SIMPLE APPREHENSION an act of the mind by which we know the real meaning of a thing without affirming or denying anything about it. In this mental act, phantasms are being formed in our imaginations. ABSTRACTION is the mental process for the formation of an idea which includes picking up from, or drawing out from. 3 ACTS OF THE MIND 1. Simple Apprehension act of the mind by which we understand the fundamental nature of a thing. 2. Judgment act of the mind by which we compare two concepts and declare them to be either in conformity or disagreement with each other. PROPOSITION is a kind of sentence wherein the subject and the predicate are combined so as to emphasize something true or false. Examples. 1. Socrates is an ancient Greek philosopher. 2. Man is not an angel. 3. Persons are not things. 3. Reasoning act of the mind by which we gain new truths from what is formerly assumed to be true. Argument/Syllogism combining sentences or propositions so as to form a new judgment. Examples: 1. All philosophers are good thinkers. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is a philosopher. Therefore, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is a good thinker. 2. All men are rational beings. Peter is a man. Therefore, Peter is a rational being. 2 LOGICAL PROPERTIES OF AN IDEA 1. COMPREHENSION sum-total of the thought elements or conceptual features contained in an idea. - In giving the comprehension of an idea, we are simply giving the definition of the concept or idea. *Definition knowing the essence of a thing. Giving the specifying difference and the genus Examples: 1. Man rational animal 2. Man being that is substance, bodily, living, sentient and rational. 2. EXTENSION sum-total of individuals and categories of beings to which the idea may be applied. APPLICATION: When someone asks for the meaning of a term, he anticipates an answer from its comprehension. When a student asks for an example of a proposition, he anticipates an answer from its extension. EXAMPLE: COMPREHENSION EXTENSION Substance Spirits, minerals, plants, brutes, men Material, substance Minerals, plants, brutes, men

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Living, material, substance Plants, brutes, men Sentient, living, material, substance Brutes, men Rational, sentient, living, material, substance men What is the relationship between the comprehension and extension of an idea? They VARY INVERSELY. That is the greater the comprehension, the lesser the extension and the lesser the comprehension, the greater the extension.


A. MEANING/DEFINITION Terms are verbal or written words or signs communicative of a concept or idea. The spoken word is an articulated human voice and the written word is the sign of the spoken word. SIGN is something that manifests a different thing aside from itself. Examples: Color red is a sign of martyrdom. Kinds of Signs: 1. Natural signs are signs whose connection with the objects they manifest is provided by nature. Examples: 1. A heavy dark cloud is a natural sign of an oncoming rain. 2. Smoke is a natural sign of fire. 2. Conventional sign is a sign whose connection with the thing it manifests is provided by common understanding or agreement. Examples: 1. Flag 2. Traffic lights Spoken/Written Words, therefore, are conventional signs. Thus, different peoples have different words to designate the same object. B. CLASSIFICATION OF TERMS A. ACCORDING TO MEANING 1. Univocal term expressing the same meaning as applied to several subjects. Ex. Man, podium, stone 2. Analogous term expressing cognate or related meaning. partially different, partially the same. Ex. Beautiful song- beautiful lady Good mother- good heart. 3. Equivocal term that is outwardly and externally identical or the same but expressing different meanings. Ex. son-sun, hot-hat-hut, bottle- battle B. ACCORDING TO COMPREHENSION 1. Concrete these are terms that can be perceived; they are sensible and tangible. Examples: House Church Animal Horse

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING River 2. Abstract signifies a nature or quality though it exists on its own right and apart from the individual or subject. Examples: Friendship Humanity Love Manhood Authority Loyalty C. ACCORDING TO EXTENSION 1. Singular signifies one, definite, specific individual. Signs and determinants: a.)Proper Nouns b.)Nouns modified by adjective in the superlative degree c.)Collective nouns d)Demonstratives e.)Personal pronouns Examples: My father His dog The First gentleman President George Bush The highest mountain 2. Universal signifies all the individuals within the extension of such concept. Signs and determinants: a) Universal expressions b) Universal ideas a statement which is true all the time Examples: Everybody All students Nobody Every Each one 3. Particular signifies a part or portion of the total extension of such concept. term that stands for an indefinite part of an absolute extension Signs and determinants: a ) Indefinite pronouns or adjectives b) Use of numbers c) General propositions A statement which is true most of the time but not all the time. Examples: Some teachers Few candidates Most schools D. ACCORDING TO RELATION 1. Identical Terms are those having the same comprehension and extension. Examples: Lawyer and attorney God and Supreme being Man and rational being disciple and follower 2. Similar Terms-are those having the same extension but different comprehension. Examples: Writer and journalist Teacher and professor 3. Compatible Terms are those expressing features which may be present at the same time in one individual or subject. Examples:

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Rich and humble tall and dark and handsome Intelligent and beautiful beautiful and intelligent 4. Incompatible Terms are those expressing features which cannot be present together and simultaneously in one individual or subject. Examples: Rich and poor hot and cold Weak and healthy good and bad 5. Relative Terms are those that express a feature of a thing which cannot be thought of without implying another. Examples: Master-slave Teacher-student Doctor-patient 6. Privative Terms are those which express the absence or lack of perfection in an individual or subject. Examples: Blindness- is the absence of sight Death- is the absence of life Ignorance- is the absence of knowledge 7. Contradictory Terms are those so related that one is the simple negation of the other. There is no underlying middle between contradictory terms. Examples: Mortal-immortal Something-nothing 8. Contrary Terms are those that express the extreme opposites in a given category or series of the same class. There is an underlying middle between contrary terms. Examples: First and last Left and right

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Name: _________________________________ Date: ________________ Course: ________________________________ Classify the following as natural or conventional signs. ____________1. Sound of a bell as signifying the end of a boxing round ____________2. Fever as signifying illness ____________3. Snoring as signifying sleep ____________4. The word white as signifying a certain color ____________5. Shaking hands as signifying departure ____________6. A shout as signifying the attracting of a person ____________7. Roman collar as signifying a priest ____________8. A will as signifying ones last testimony ____________9. $ as signifying dollars ____________10. Booing as signifying disapproval ____________11. Trembling as signifying fear ____________12. A shadow as signifying the outline of a body ____________13. Lilies as signifying Easter ____________14. Blushing as signifying embarrassment ____________15. The word hello as signifying a greeting ____________16. Barking of a dog as signifying some danger Arroyo 2007 12


____________17. A salute as signifying a sign of respect ____________18. A yawn as signifying boredom

Name: _________________________________Date: _______________ Course: ________________________________ Classify the following words as univocal, equivocal or analogous. ___________1. Pitcher as signifying a container of water and a baseball player
____________2. Tragic as signifying a condition of man and a type of an accident ____________3. Athlete as signifying a swimmer and a wrestler ____________4. Metal as signifying iron and copper ____________5. Nerve as signifying a band of living tissue and pluck ____________6. Pit as signifying the hard stone of a fruit and a hole in the ground ____________7. Literature as signifying prose and poetry ____________8. Date as signifying a fruit and a point or period of time ____________9. Walk as signifying a movement and a pathway ____________10. Moral as signifying a state of man and the quality of work or art ____________11. Emotion as signifying love and hatred ____________12. Peck as signifying a fourth part of a bushel and a quick, sharp stroke of a break ____________13. Beautiful as signifying a person and the complexion of a person ____________14. Number as signifying odd or even ____________15. Story as signifying an anecdote and a set of rooms on the same floor ____________16. Green as signifying color of grass and color of a tie ____________17. Perch as signifying a kind of fish and a bar for birds to roost on

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____________18. Run as signifying swift movement and a score in a baseball game ____________19. Human as signifying man and woman ____________20. Poker as signifying a metal for stirring a fire and a card game

Name: _____________________________________ Date: _____________ Course: ____________________________________ Identify whether the underlined words or terms are singular, universal, or particular 1. This quiz is very easy. _________________ 2. Some Filipinos are hospitable people. _________________ 3. Spiderman is the best movie of the year. _________________ 4. Several books are worth reading. _________________ 5. Anybody can be a good logician and mathematician at the same time. _________________ 6. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is a German philosopher. _________________ 7. Men are mortal beings. _________________ 8. Everybody is encouraged to watch Spiderman. _________________ 9. Baguio is the summer capital of the Philippines. _________________ 10. Bottles will never fly like birds. _________________ 11. All men are by nature good. _________________ 12. The Prince of Theologians made several famous books. _________________ 13. Men are rational beings. _________________ 14. Men are less emotional than women. _________________ 15. The UST Medical Mission Team went to the farthest barrio of Tarlac. _________________ 16. The Varsitarian Staff of UST went to Baguio for a seminar. Arroyo 2007 14


_________________ 17. My friend who is a philosopher studying archaelogy, was ordained as a priest of the Diocese of Abra. _________________ 18. These apples were bought at a very expensive price. _________________ 19. Men are stronger than women. _________________ 20. Anything that is worthwhile in life is not given for free. _________________

Name: ________________________________ Date: _______________ Course: _______________________________ Give the abstract terms of the following concrete terms: 1. Virgin ____________________ 2. Govern____________________ 3. Dictator____________________ 4. Legal ____________________ 5. Adult ____________________ 6. Frail ____________________

7. Honest____________________ 8. Brother____________________ 9. King ____________________

10. Abandon____________________ Identify whether the following are Identical, Similar, Compatible, Incompatible, Relative, Privative, Contradictory or Contrary Terms. 1. poor-rich _________________

2. something-nothing_________________ 3. full-empty 4. doctor-patient Arroyo 2007 _________________ _________________ 15


5. cause-effect


6. owner-proprietor _________________ 7. small-terrible _________________

8. president-ruler _________________ 9. perfect-imperfect_________________ 10. loser-winner _________________ CHAPTER THREE PROPOSITION

A proposition is an expression of judgment. It may be something that is stated for the purpose of discussion or something to be dealt with as a statement of fact or truth. It is a statement in which something is affirmed or denied. A proposition is different from a sentence because a sentence is a word or a group of words expressing a complete thought. An example of a sentence is RUN! This is a single word expressing a complete thought and therefore a sentence. Therefore, all propositions are sentences but not all sentences are propositions. RUN! is not a proposition because it does not express a judgment. A. CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION Elements of a Categorical Proposition 1. Quantifier part of the CP that tells the quantity of the proposition 2.) Subject and Predicate Termsmatter of the proposition materials from which the proposition is made 3.) Copulabonding verb- form of the CP Unifying principle that maintains the structure of the proposition Quality of a Proposition 1.) Affirmative the predicate is affirmed of the subject from the Latin word affirmo which means I agree. The first 2 vowels of the word are A and I. They are the affirmative propositions. Example: GMA is the president of the Philippines 2.) Negative the predicate is denied of the subject. from the Latin word nego which means I deny. The two vowels of the word are E and O. They are the negative propositions. Example: ERAP is not the President of the Philippines. Quantity of a Proposition 1.) Universalthe predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole of the subject. Example: All mothers are loving parents. 2.) Particular the predicate is affirmed or denied of only part of the subject. Example: Some politicians are corrupt officials. 4 TYPES OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION 1. Universal Affirmative (A) All lawyers are politicians. 2. Universal Negative (E) No lawyers are politicians. 3. Particular Affirmative (I)

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Some lawyers are politicians. 4. Particular Negative (O) Some lawyers are not politicians. B. LOGICAL OPPOSITIONS 1. Contradiction/Contradictories when two propositions using the same subject and predicate terms oppose each other owing to their differences in both quantity and quality. A and O/ E and I Examples: All men are mortal beings and Some men are not mortal beings are contradictory propositions. All men are not emotional and Some men are emotional are contradictory propositions. 2. Contrariety/Contrary Propositions when two universal propositions using the same subject and predicate terms but differ in quality. A and E Examples All politicians are honest and No politician is honest are contrary propositions. No student is intelligent and All students are intelligent are contrary propositions. 3. Sub-Alternation when two propositions using the same subject and predicate terms but differ in quantity with the same quality. A and I/ E and O Examples: All men are liars and Some men are liars are sub-alternating propositions. Some students are not absent and No student is absent are sub-alternating propositions. 4. Sub-Contrariety when two particular propositions using the same subject and predicate terms but differ in quality. I and O Examples: Some buildings are houses and Some buildings are not houses are contrary propositions. Some criminals are not harmful and Some criminals are harmful are contrary propositions.


All S are P. No S is P. CONTRARIETY C S U B A L T E R N A T Arroyo 2007 O N T R A D A R T N C I D C T I O N T I O N S U B A L T E R N A T 17





Some S are P.

S U B- C O N T R A R I E T Y O Some S are not P.

C. FOUR LAWS GOVERNING LOGICAL OPPOSITIONS 1. Law of Contradiction 3. Law of Sub-Alternation 2. Law of Contrariety 4. Law of Sub-Contrariety 1. Law of Contradiction Two contradictory propositions cannot be both true and both false at the same time. * If A is true, O is false * If A is false, O is true * If O is true, A is false * If O is false, A is true * If E is true, I is false * If E is false, I is true * If I is true, E is false * If I is false, E is true 2. Law of Contrariety States that two contrary propositions cannot be both true but they may be both false at the same time. * If A is true, E is false * If E is true, A is false * If A is false, E is doubtful * If E is false, A is doubtful 3. Law of Sub-Alternation a) States that the truth of the universal carries or implies the truth of the particular but not vice versa. * If A is true, I is true * If E is true, O is true * If I is true, A is doubtful * If O is true, E is doubtful b) States that the falsity of the particular carries or implies the falsity of the universal but not vice versa. * If I is false, A is false * If O is false, E is false * If A is false, I is doubtful * If E is false, O is doubtful 4. Law of Sub-Contrariety States that two contrary propositions can not be both false but they maybe both true at the same time. * If I is false, O is true * If O is false, I is true * If I is true, O is doubtful * If O is true, I is doubtful

1. Translate universal statements as universal propositions unless the statement points to a particular usage. Examples: Dogs bark. All dogs are barking animals. Filipinos are hospitable people. Some Filipinos are hospitable people Men are stronger than women. Some men are people stronger than women

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING 2. Add the missing complement to an adjective or to a describing phrase to show that they refer to classes/terms. Examples: All lions are fierce. All lions are fierce animals. Mothers love their children. Some mothers are children lovers. 3. Singular statements should be treated as universal statements. Examples: The first lady is very extravagant person. The first lady is very extravagant person. A proposition The author of Don Quijote is a good writer. The author of Don Quijote is a good writer. A proposition This student is not lazy. This student is not a lazy guy. E proposition 4. Quantifiers that refer to universal or particular should be replaced by: all, no or some respectively. Examples: Almost 50% of the students in logic are members of the debate team. Some students in logic are members of the debate team. Most of the teachers are nationalists. Some teachers are nationalists. Every student is a learner. All students are learners. 5. Exclusive statements should be translated into universal statements by reversing the order of the original statement. Examples: None but men are priests. All priests are men. Only voters are citizens. All citizens are voters 6. Exceptive statements should be translated to an E statement. Examples: All except seminarians are members of the club. No seminarian is a member of the club. Everybody except the judges are members of the administration No judge is a member of the administration. 7. Not all should be translated as an O proposition Examples: Not all applicants are qualified workers. Some applicants are not qualified workers. Not all politicians are liars. Some politicians are not liars.

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Name: _____________________________________Date: ___________________ Course: ____________________________________ Identify what type of propositions (A, E, I, O) are the following. __ 1. All lawyers are politicians. _____2. Men differ from angels. _____3. Many men are fools. _____4. Some heavenly bodies do not fall on earth. _____5. Not all that glitters is gold. _____6. Bottles will never fly. _____7. Each triangle has three angles. _____8. Some trees are mahogany. _____9. All professional politicians are not trustworthy. _____10. Majority of the audience enjoyed the play we have witnessed. _____11. No talkative individuals are genuine philosophers.

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Name: ____________________________________Date: ___________________ Course: ___________________________________ Identify what type of logical opposition are the following: 1. All opportunists are men with no principle. Some opportunists are not men with no principle. ____________________ ____ 2. All good Catholics are prayerful people. No good Catholics are prayerful people. ________________________ 3. Some prodigal persons are not prudent. No prodigal persons are prudent. ________________________ 4. All egoistic people are not generous. Some egoistic people are not generous. ________________________ 5. Some dogs are gentle. Some dogs are not gentle. ________________________ 6. All men are not brutes. Some men are not brutes. ________________________ 7. Some beings are men. No beings are men. ________________________ 8. All Catholics are not Israelites. Some Catholics are Israelites. ________________________ 9. Some scientists are not wise individuals. All scientists are wise individuals. ________________________ 10. No Catholics are Moslems. Some Catholics are not Moslems. ________________________ Arroyo 2007 21


11. Only boys are good mathematicians. Some mathematicians are boys. ________________________ 12. None but men are lovers. Some lovers are not men. ________________________ 13. All except Louisians are CICians. All Louisians are CICians. ________________________ 14. All pupils are active children. No pupils are active children. ________________________ Name: ___________________________________Date: ____________________ Course: __________________________________ Complete the sentence by indicating whether it is true, false or doubtful and write on the space before each number the type of opposition (contradiction, contrariety, sub- alternation, sub-contrariety) : ____________1. If Some glasses are breakable is true, then No glass is breakable is ______________. ____________2. If All dogs are animals is true, then No dog is an animal is ___________. ____________3. If No fruit is a chocolate is true, then Some fruits are chocolate is ____________. ____________4. If Some actions are not charitable is true, then All actions are charitable is ___________. ____________5. If Some students are wage-earners. is true, then Some students are not wage-earners is ___________. ____________6. If Some writers are good is false then, No writer is good is ___________. ____________7. If No voter is an alien. is false, then, Every voter is an alien is _____________. ____________8. If Some religious beliefs are not false is false, then Some religious beliefs are false is ____________. ____________9. If No teacher is patient and kind is false, then All teachers are patient and kind. is ____________. Arroyo 2007 22


____________10. If Some actions are legal is true, then All actions are illegal is ___________.

Name: ___________________________________Date: _______________________ Course: __________________________________ On the first blank, write the kind of proposition (A, E, I, O); the type of logical opposition (contradiction, contrariety, sub-alternation, sub-contrariety) on the second blank and the judgment (true, false, doubtful) on the third blank. 1.) Some reptiles are dangerous._____ TRUE Every reptile is dangerous. ____ ___________________ _______________ All reptiles are not dangerous. ____ ___________________ _______________ Some reptiles are not dangerous. ____ ___________________ _______________ 2.) All citizens are executives._____ FALSE Several citizens are not executives. ____ ___________________ _______________ Few citizens are executives. ____ ___________________ _______________ No citizen is an executive. ____ ___________________ _______________ 3.) Not all friends are trustworthy._____ TRUE All friends are not trustworthy. ____ ___________________ _______________ Some friends are trustworthy. ____ ___________________ _______________ Arroyo 2007 23


All friends are trustworthy ____ ___________________ _______________

Name: ___________________________________Date: ________________ Course: __________________________________ Translate the following ordinary statements into its standard form of categorical proposition and identify what proposition it is. The actual Pope is Joseph Ratzinger. _______________________________________________________________ All except teachers are Karate players. _______________________________________________________________ Only CICians are responsible students. _______________________________________________________________ Not all politicians are lawmakers. _______________________________________________________________ Few of the varsity players are writers. _______________________________________________________________ Bottles will never fly. _______________________________________________________________ Lawmakers are educated. _______________________________________________________________ None but children are humble persons. _______________________________________________________________ Most of the politicians are Thomasians. _______________________________________________________________ Arroyo 2007 24


The student council is not the governing body of the school. _______________________________________________________________


Categorical syllogism is a deductive argument consisting of 3 categorical propositions which contain exactly 3 terms. Example: All Filipinos are hospitable persons All Ilocanos are Filipinos Therefore All Ilocanos are hospitable persons HOW TO IDENTIFY THE TERMS IN THE SYLLOGISM? 1.) Major Term (P) found in the major premise as either the subject or the predicate the predicate of the conclusion. *In the example above, the major term is hospitable persons because it is the predicate of the conclusion. 2.) Minor Term (S) found in the minor premise as either the subject or predicate the subject of the conclusion. In the example above, the minor term is Ilocanos because it is the subject of the conclusion 3.) Middle Term (M) the only term which is not found in the conclusion and the only term which appears twice in the premises. In the example above, the middle term is Filipinos because it is found in the two premises. Example All lawyers are politicians. Some lawyers are liars Therefore some liars are not politicians Major term: politicians Minor term: liars Middle term: lawyers A. FORM OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM Figure of the categorical syllogism Mood of Categorical Syllogism I. FIGURE OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM it refers to the way the middle term is arranged in the syllogism.

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Fig. 1 ( sub-pre) M P SM -------SP Fig. 3 (sub-sub) M P MS --------SP Fig. 2 (pre-pre) P M S M -------SP Fig. 4(pre-sub) PM MS --------S-P

II. MOOD OF CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM refers to the type of propositions (A, E, I, O) in which the major premise, the minor premise and the conclusion respectively appear in the syllogism.

Some students are academic scholars All students are hardworking persons. Therefore some hardworking persons are academic scholars. IAI Only men are priests Mark is a man. Therefore Mark is a priest AAA DISTRIBUTION OF TERMS Subject Term Predicate Term Distributed Undistributed Distributed Distributed Undistributed Undistributed Undistributed Distributed GENERAL RULES FOR A VALID SYLLOGISM 1. There should be exactly 3 terms to be used throughout the whole argument. Violation: fallacy of 4 terms (equivocation) Examples: A ruler measures 12 inches. But GMA is a ruler. Therefore, GMA measures 12 inches. * This syllogism is invalid because a word is used in two different propositions with different meaning. * This syllogism committed the fallacy of equivocation or fallacy of 4 terms. 2. The middle term must be distributed at least once in the premises. Violation: Fallacy of the undistributed middle term. Examples: All men are unique beings. Some unique beings are red. Therefore, some red beings are men. All dogs are animals. All cats are animals. Therefore, all cats are dogs.


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* These syllogisms are invalid syllogisms because the middle terms unique beings and animals are undistributed in the two premises. * These syllogisms committed the fallacy of Undistributed Middle Term. 3. If the term is distributed in the conclusion then the same term must also be distributed in the premises. Violation: Fallacy of the illicit major term or fallacy of illicit minor term. Examples: All cats are animals. No bats are cats. Therefore, No bats are animals. All CICians are students. No Ateneans are students. Therefore, no Ateneans are students. All criminals are law-violators. All criminals are evil persons. Therefore, all evil persons are law-violators. *These syllogisms are invalid syllogisms. The first and second example committed the fallacy of illicit major term and the third example committed the fallacy of illicit minor term. 4. Two negative premises are not allowed. Violation: Fallacy of exclusive terms Examples: Rizza is not a joyful person Mae is not Michelle. Therefore, Mae is not a joyful person. *This syllogism is invalid syllogism and had committed the fallacy of exclusive terms. 5. One of the negative premises is allowed if and only if the conclusion is negative. Violation: Fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion based from a negative premise. Example: All teachers are models. Some teachers are not wise persons. Therefore, some wise persons are models. * This syllogism is invalid and committed the fallacy of drawing out an affirmative conclusion based from a negative premise. 6. No particular conclusion can be derived from 2 universal premises. Violation: Existential fallacy 7. Two affirmative premises cannot give a negative conclusion. 8. When one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular. 9. When both premises are particular, there is no conclusion.

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Name: ________________________________________Date: _________________ Course: _______________________________________ Identify the mood and the figure of the following syllogisms and identify whether they are valid or invalid. If they are invalid, identify what fallacy is committed. 1. All except varsity players are academic scholars. But some students are varsity players. Therefore, some students are not academic scholars. ____________________________________ 2. All men must eat. But the painting on the wall is a man. Therefore, the painting on the wall must eat. ____________________________________ 3. Some snakes are dangerous animals. But all cobras are snakes. Therefore, some cobras are dangerous animals. ____________________________________ 4. Some dogs are fast runners. But all fast runners are mammals. Therefore, some mammals are dogs. ____________________________________ 5. All senators are rich people. But, no beggar is a senator. Therefore, no beggars are rich people. ____________________________________ 6. All men are lovers. But no lover is an egoist. Therefore, not all egoists are men. ____________________________________ 7. All scientists are wise individuals. But all scientists are men. Therefore, all men are wise individuals ____________________________________ 8. Beings that can know God as the Spiritual Creator are beings that have a spiritual mind. Arroyo 2007



But, all men are beings that can know God as the Spiritual Creator. Therefore, all men are beings that have a spiritual mind ____________________________________ 9. Foolish individuals speak nonsense. But, foolish individuals are talkative. Therefore, some talkative individuals speak nonsense. ____________________________________ 10. Every rectangle is a polygon. But every square is a polygon. Therefore, every square is a rectangle. ____________________________________

Name: ___________________________________Date: ___________________ Course: __________________________________ Supply the missing term in the following syllogisms to make them valid. 1. No law-abiding citizen is __________. But some ________ are criminals, Therefore, some adults are not _______________. 2. All ___________ are ____________. But some artists are not musicians, Therefore, some _________ are not pianists. 3. No bird is ___________. But all _________ are _________, Therefore, no dove is quadruped. 4. All ______________ are organism, But all plants are living things, Therefore, all ___________ are ___________. 5. Some ________ are not males. But all athletes are _____________, Therefore, some physically fit are not _________. 6. All lemons are _______. But some __________ are yellow fruit, Therefore, some ________________ are sour. Arroyo 2007 29


7. All artists are _____________, But no creative person is stupid, Therefore, no ________________ is an __________. 8. No ____________ is a fly, But some ___________ are ____________, Therefore some insects are not spiders.

A Venn diagram is a drawing, in which circular areas represent groups of items sharing common properties. The drawing consists of two or more circles, each representing a specific group. This process of visualizing logical relationships was devised by John Venn (1834-1923). A-proposition is diagrammed as:

E-proposition is diagrammed as:

I-proposition is diagrammed as:

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O-proposition is diagrammed as:

Since a syllogism is VALID if and only if the premises entail the conclusion, diagramming the premises will reveal the logical geography of the conclusion in a valid syllogism. If the syllogism is invalid, then diagramming the premises is insufficient to show the conclusion must follow. *Certain guidelines must be observed in connection with Venn diagram Test: 1. The Universal Premise should be diagrammed first if the syllogism contains a particular premise. 2. The Letter X should be placed on the line dissecting an area if the whole area is so designated in the premise. If part of the area has been shaded, the X goes in the unshaded part. 3. Only the premises should be diagrammed. If a syllogism is valid, the conclusion will be self-evident. Steps in Diagramming: Let us diagram this syllogism and check if it is valid or invalid: All whales are mammals. No frogs are mammals. Therefore, no frogs are whales. Since we have three terms, we expect to have three overlapping circles.

The first step in the diagramming process is to diagram the major premise, as follows:

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The minor premise shall be likewise diagrammed:

The conclusion should not be diagrammed. In fact, it can be read off in the diagram. The diagram shows that the area FW is empty: No frogs are whales. The syllogism is VALID. THE VALID MOODS x x AAAA EEEE AE IO AEI O xx xxx I I I I OOOO Major Premise A E I O AE I O Minor Premise

These are the possible valid moods in every figure. But applying the general rules to these moods, those with mark x are terminated because they violate one of the general rules. So the remaining possible valid moods are as follows: A A A A E E I I O O Major Premise A E I O A I A E A E Minor Premise *With these possible valid moods, let us apply the specific rules for each figure. VALID MOODS FOR THE FIRST FIGURE Rules: 1. The major premise must be universal. 2. The minor premise must be affirmative. AAA, EAE, AII, EIO (BARBARA, CELARE, DARII, FERIO)

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING VALID MOODS FOR THE SECOND FIGURE Rules: 1. One premise must be negative. 2. The major premise must be universal. EAE, AEE, EIO, AOO (CESARE, CAMESTRE, FESTINO, BAROCO) VALID MOODS FOR THE THIRD FIGURE Rules: 1. The minor premise must be affirmative. 2. The conclusion must be particular. AAI, IAI, AII, EAO, OAO, EIO (DARAPTI, DISAMIS, DATISI, FELAPTON, BOCARDO, FERISON)

VALID MOODS FOR THE FOURTH FIGURE Rules: 1. If the major premise is affirmative, the minor premise must be universal. 2. If the minor premise is an affirmative, the conclusion must be particular. 3. If either premise is negative, the major term must be universal. AAI, AEE, IAI, EAO, EIO (BRAMANTIP, CAMENES, DIMARIS, FESAPO, FRESISON) EXAMPLES: FIRST FIGURE AAA (BARBARA) All beings that have mastery over their voluntary acts are responsible for their voluntary acts. But, all normal human adults have mastery over their voluntary acts. Therefore, all normal human adults are responsible for their voluntary acts. EAE (CELARE) No selfish persons are truly considerate. But, all ambitious individuals are selfish. Therefore, no ambitious individuals are truly considerate. SECOND FIGURE EAE (CESARE) No praiseworthy acts are mean. But, all selfish acts are mean. Therefore, all selfish acts are not praiseworthy. AEE (CAMESTRE) All men are rational beings. But, no brutes are rational beings. Therefore, no brutes are men. THIRD FIGURE AAI (DARAPTI) All gifted musicians are emotional But, all gifted musicians are artists. Therefore, some artists are emotional. IAI (DISAMIS) Some inconsiderate men are strict But, all inconsiderate men are hard-hearted. Therefore, some hard-hearted men are strict. FOURTH FIGURE AAI (BRAMANTIP)

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING All whales are mammals. But, all mammals are warm-blooded animals. Therefore, some warm-blooded animals are whales. AEE (CAMENES) All mammals are warm blooded animals. But, all warm-blooded animals are not reptiles. Therefore, all reptiles are not mammals.

Name: ___________________________________Date: __________________ Course: __________________________________ Identify the figure and the mood of the following valid syllogisms. 1. No selfish persons are truly considerate But all ambitious individuals are selfish Therefore, no ambitious individuals are truly considerate. ___________________ 2. All talkative individuals are shallow minded. But some men are talkative individuals Therefore, some men are shallow minded. ___________________ 3. No virtuous acts are sinful. But some chastisements are virtuous acts. Therefore, some chastisements are not sinful. ___________________ 4. All except mammals are fishes. But, some vertebrates are fishes. Therefore, some vertebrates are not mammals ___________________ 5. All vain people are proud. But some men are not proud. Therefore, not all men are vain. ___________________ 6. All gifted musicians are emotional. But all gifted musicians are artists. Therefore, some artists are emotional. ___________________ 7. Only brave people are patriots But some patriots are women. Therefore, some women are brave people. ___________________ 8. Some lawyers are not truthful. Arroyo 2007



But, all lawyers are professionals. Therefore, some professionals are not truthful. ___________________ 9. All mammals are warm-blooded animals. But all warm-blooded animals are not reptiles. Therefore, all reptiles are not mammals. ___________________ 10. No lazy person is resourceful. But some resourceful individuals are students. Therefore, some students are not lazy persons. ___________________

CHAPTER FIVE FALLACY Fallacy comes from the Latin word fallo or fallere which means to deceive. It refers to any error in reasoning. Fallacies may be formal or informal. Formal- refers to errors in relation to the form or structure of reasoning or argument. The point in question is not whether a conclusion is true or false but whether the form of argument is correct or incorrect, valid or invalid. Informal- refers to errors with regard to the content or the meaning of the argument. It is committed when factors contributing to reasoning are distorted. Some Informal Fallacies which are frequently committed: Argumentum Ad Misericordiam (Appeal to Pity or Sympathy) This is the error of by-passing logic and the point at issue by appealing to pity or sympathy. Example: Sir, maawa napo kayo sa akin, Ipasa nyo napo ako! May tatlong anak po akong pinapag-aral at sinusuportahan. Argumentum Ad Populum ( Appeal to the People) This is committed when one evades the point under discussion and instead appeals to the opinions, passions or prejudices of the people. Example: Migz Zubiri is sure to win the senatorial position because he has been consistently topping election surveys. Argumentum Ad Hominem (Argument Against the Person) This happens when the person of the arguer is attacked, rather than his argument. Example: Wag ninyong pinaniniwalaan yung sinasabi ni Peter, pasaway, bolero at tsaka hindi maganda ang background ng pamilya niya. Mali ang sinabi nya dahil estudyante lang siya.

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Argumentum Ad Baculum (Appeal to Force or Threat) This is committed when one seeks to establish a conclusion by resorting to force or intimidation. Examples: Kapag hindi ka nakuha sa santong dasalan, kukunin kita sa santong paspasan. Kapag hindi mo ako minahal, hindi kita ipapasa. Argumentum Ad Vericundiam (Appeal to wrong authority) This happens when a wrong or unqualified authority is cited to establish a conclusion. Example: Another killer earthquake will hit Cabanatuan City within three years, Sarah Geronimo said. Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam (Appeal to Ignorance) This occurs when one proves that a thing is true because it cannot be proven false or a thing is false because it cannot be proven true. Example: Wala talagang Diyos kase hindi ko siya nakikita kahit na sa microscope. Addendum: Non sequitur (It does not follow) An argument whose conclusion does not follow logically from the premises as when two ideas are disconnected. Example: The sky is blue, therefore I love you. 8. Post hoc ergo propter hoc (False Cause) Example: The Basketball Varsity of the College of the Immaculate Conception won the championship game because the players drank Milo Energy drink before the game. 9. Complex Question This is asking a question that presupposes an answer to another question that has not been asked and answered. Example: Is he your 3rd boyfriend?

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NOTABLE NEIGHBORS (Logic Problem) There are five houses in a row, each of a different color, and inhabited by 5 people of different nationalities, with different pets, favorite drinks and favorite sports. Use the clues below to determine who owns the monkey and who drinks water. The Englishman lives in the red house. The Spaniard owns the dog. Coffee is drunk in the green house. The Russian drinks tea. The green house is immediately to the right of the white house. The hockey player owns hamsters. The football player lives in the yellow house. Milk is drunk in the middle house. The American lives in the first house on the left. The table tennis player lives in the house next to the man with the fox. The football player lives next to the house where the horse is kept. The basketball player drinks orange juice. The Japanese likes baseball.

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING The American lives next to the blue house.

HOUSE 1 Color Country Sport Drink Pet





A Cabbage, a Goat, and a Tiger by Erik Oosterwal A man is traveling with a tiger, a goat, and a cabbage. I have no idea why he would be traveling with such a strange assortment, but there he is anyway. At one point in his journey he comes to a river which is too deep to wade across, and too wide to swim across so he is in a quandry on how to continue. He notices a small boat tied to the near shore, but the boat is too small to fit all his belongings into, but it is large enough so that he can safely row across with one belonging at a time. The problem is that if he rows across with the tiger first, then the goat will eat the cabbage, and if he rows across with the cabbage first, the tiger will eat the goat. How can he safely cross the river with all his things intact? Liar, Liar, Pants on Fire by Erik Oosterwal You're a traveler in a distant land which is inhabited by two races. The first race, we'll call them Glurphs, can not ever tell a lie, and the second race, we'll call them Rafas, can't seem to ever tell the truth. Being a stranger to this land you are not familiar with the ways of the people there and when you meet a group of three citizens you ask them which race they belong to. The first one mumbles something that you could not understand. The second one explains "He said he was a Rafa." The third one retorts "You're a liar!" Your problem is to figure out which race the third man belonged to. Crossing the Bridge by Erik Oosterwal Four men approach a bridge at night. The bridge is old and rickety and can support, at most, two men going across at one time. They have only one flashlight to share between them. Each man has differing abilities and some take more time to cross than the others. The times it takes for each man to cross are: 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, and 10 minutes. When crossing in pairs, they can only cross as fast as the slowest man can go. How can all four men cross in only 17 minutes total? Brainteasers (taken from Introduction to Logic by Copi, 4th edition, pp. 50-60) 1. On a certain train the crew consists of the brakeman, the fireman, and the engineer Their names listed alphabetically are Jones, Robinson, and Smith. On the train are also three passengers with corresponding names, Mr. Jones, Mr. Robinson, and Mr., Smith. The following facts are known: Mr. Robinson lives in Detroit. The brakeman lives halfway between Detroit and Chicago. Mr. Jones earns exactly $20,000.00 a year.

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING Smith once beat the fireman at billiards. The brakemans next-door neighbor, one of the three passengers mentioned earns exactly three times as much as the brakeman. a) The passenger living in Chicago has the same name as the brakeman. What was the engineers name? 2. The employees of a loan company are Mr. Black, Mr. White, Mrs. Coffee, Miss Ambrose, Mr. Kelly, and Miss Earnshaw. The positions they occupy are manager, asst. manager, cashier, stenographer, teller, and clerk, though not necessarily in that order. The assistant manager is the managers grandson, the cashier is the stenographers son-in-law, Mr. Black is a bachelor, Mr. White is 22 years old, Miss Ambrose is the tellers step-sister and Mr. Kelly is the managers neighbor. Who holds each position?

3. In a certain mythical community, politicians never tell the truth, and nonpoliticians always tell the truth. A stranger meets three natives and asks the first of them, Are you a politician? The first native answers the question. The second native then reports that the first native denied being a politician. The third native says that the first native is a politician. How many of these three natives are politicians? 4. Mr. Short, his sister, his son, and his daughter are fond of golf and often play together. The following statements are true of their foursome: a) The best players twin and the worst player are of opposite sex. b) The best player and the worst player are of the same age. Which one of the foursome is the best player? 5.Benno Torelli, genial host at Hamtramcks most exclusive night club, was shot and killed by a racketeer gang because he fell behind in his protection payments. After considerable effort on the part of the police, five suspects were brought before the district attorney, who asked them what they had to say for themselves. Each of them had made three statements, two true and one false. Their statements were: Lefty: Red: Dopey: Spike: I did not kill Torelli. I never owned a revolver in my life. Spike did it. I did not kill Torelli. I never owned a revolver. The others are all passing the buck. I am innocent. I never saw Butch before. Spike is guilty. I am innocent. Butch is the guilty one. Lefty did not tell the truth when he said I did it.

Butch: I did not kill Torelli. Red is the guilty one. Dopey and I are pals. Which of them is the guilty one? 6.Of three prisoners in a certain jail, one had normal vision, the second had only one eye, and the third was totally blind. All were of at least average intelligence. The jailer told the prisoners that from three white hats and two red hats he would select three and put them on the prisoners heads. Each was prevented from seeing what color hat was placed on his own head. They were brought together, and the jailer offered freedom to the prisoner with normal vision if he could tell what color hat was on his head. The prisoner confessed that he couldnt tell. Next the jailer offered freedom to the prisoner with only one eye if he could tell what color hat was on his head. The second prisoner confessed he couldnt tell. The jailer did not bother making the offer to the blind prisoner, but he agreed to extend the same terms to him when he made the request. The blind person then smiled broadly and said: I do not need to have my sight; From what my friends with eyes have said, I clearly see my hat is ______! How did he know? (FROM A TEXT MESSAGE) Crime Scene: In a condo unit, a dead man with a gun in one of his hands and a recorder on the other. A gunshot through his head. No sign of violence. The detective in charge took the recorder and played it. Im tired of my life,

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PHILO. 101 INTRO. TO PHILOSOPHY WITH LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING I wanna die. *gunshot* the detective asked the dead mans roommate is this his voice? he replied. yes the detective said we must find the murderer How did the detective know it was murder and not a suicide?

BIBLIOGRAPHY Agapay, Ramon B. Logic: The Essentials of deductive Reasoning., Pasig City: Capitol Publishing House. Inc., 1991. Bachhuber, Andrew H. Introduction to Logic., New York: Appleton-Century-Cofts, Inc., 1967. Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 4th ed., New York: The MacMillan Co., 1972. Liwanag, Rhodel T. Philosophy and Logic: An Introduction to Philosophy, Logic and Symbolic logic, Philippines: Liwanag Gen. Merchandizing, 2006. Oesterte, John A. The Art of Defining and Reasoning, 2nd ed. USA: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1963. Osborne, Richard. Philosophy for beginners., USA: Writers and readers Publishing Incorporated, 1992. Pion, Fr. Manuel OP., Logic primer, Manila: Rez Printing Company, Inc., 1979. Salvador, Martinez T. Logic: A Textbook in deductive Reasoning, Quezon City: Publishing House, Inc., 1980. http://www.geocities.com/oosterwal/puzzle.htm http://www.geocities.com/heartland/plains/4484/lp9702.htm http://www.freeinternet.co.uk/users/ambrose.jones/Headscratch_stickman.jpg

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