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Child abuse is the physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or neglect of a child.

In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department of Children And Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or [2] other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse:neglect, physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and child sexual abuse. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or [3] exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm". A person who [4] feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may be described as a "pedopath".


Violence against children

UNICEF Malaysia/2006/Nadchatram

Violence against children includes physical and mental abuse as well as injury, neglect, exploitation and sexual abuse. Tragically, children experience violence in all spaces most familiar to them: in homes, schools, parks and communities they live in. They also suffer abuse and exploitation in orphanages, on streets, in the workplace, in cyberspace as well as in places of detention.

Malaysia: Child abuse, molestation and rape

Reported to the Royal Malaysian Police Year Total Cases 2,236 5,744 Monthly Ave 186 479

2005 2008

2009 (Jan-July)



Factsheet: Child abuse in Malaysia Like in most countries, only extreme child abuse and neglect cases are reported in Malaysia, often involving tragic elements of disturbing injuries, sexual abuse or even death. International experience suggests that reported cases are likely to represent only 10 per cent of total cases perpetrated as most victims and their families remain too ashamed or unable to report the violations against them. Violence affects childrens physical and mental health, impairs their ability to learn and socialise, and undermines their development as functional adults and good parents later in life. In the most severe cases, violence against children can also lead to death. The causes of violence against children are complex. Family breakdown, stress, chronic poverty, unemployment, mental health disorders, substance abuse, homelessness, community violence and lack of quality parental time contribute to cases of abuse and neglect of children.

Child abuse can take several forms: The four main types are physical, sexual, psychological, and [6] neglect. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice], Office on Child Abuse and doctor). There are many effects of child neglect, such as children not being able to [7] interact with other children around them. The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered [8] chronic neglect. [edit]Physical


Main article: Physical abuse Some human-service professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one [9] of the causes of child abuse, and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms. [edit]Child

sexual abuse

Main article: Child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for [10][11] sexual stimulation. Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displayingpornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's [10][12][13] genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography. Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather [14] than simple incarceration. Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), selfesteemissues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic [15] [16] [17] complaints,depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental

illnesses (including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity [19] [20] to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, physical injury to the child, among other [21] problems. Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when [22][23][24][25][26] they were children. Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbours; strangers [22] are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases. In over one-third of cases, the [27] perpetrator is also a minor (see child-on-child sexual abuse). [edit]Psychological/emotional Main article: Emotional abuse Out of all the possible forms of abuse, emotional abuse is the hardest to define. It could include namecalling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or killing of a pet, excessivecriticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labeling [28] orhumiliation. Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser, internalizing the abusive words, or fighting back by insulting the abuser. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development, a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the [28] abuse, learned helplessness, and overly passive behavior.




"Let your child know you care"

The major types of child abuse include physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and child neglect. Physical abuse is a physical act of aggression directed at a child that causes injury, pain or impairment. Injuries may result from punching, beating, kicking, burning or anything that brings about physical pain or discomfort. Sexual abuse is an inappropriate sexual behavior with a child. It is when a child is forced or persuaded into sexual acts or situations by others. Emotional abuse is a verbal abuse or an attitude that is degrading a child. They may be constantly criticized, blamed, sworn, shouted at, rejected by those they look to for affection or compared unfavorably with siblings or other children. It can have long lasting effects on the social and mental health development of a child. Neglect is the withdrawal of or failure to provide a child with the basic necessities for physical growth and development. This can include inappropriate clothing for the weather, unhealthy food or no food at all, lack of supervision, denial of medical care to a sick or injured child or denial of love and affection. The best way to help an abused child or preventing it from happening to your child is by educating yourself and watching for the signs. Signs of physical child abuse

Have unexplained burns, cuts, bites, bruises, broken bones or black eyes. Seems frightened and reluctant to go home. Fear of a particular person or family member.

Seems unusually withdrawn or overly aggressive. Have numerous fractures, welts or bruises in various stages of healing.
Signs of sexual child abuse

Sudden refusal in participation of physical activities. Shows unusual sexual knowledge or behaviour. Have difficulty walking or sitting. Irritation of genital or anal areas. Juvenile prostitution, pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections.
Signs of emotional child abuse

Apathy, depression and hostility. Shows extreme in behavior such as over demanding or extreme passivity. Have attempted suicide. Have low self-esteem. Recurrent nightmares, disturbed sleep patterns or a sudden fear of the dark.
Signs of child neglect

Hunger and inadequate growth from poor nutrition. Consistently dirty, offensive body odour, unkempt. Inappropriate and lack of sufficient clothing. Failure to get needed medical care, illness left untreated. Poor school performance, tardiness or absenteeism.
While it is difficult to be certain that the above signs result from abuse, they may be used to help identify possible problems in a child's life that warrants attention. Ways to prevent child abuse

Encourage open communication and honest discussion with your children. Develop strong communication skills with them and encourage them to tell you about anything that happens to them. Explain the importance of reporting abuse to you or another trusted adult. Make an effort to know your childrens friends and the people whom they are spending time with. Try to also participate in your children's activities, clubs or sports teams. You will have a better opportunity to observe how the adults in charge interact with your children. Be suspicious if your children spend unexplained time with someone outside of practices, meetings and events.

Be sensitive to any changes in your children's behavior or attitude. Pay attention if your children tell you that they do not want to be with someone or go somewhere. This may be an indication that something could be wrong. Teach your children what is and is not acceptable from others. Tell them that they have the right to say no to any unwelcome, uncomfortable or confusing touch or actions by others. Tell them to inform you immediately if this happens. Support your child. Let your child know you care. Explain your concerns and tell your child why it is important that you need to know who they are talking to and what they are doing. Reassure them that you are there to help and tell them that they will be respected and loved under any circumstance. Know your children's online activities and friends. Learn more about the websites they visit, what they use the Internet for and the people they are talking to. Tell your children never to plan a face to face meeting with people they have met through the Internet. If you suspect a case of child abuse, you may need to seek support from your health department, child support services department or other sources within your area. List for yourself whom to call for advice, information, and help. You may also look in your phone book for social services or other local agencies that deal with abused children.