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# Synthetic Surfaces

## 1) Hermite (Bicubic Surface) Patch

2) Bezier (Surface) Patch
3) B-Spline (Surface) Patch
4) Coons (Surface) Patch
5) Blending offset (Surface) Patch
6) Triangular (Surface) Patch
7) Sculptured (Surface) Patch
1
8) Rational surfaces (Surface) Patch
All these surfaces are based on polynomial forms.
Fourier series can also be used to approximate the surfaces
instead. But they are not meant for general use. Because
the facts are:
(i) they can approximate any curve, not just periodic
(ii) computations involved are high
Hermite Bicubic Surface
The parametric bicubic surface patch connects four corner data
points and utilizes a bicubic equation.
Therefore, 16 vectors or 163=48 scalars are required to
determine the unknown coefficients in the equation. How?
Corner points=4, corner tangent vectors=42=8, corner twist
vectors=4.
2

= =
=
3
0
3
0
1 0 , 1 0 , ) , (
i j
j i
ij
v u v u C v u P
The parametric equation of Hermite bicubic surface patch is
[ ] [ ]
(
= =
=
2 3 2 3
by given is [C] matrix t coefficien The
1 ] [ , 1 ] [
1 0 , 1 0 ], ][ [ ] [ ) , (
curve. cubic Hermite similar to expanded be can equation The
C C C C
v v v V u u u U
v u V C U v u P
T T
T
3
(
(
(
(

=
00 01 02 03
10 11 12 13
20 21 22 23
30 31 32 33
] [
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C
C
(
(
(

=
] [ ] [
follows. as defined matrix condition boundary or geometry the is ] [
curve. cubic Hermite for defined already matrix Hermite the is ] [ Here
1 0 , 1 0 ], [ ] ][ ][ [ ] [ ) , (
obtained. is patch surface Hermite
bicubic of equation following the ts coefficien for the solving and
equation parametric the into conditions boundary the Applying
01 00
01 00 v v
H
T
H H
T
P P P P P P
P P P P
B
M
v u V M B M U v u P
4
(

=
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
st vectors corner twi ctors tangent ve - u corner
ctors tangent ve - corner v points corner
] [ ] [
] [ ] [
] [
11 10 11 10
01 00 01 00
11 10
11 10
uv u
v
uv uv u u
uv uv u u
v v
P P
P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
B
] [ ] ][ [ ] [ ] [ ) , (
] [ ] ][ ][ [ ] [ ) , (
] [ ] ][ [ ] [ ] [ ) , (
by given are surface the
on point any at tors twist vec and ectors tangent v The
=
=
=
vT u T
vT
H H
T
v
T
H
u
H
T
u
V M B M U v u P
V M B M U v u P
V M B M U v u P
5
defined matrix Hermite al differenti The ] [ ] [
] [ ] ][ [ ] [ ] [ ) , (
= =
=
v
H
u
H
vT
H
u
H
T
uv
M M
Here
V M B M U v u P
Influencing factors
on position and
[ ]
[ ]

=
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , (
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , (
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
v F
v F
v F
v F
v F
B u F u F u F u F v u P
v F
v F
v F
v F
B u F u F u F u F v u P
v
u u u u
u
6
on position and
tangent vectors
[ ]
[ ]

=
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , (
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , (
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
v F
v F
v F
v F
B u F u F u F u F v u P
v F
v F
v F
v F
B u F u F u F u F v u P
v
v
v
v
u u u u
uv
v
v
v
v
s s s F
s s s s F
s s s F
s s s F
) (
2 ) (
3 2 ) (
1 3 2 ) (
necessary. as v" " and u" " both represent
commonly chosen to been has below s" " variable The
2 3
4
2 3
3
2 3
2
2 3
1
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
7
s s s F
s s s F
s s s F
s s s F
s
s
s
s
2 3 ) (
1 4 3 ) (
6 6 ) (
6 6 ) (
: are functions basis the of s derivative The
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
4
=
+ =
+ =
=
[ ] [ ]
[ ][ ]
+ + + =
+ + + =
= =
+ + + =
=
=
= =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , 0 (
,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , 1 (
zero. are (u) F of rest 1, (u) F 1, u with edge on the ,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ] [ 0 0 0 1 ) , 0 (
zero. are (u) F of rest 1, (u) F 0, u with edge On the
11 4 10 3 11 2 10 1
i 2
01 4 00 3 01 2 00 1
4 3 2 1 01 00 01 00
4 3 2 1
i 1
P v F P v F P v F P v F v P
Further
P v F P v F P v F P v F v P
Similarly
P v F P v F P v F P v F
v F v F v F v F P P P P
v F v F v F v F B v P
v v
v v
T
v v
T
Proof
8

+ + + =
+ + + =
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [
) , 1 (
) , 0 (
) , 1 (
) , 0 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , 1 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , 0 (
4
3
2
1
11 4 10 3 11 2 10 1
01 4 00 3 01 2 00 1
v F
v F
v F
v F
B
v P
v P
v P
v P
Hence
P v F P v F P v F P v F v P
P v F P v F P v F P v F v P
u
u
uv uv u u u
uv uv u u u
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
] [ ] [
] [ ] [
] [
11 10 11 10
01 00 01 00
11 10
11 10
01 00
01 00
uv u
v
uv uv u u
uv uv u u
v v
v v
P P
P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
B
Proof
[ ]
[ ]

=
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) , 1 (
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) , 0 (
1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
v F
v F
v F
v F
v F
B F F F F v P
v F
v F
v F
v F
B F F F F v P
(
(
(
(

=
11 10 11 10
01 00 01 00
11 10
11 10
01 00
01 00
] [
uv uv u u
uv uv u u
v v
v v
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
P P P P
B
9
[ ]
[ ]

=
) (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) , 1 (
) (
) (
) (
] [ ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) , 0 (
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
v F
v F
v F
v F
B F F F F v P
v F
v F
v F
B F F F F v P
u u u u
u
u u u u
u
[ ] [ ]
[ ][ ]
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , (
,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 , (
zero. are (u) F of rest 1, (v) F 1, with v edge on the ,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
0 0 0 1 ] [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , (
zero. are (u) F of rest 1, (v) F 0, with v edge On the
11 4 01 3 11 2 01 1
i 2
10 4 00 3 10 2 00 1
10 00 10 00 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
i 1
P u F P u F P u F P u F u P
Further
P u F P u F P u F P u F u P
Similarly
P u F P u F P u F P u F
P P P P u F u F u F u F
B u F u F u F u F u P
u u
u u
T
u u
T
+ + + =
+ + + =
= =
+ + + =
=
=
= =
10
] [
) (
) (
) (
) (
) 1 , (
) 0 , (
) 1 , (
) 0 , (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 , (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , (
4
3
2
1
11 4 01 3 11 2 01 1
10 4 00 3 10 2 00 1
B
u F
u F
u F
u F
u P
u P
u P
u P
Hence
P u F P u F P u F P u F u P
P u F P u F P u F P u F u P
T T
v
v
uv uv v v v
uv uv v v v

+ + + =
+ + + =
Continuity of Blent Hermite Bicubic Patches
Similar to the Hermite cubic splines, the Bicubic
Hermite patches give maximum C
1
continuity from
one patch to the next, though they give C
2
continuity
inside each of the patches.
While blending two Bicubic Hermite patches, the
necessary conditions are:
11
Same curves (C
0
continuity) at the common edge
Same direction of tangent vectors (C
1
continuity) at the
common edge
The magnitudes of the tangent vectors do not have to be
the same
Blending Two Hermite Patches along u edges
[P(0,v)]
patch2
=[P(1,v)]
patch1
, C
0
continuity
[P
u
(0,v)]
patch2
=K[P
u
(1,v)]
patch 1
, C
1
continuity
The B matrix for the
shown. Only these
elements need to be
constrained, rest could
be arbitrary for C1
12
be arbitrary for C1
continuity
HERMITE BICUBIC PATCH IS A SIMPLE EXTENSION OF THE HERMITE CUBIC CURVE
There are two ways to prove it.
1) Substitute u=1 or v=1 in the parametric equation of the
Hermite patch, it degenerates to that of HCC.
1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0
0 3
30
0 2
20
0 1
10
0 0
00
3
0
3
0
) , (
1 0 , 1 0 , ) , (
v u C v u C v u C v u C
v u C v u C v u C v u C v u P
v u v u C v u P
i j
j i
ij
+ + + +
+ + + + =
=

= =
13
3
3
2
2 1 0
3 3
33
3 2
23
3 1
13
3 0
03
2 3
32
2 2
22
2 1
12
2 0
02
1 3
31
1 2
21
1 1
11
1 0
01
) , (
HCC. to reduces it cases, 1 v and 0 v of each For
u C u C u C C v u P
v u C v u C v u C v u C
v u C v u C v u C v u C
v u C v u C v u C v u C
+ + + =
= =
+ + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
The second way to prove is:
2) Let u edges coincide. P
00
coincides with P
10
, and P
01
coincides
with P
11
. Pv
00
=Pv
10
and Pv
01
=Pv
11
. All four twist vectors will be
zero. P
u00
=P
u10
= P
u01
=P
u11
=0.
[ ]
4
3
2
1
01 00 01 00
01 00 01 00
) (
) (
) (
) (
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 ) , 0 (
, 0
v v
v v
v F
v F
v F
v F
P P P P
P P P P
v P
u For

(
(
(
(

=
=
14
[ ]
01 4 00 3 01 2 00 1
4
3
2
1
01 00 01 00
01 00 01 00
01 4 00 3 01 2 00 1
4
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , 1 (
) (
) (
) (
) (
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 ) , 1 (
, 1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , 0 (
) ( 0 0 0 0
v v
v v
v v
v v
P v F P v F P v F P v F v P v P
v F
v F
v F
v F
P P P P
P P P P
v P
u For
P v F P v F P v F P v F v P v P
v F
+ + + = =

(
(
(
(

=
=
+ + + = =

= = =
+ + = + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + = =

= =
matrix, [B] resultant The zero. to equal are all rest
; ;

) , (
01 10 0 00
0
3 3
33
3 2
23
3 1
13
3 0
03
2 3
32
2 2
22
2 1
12
2 0
02
1 3
31
1 2
21
1 1
11
1 0
01
0 3
30
0 2
20
0 1
10
0 0
00
0
3
0
3
0
C
s L C r L C P C
Hence
s vL r uL P v u C v u C v u C v u C
v u C v u C v u C v u C
v u C v u C v u C v u C
v u C v u C v u C v u C
s vL r uL P v u C v u P
ij
v u
v u
v u
i j
j i
ij
By equivalence, find the bicubic
planar surface patch.
15
(
(
(
(

+ + +
+
=
=
0 0
0 0

[B]
be to going is
] [ ] ][ ][ [ ] [ ) , (
the build you when
matrix, [B] resultant The zero. to equal are all rest
0 0
0 0
r L r L
r L r L
s L s L s L r L P r L P
s L s L s L P P
V M B M U v u P
C
u u
u u
v v v u u
v v v
T
H H
T
ij
Can you prove it?