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Choral Literature II Baroque

Dr. David Puderbaugh Spring 2012

PASSION MUSIC The story of the Crucifixion as recorded in the Gospels of Matthew (xxvixxvii), Mark (xivxv), Luke (xxiixxiii) and John (xviiixix). In the Roman liturgy the Passion texts are recited as Gospel lessons during Mass on Palm Sunday (Matthew), Tuesday of Holy Week (Mark), Wednesday of Holy Week (Luke) and Good Friday (John). At a very early date special lesson tones were developed for reciting the Passion, and polyphonic settings of its texts have been made since the 15th century. (New Grove). In the modern liturgy, the Passion has been expunged from Tuesday and Wednesday of Holy Week. The Matthew, Mark, and Luke Passions now are read on Palm Sunday on a three-year rotation. The John Passion is still read every year on Good Friday. PASSION TYPES Monophonic Passion: The earliest type. It is not known exactly when the Passion began to be sung, but it was done according to plainchant formulae. At first it was sung by one person, even though evidence seems to indicate that the singer was to differentiate between the various characters [Jesus, Narrator, Synagoga (other personages, including crowd)] with different pitch levels and inflections. As early as the 13th century, the monophonic Passion was performed by three separate persons. GIA English translation of monophonic passion chants Responsorial (Dramatic) Passion: Beginning in the 15th century. The Evangelist is still monophonic. The turba choruses are polyphonic, as well as the words of Christ (after 1535-40). The exordium as well as the conclusio are also polyphonic. The Passion plainchant melodies could be set as strict cantus firmi or can be treated freely. Earliest examples are both English: a John Passion and an incomplete Matthew Passion from 143044 anon composition. Motet (Through-Composed) Passion: Beginning in the 16th century. The entire text is set polyphonically. There were three primary types. 1. the entire text taken from one Gospel. 2. The summa passionis or passion harmony was a synthesis of texts taken from all four Gospels, including Christs Seven Last Words. 3. A shortened excerpt taken from one Gospel (found in Protestant Germany). The plainchant melodies were either used as strict cantus firmi, used freely, or not used at all. Oratorio Passion: Most common in the first third of the 18th century. Plainsong narration replaced by recitative. Instrumental accompaniment added, as well as arias, chorales, and

sinfonias. The chorales and instrumental music gave the congregation the opportunity to reflect actively or passively on the significance of the scenes just presented. (Smallman). Matthew was the preferred gospel for this genre because its structure lent itself well to the interpolation of these chorales and instrumental numbers. German Oratorio Passions were most often divided into two equal parts, and a sermon would be given between them. Passion Oratorio: Operatic in style, with original text. Symbolic characters added (eg. Daughter of Zion). Titles of Passion Oratorios are often poetic, such as Grauns Trostvolle Gedancken ber das Leiden und Sterben unsers Herrn und Heilandes Jesu Christi. (Handels Broches Passion) *Look at second word to distinguish the two the second word is the most dominant Hybrid forms: Many Passions combined elements from various Passion genres. The practice of parody and pasticcio (pastiche) saw the works of other composers inserted into Passions. Bachs Oratorio Passions borrowed texts and other formal features from Passion Oratorios. This makes the distinction between the various types less clear in some instances.

DRAMATIC OR RESPONSORIAL PASSIONS LATIN 1. Anon: Egerton MS 3307 (British Library)between 1430 and 1444 Complete Luke Passion (1st polyphonic Passion) Incomplete Matthew Passion 1st extant polyphonic passion 3 vv. polyphony in discant style 2. Anon: Shrewsbury School MS VIca. 1430 Matthew Passion and John Passion. Only the superius partbook survives for both of these. 3. Anon: Biblioteca Estense, ModenaMS Lat. 455c. 1480 John and Matthew Passions (Matthew Passion is possibly by Binchois) No specific music for Evangelist or Christ Only the turba are polyphonic Some 8 vv. sections 4. Richard Davyc. 1492 Earliest polyphonic passion by a known composer Incomplete Matthew Passion Eton Choirbook: Musica Brittanica, v. 12 M2.M638 v.12 4 vv. 5. Francesco Corteccia

John Passion (1527) Matthew Passion (1532) Earliest datable responsorial passion 6. Claude de Sermisy1534 Matthew Passion (hybrid) Collected Edition: M3.S45 v.2 Only French Renaissance setting of passion 7. Jacquet of Mantuaca. 1540 John Passion In Musikalische Denkmler, vol. 1, Mainz, 1955 M2.M925 v.1 8. Gaspard de Albertisca. 1540-43 (Smallman book discusses) Three Passions (written for the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Bergamo) 9. Vincenzo Ruffo (1508-95) Matthew Passion (1574) Luke Passion (1579) 10. Orlando di Lasso1575-94 Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John Passions Smtliche Werke, New Series, vol. 2 M3.L35 v.2 Matthew Passion in: Lassus: St. Matthew Passion, Visitatio, Exsultet harmonia mundi, p.1994 Some of the single characters in Matthew Passion sung by 2 or 3 vv. polyphony 11. Jakob Reinerafter 1579 John, Matthew, and Mark Passions 12. Giaches de Wertc. 1580 Mark Passion (composed in Mantua) In collected edition M3.W45 v.17 13. Giovanni Matteo Asola1583 John Passion In Musikalische Denkmler, vol. 1 Mainz, 1955 M2.M925 v.1 14. Tomas Luis de Victoria1585 Matthew and John Passions (Institute of Medieval Music M2012.V5 1982; Concordia 97-5271 maybe English only) Considered to be the finest Renaissance polyphonic passion 15. Francisco Guerreroend of 16th c. Matthew and John Passions (and three others)

16. William Byrd1607 John Passion (Tudor Church Music, vol. 7) 17. Alessandro Scarlattic. 1685 John Passion (hybridquasi-oratorio passion) Carus 10.007 (also Hannsler 10.007) M2.C6436 no. 1 (performable with strings solo evangelist) 18. Matias Ruiz1702 Matthew Passion (setting of turbae only) DRAMATIC OR RESPONSORIAL PASSIONS GERMAN 1. Johann Walter1545 Matthew and John Passions Matthew Passion found in Kade: Die ltere Passionskomposition bis zum Jahre 1631 (Gtersloh, 1893) ML3445.K11 1893a 2. Antonio Scandelloc. 1561 John Passion (hybrid) In: Kade: Die ltere Passionskomposition bis zum Jahre 1631 (Gtersloh, 1893) ML3445.K11 1893a 3. Jakob Meiland Mark (1567), John (1568), Matthew (1570) Passions Mark Passion in Handbuch der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenmusik vol. 1: pts. 3 & 4 M2.H3 v.1/pt. 3-4 4. Bartholomus Gesius1588 John Passion 5. Thomas Mencken1610 Matthew and John Passions 6. Ambrose Beberc. 1610 Mark Passion Das Chorwerk, No. 66 7. Samuel Besler1612 All four Evangelists Matthew Passion in Handbuch der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenmusik vol. 1: pts. 3 & 4 M2.H3 v.1/pt. 3-4 Modeled after Walter, but more dramatic.

8. Melchior Vulpius1613 Matthew Passion (Denkmler Thuringischer Musik, Heft 1) 9. T. Mancinus1620 Matthew Passion John Passion (M2098.L5.M26 1988Carus 40.088/01) 10. Otto Siegfried Harnisch1621 John Passion 11. Christoph Schultze1653 Luke Passion (M2.H65 v.10) Student of Schein in Leipzig. 12. Heinrich Schtz Luke Passion1664 John Passion1665 (Carus 20.481, OUP) Matthew Passion1666 (Carus 20.479) All three Passions are in collected works Influenced by Scandello, Beber, and Walter. Plainchant is newly composed.

MOTET PASSIONS OR THROUGH-COMPOSED PASSIONS LATIN 1. Antoine de Longuevalc.1512 Obrecht Passionpastiche, mostly Matthew (M2.R5 v.10; M2.V48 v.18) summa passionis 2. Baltasar Harzer (Resinarius)1543 John Passion (pastiche) (Das Chorwerk, No. 47) 3. Johannes Galliculusc.1520 (printed 1538) Mark Passion (pastiche) (M2.R5 v.10) 4. Cipriano de Rore1557 John Passion; in Musikalische Denkmler, vol. 1, M2.M925 v.1) 5. Vincenzo Ruffoc.1570 John Passion 6. Jakob Handl (Gallus)1587 Three Passions, all on the Obrecht text

John Passion in RBML: M2002.H27 P3 7. Ludwig Daser1587 Pastiche, based on Resinarius In Berg: Patrocinium musices, v. 6 (FILM 3382) 8. Jakob Regnart1590-95 Pastiche, based on Obrecht 9. Bartholomus Gesius1613 Matthew Passion, in Musica sacra VI, ed. F. Commer (Berlin, 1861) xfM2.M67 and FILM 12888) MOTET PASSIONS OR THROUGH-COMPOSED PASSIONS GERMAN 1. Joachim von Burck1568 Deutsches Passion (mostly John) M2.G39 1873a v.22 1st German motet passion. Abridged text 2. Johannes Steurlin1576 John Passion, based on Burck 3. Johann Machold1593 Matthew Passion, based on Burck 4. Leonhard Lechner1593 John Passion, in Lechner Collected Edition (M3.L53 v.12) Studied under Lassus Considered the finest German example. 5. Johannes Herold1594 M2.M85 no. 4 6. Christoph Demantius1631 John Passion (Das Chorwerk, no. 27) 6 vv. Wrote appendix in which he sets Isaiahs prophecy of Christs Passion.

ORATORIO PASSIONS 1. Thomas Selle Matthew Passion1642 John Passion (1643) (Das Chorwerk, no. 26) Based on chorale tunes. Uses instruments to help distinguish different characters. 2. Thomas Strutius (Strutz)1664 Matthew Passion (music lost) Text survives; 8 chorale texts were interpolated into the work. 3. Christian Flor1667 Matthew Passion (hybrid of dramatic passion and oratorio passion) Excerpts in Bach-Jahrbuch, 1930 st 1 passion to include arias 4. Augustin Pfleger1670 The Seven Last Words (Das Chorwerk, no. 52) 5. Johann Sebastiani1663 (printed 1672) Matthew Passion (DdT, Vol. 17) 26 chorale verses set to 10 tunes 1st passion to have congregational chorales printed in score 6. Johann Theile1673 Matthew Passion (DdT, Vol. 17) Arias, but no chorales Use of gambas while Evangelist sings Sinfonia & ritornelli 7. Friedrich Funcke (1642-1699) Matthew Passionc.1667-83 (Das Chorwerk, no. 78-9) Luke Passion (1683)The part of Christ rewritten in rhyme. MS lost in WWII. 8. J. Philipp Krieger Composed about 13 Passions b/t 1685 and 1722 9. J. Schellec. 1700 10. Johann Valentin Meder1700 Matthew Passion (Das Chorwerk No. 133) 11. Johann Khnhausenc.1700

Matthew Passion (Das Chorwerk, no. 50) 10 chorale verses, 5 duets, 5 congregational chorales

12. G.F. Handel (or G. Bhm)1704 John Passion (HHA ser. 1, v. 2); Willy Mtter SM2241; C.F. Peters (out of print) Definitely produced by Handel 5 vv. turba choruses Concluding chorus is a lullaby over Christs grave Uses only 19th chapter of John Sinfonia replaces exortium 13. Reinhard Keiserc.1712 Mark Passion Prominent opera composer in Hamburg; also composed both oratorio passions and passion oratorios. Bach performed this particular passion at least 3 times. 14. Johann Kuhnau1721 Mark Passion 15. Johannes Mattheson1723 Das Lied des Lammes (M2.C6436 Ser. 2, v.3) 16. Johann Sebastian Bach John Passion1724 Matthew Passion1729, or 1727 17. Georg Philip Telemann 46 Passions, 23 extant up to 1945; since WWII, 20 remain Luke Passion1728 (Musikalische Werke, v. 15) Inserts some Old Testament interpolations Matthew Passion1730 (Barocco Verlag, 1964) Matthew Passion1746 (M2000.T36.M4 1976) ***While in Hamburg, composed a Passion each year ***Uses bravura arias to communicate anger or passion 18. Johann Friedrich Fasch(1688-1758) A short Passion Jesu Christi, MS in Leipzig Musikbibliothek 19. Gottfried August Homilius (1714-1785) Matthew Passion Mark Passion

PASSION ORATORIO Some Passion Oratorio librettos: C.F. Hunold-Menantes, Der blutige und sterbende Jesus (1704) J.U. Knig, Trnen unter dem Kreuze Jesu (1711) Barthold Heinrich Brockes, Der fr die Snden der Welt gemarterte und sterbende Jesus (1712) J.U. Knig, Der zum Tode verurtheilte und gekreuzigte Jesus (1715) J.J.D. Zimmerman, Betrachtung der neunten Stunden an dem Todestage Jesus Other librettists: Samuel Mller, M.A. Wilkens, J.G. Seebach (1714), J. Beccau (1721), J.P. Kfer (1721; contains stage directions) 1. Johann Khnhausen1683 Luke Passion (hybrid) 2. Reinhard Keiser Hunold-Menantes Passion (1704) Knig Passion (1711) Brockes Passion (1712) Knig Passion (1715) 3. G.F. Handel1715 Brockes Passion (M3.1.H2 S3 1956 ser. 1, v.7; Barenreiter 4021 (reprint of the critical score); Carus 55.048) Excellent choruses No actual biblical text; the text rhymes Characters added, such as Daughter of Zion and True Believers 4. Johannes Mattheson1718 Brockes Passion 5. G.P. Telemann1718 Brockes Passion 6. Gottfried Heinrich Stlzel (1690-1749) 7. Johann David Heinichen1724 Nicht das Band, das dich bestricket 8. Johann Ernst Eberlin1750 Der blutschwitzende Jesus (DT, LV; M2.D36 v.55) 9. C.H. Graun

Der Tod Jesu (1755) (M2.C6436 Ser.2, v.5; Breitkopf EB 6748) Very popular; performed every year in Berlin until 1884 Cell construction: soloist presents free episode from Passion story in recitative form, then poetic reflection in an aria, followed by a congregational chorale Trostvolle Gedancken ber das Leiden und Sterben unsers Herrn und Heilandes Jesu Christi (British Museum MS Add. 31051) Passion Kommt her und schaut (Garland Pub.M2020.G69 L3 1986) 10. Johann Ernst Bach1764 Passionsoratorium (M2.D391 v.48) 11. Johann Friedrich Rolle (Passion Oratorios written between 1753 and 1783) Das Leiden und der Tod Jesu Brit. Mus. MS Add. 32075) 12. G.A. Homilius1775 Passions-Kantate (FILM 12319) 13. C.P.E. Bach Two passions1787, 1788 In: Die letzten Leiden des Erlsers (FILM 11038)

PASSIONS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, G. Passion Music from Schtz to Bach. The Monthly Musical Record 84 (1954): 115, 152, 175. Adams, H.M. Passion Music before 1724. Music & Letters 7, no. 3 (1926): 258-264. Nice overview - pdf Brainard, Paul. Bachs Parody Procedure and the St. Matthew Passion. JAMS 22, no. 2 (summer 1969): 241-260. Britsch, Royden. Musical and Poetical Rhetoric in Handels Setting of Brockes Passion Oratorio: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Poem with a Study of Handels Use of the Figurenlehre. PhD thesis, Florida State University, 1984. Cameron, Jasmin. The Crucifixion in Music : An Analytical Survey of Settings of the Crucifixus between 1680 and 1800. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2006. ML3260 .C36 2006 Davidson, Audrey. The Quasi-dramatic St. John Passions from Scandinavia and their Medieval Background. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1981. ML3188 .D38 passions in the vernacular not well known

Duff, Robert. The Baroque Oratorio Passion: A Conductor's Guide to Compositional Techniques and their Foundations. DMA thesis, University of Southern California, 2000. Thesis with table of ecery passion Formo, Paul. The St. Matthew Passion of Heinrich Schtz: A Conductors Analysis and Suggestions for Performance. DMA thesis, University of Iowa, 1976. T1976 .F726 Gllner, Theodor. Unknown Passion Tones in Sixteenth-Century Hispanic Sources. JAMS 28, no. 2 (1975): 46-71. Haberlen, John. A Critical Survey of the North German Oratorio Passion to 1700. DMA thesis, University of Illinois, 1974. Hanley, Edwin. Current Chronicle. Musical Quarterly 39, no. 2 (Apr. 1953): 241-275. [discussion of A. Scarlattis St. John Passion] Hardie, Jane & David Harvey, eds. Commemoration, Ritual, and Performance: Essays in Medieval and Early Modern Music. Ottawa Institute of Medieval Studies, 2006. ML172 .C64 2006 [discussion of Guerreros Passions] Jeppesen, Knud. A Forgotten Master of the Early 16th Century: Gaspar de Albertis. Musical Quarterly 44, no. 3 (July 1958): 311-28. Malinowski, Stanley. The Baroque Oratorio Passion. PhD thesis, Cornell University, 1978. Marissen, Michael. Lutheranism, Anti-Judaism, and Bach's St. John Passion: With an Annotated Literal Translation of the Libretto. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. ML410.B13 M268 1998 Melamed, Daniel. Hearing Bachs Passions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. MT115.B2 M43 2005 Moe, Donald (Daniel?). The St. Mark Passion of Reinhard Keiser; A Practical Edition, with an Account of its Historical Background. PhD thesis, University of Iowa, 1968. T1968 .M693 v.1-2 Smallman, Basil. The Background of Passion Music: J.S. Bach and his Predecessors. New York: Dover, 1970. ML3093 .S6 1970 Concise best place to start Steinitz, Paul. Bachs Passions. New York: C. Scribners Sons, 1978. MT115.B2 S73

Terry, Charles. Bach: The Passions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970. MT115.B22 T4 1926a v.1-2 PASSIONS SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY

Alessandro Scarlatti: Passion According to St. John. Ensemble Musica Polyphonica. Musical Heritage Society, 1975: MHS 3529. Alessandro Scarlatti: Passion selon Saint-Jean. Ensemble Musica Polyphonica. Arion, 2010 [iTunes] Carl Heinrich Graun: Der Tod Jesu. Ex Tempore. Hyperion, 2004: CDA67446. Demantius: Prophecy of the Sufferings and Death of Jesus Christ/Lechner: History of the Passion and Sufferings of our Savior and Redeemer, Jesus Christ. Spandauer Kantorei. Turnabout Vox, 1968: TV 34175. Handel: Passion nach B.H. Brockes. Regensburger Domchor. Archiv, 1968: SAPM 198 418. [also released on CD] Heinrich Schtz: St. Luke Passion. Engadiner Kantorei. Cantate, 2004: C 57622. Heinrich Schtz: Matthus-Passion. Hugo-Distler-Chor Berlin. Archiv, 1980: 2547 018. Lassus: St. Matthew Passion, Visitatio, Exsultet. Paul HillierTheatre of Voices. harmonia mundi, 1994: 907076. Mass of Tournai/St. Luke Passion. Tonus Peregrinus. 2003: Naxos 8.555861. The Renaissance Singers of Montreal: 1956-67. Renaissance Singers of Montreal. CBC Radio, 2003. STAY AWAY Tomas Luis de Victoria: Officium Hebdomadae Sanctae (Roma 1585). La Colombina. 2005: Glossa 922002. William Byrd: Music for Holy Week & Easter. The Cardinalls Musick. ASV Digital, 2001: CD GAU 214.