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Digital Signal Processing


IIR DIGITAL FILTERS
IIR Digital Filters
An IIR digital filter can be characterized by the transfer function:
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

M
i
i
i
N
i
i
i
z b
z a
z H
1
0
1
) (
where

and

are the weighting coefficients


In this class of filter
the zeroes can be anywhere on the Z-plane, but
the poles must be inside the unit circle for stability.
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IIR Digital Filters
Transfer function:
|
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|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

M
i
i
i
N
i
i
i
z b
z a
z H
1
0
1
) (
A linear phase response filter will be obtained if
the denominator of the above equation (as well as its
numerator) is a mirror image polynomial or a negative mirror-
image polynomial.
But the roots of such polynomials occur in reciprocal pairs with
respect to the unit circle.
This means for every pole inside the unit circle there would
have to be a mirror image pole outside the unit circle.
IIR Digital Filters
Transfer function:
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

M
i
i
i
N
i
i
i
z b
z a
z H
1
0
1
) (
Since for stability all the pole of H(z) must be inside the unit
circle:
stable, realizable IIR filters cannot attain an exactly linear
phase characteristic,
except for the special case where all the poles for the
transfer function lie on the unit circle (here the system
is at the limit of stability).
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IIR Digital Filters
Since group delay of a filter is given by:
group delay = -d(phase response)/d(frequency)
It is concluded that an IIR filter cannot have a constant
group delay.
This means different frequency components of the input
signal reach the filter output at different times.
Consequently the reconstruction of the signal from the
filter output sequences will lead to a distorted signal.
IIR Digital Filters
This problem can be overcome by two techniques:
1. Use of an all-pas network with the IIR filter to equalise the
group delay.
2. To specify the filter response initially in terms of amplitude
response and group delay and
use optimisation techniques to find suitable filter
coefficients.
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IIR Digital Filter Design
BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION METHOD
The bilinear transformation of an analogue filter to an equivalent
digital filter is obtained by making the following substitution in the
transfer function of analogue filter, H(s):
1
1
.
2
+

=
z
z
T
s
That is:
) 1 (
) 1 ( 2 ) ( ) (
+

=
=
Z T
Z
S
s H z H
BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
How the s-plane is mapped onto the z-plane
S-plane Z-plane
The entire j-axis of the s-plane is mapped onto the unit circle.
The left half of the s-plane is mapped inside the unit circle on the z-plane.
The right half of the s-plane is mapped outside the z-plane unit circle.
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BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
The mapping properties can be easily shown by solving for z in terms of s
from the transformation equation.
s T
s T
z

+
=
) / 2 (
) / 2 (
j s + =
with


j T
j T
z

+ +
=
) / 2 (
) / 2 (
but
j
re z =
|
.
|

\
|

+ |
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+
+ +
=



T T
T
T
r
/ 2
tan
/ 2
tan
) / 2 (
) / 2 (
1 1
2 / 1
2 2
2 2
|
.
|

\
|

+ |
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+
+ +
=



T T
T
T
r
/ 2
tan
/ 2
tan
) / 2 (
) / 2 (
1 1
2 / 1
2 2
2 2
BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
for > 0 r > 1
(right half of the s-plane) (outside the unit circle)
for < 0 r < 1
(left half of the s-plane) (inside the unit circle)
for = 0 r = 1,
(j axis of the s-plane)
)
2
( tan 2
1
T


=
Hence, = 0 for = 0
for +
- for -
(unit circle)
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BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
The Wrapping effect
There is a highly nonlinear relationship between analogue frequency
and digital frequency .
1
1
1
1
.
2

=
z
z
T
s
for
T j
e z

=
and j s =
T j
T j
e
e
T
j

=
1
1
.
2
2 / 2 /
2 / 2 /
.
2
T j T j
T j T j
e e
e e
T
j


+

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
tan
2 T
T

or
BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
The Wrapping effect
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
tan
2 T
T

for T=2

/4
1
For small values of , the mapping is almost linear.
For most of the frequency scale, however, the mapping is highly nonlinear.
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BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION
The Wrapping effect
Fortunately, there is a large class of filters for which one can compensate for the
frequency warping.
This class includes such important filters as lowpass, bandpass, bandstop and
highpass.
First, the desired critical set of filter cut-off frequencies is determined (e.g. 1, 2)
Using the frequency warping relation between the digital and analogue frequency
scales, the filter cut-off frequencies are converted to a new set of analogue cut-off
frequencies (1, 2).
An analogue filter is designed with the appropriate warped cut-off frequencies (1,
2).
Applying a bilinear transformation to this analogue filter gives a digital filter with the
desired cut-off frequencies.
Approach