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Unit 1 - Screening

By Evelyn R. Laurito

What is Screening?
Screening is a method of separating particles according to size alone. Screening Surface
Interwoven Wire Mesh (carbon or stainless steel, phosphor bronze) Cloth (silk, plastic, nylon, fiberglass) Perforated Plates Bars

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ChE 211 Course Notes by ERLaurito

Separation Theory
Feed

Oversize(Tails)

Undersize(Fines) Screen
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Particle Size
Equidimensional particles:
In general "diameter, Dp may be specified

Non-Equidimensional particles:
Dp is the second longest major dimension

Units of Dp depend on the size of particles


Coarse particles: inches or millimeters Fine particles: screen size Very fine particles: micrometers or nanometers Ultra fine particles: surface area per unit mass, m2/g
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Mesh
Mesh Number Number of openings per linear inch Example: Mesh 4 Mesh 200
1 1 1 1

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ChE 211 Course Notes by ERLaurito

Sieve Scale
A sieve scale is a series of testing sieves having openings in a fixed succession (Largest opening to smallest) 3 Types:
Tyler Standard Sieve Series (MSH) US Sieve Series (Table 19-6/HB) International Test Sieve Series

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ChE 211 Course Notes by ERLaurito

Common Sized Solids

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Arrangement of Mesh Screens

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Modern Particle Size Measurement While historically mainly methods using mechanical,
aerodynamic, or hydrodynamic properties for discrimination and particle sizing have been used
the particle is allowed to settle in a viscous fluid, then the calculated diameter of a sphere of the same substance that would have the same falling speed in the same fluid (i.e., the Stokes diameter) is taken as the appropriate size parameter of the particle. Since the Stokes diameter for the rod-shaped particle will obviously differ from the rod diameter, this difference represents added information concerning particle shape. The ratio of the diameters measured by two different techniques is called the shape factor.

today methods based on the interaction of the particles with electromagnetic waves (mainly light), ultrasound, or electric fields dominate.
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ChE 211 Course Notes by ERLaurito

Laser Diffraction method

Lorenz-Mie theory is based on the assumption of spherical, isotropic, and homogenous particles and that all particles can be described by a common complex refractive index m = n i. Index m has to be precisely known for the evaluation It is now ranging from below 0.1 m to about 1 cm. Laser diffraction is currently the fastest method for particle sizing at highest reproducibility. In combination with dry dispersion it can handle large amounts of sample, which makes this method well suited for process applications.

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Image Analysis Methods


The extreme progress in image capturing and exceptional increase of the computational power within the last few years have revolutionized microscopic methods and made image analysis methods very popular for the characterization of particles, especially since, in addition to size, relevant shape information becomes available by the method. Currently, mainly instruments creating a 2D image of the 3D particles are used. Two methods have to be distinguished.

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Methods of Indicating Particle Size


Unsized Particles
Oversize 4 Mesh, +4, +4.76 mm Undersize 4 Mesh, -4, -4.76 mm

Sized Particles

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Through 4 on 6 -4+6 4/6 -4.76 mm + 3.36 mm


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Particle Size Distribution


Differential Screen Analysis: Data consist of Mesh No,n vs Wt frac or % retained on the screen(n) Cumulative Screen Analysis (larger than Dp): Data consist of n vs Cumulative fraction larger than n (n) Cumulative Screen Analysis (smaller than Dp): Data consist of n vs Cumulative fraction smaller than n (1-n)
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Screen Analysis
50 kg 5 kg
Mesh 6 Mesh 8 Mesh 10 Mesh 14

Differential Screen Analysis

20 kg 12 kg 6 kg 4 kg

n 6 8

n 0.10 0.40 0.24 0.12 0.08 0.06 1.00


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3 kg
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10 14 20 pan

Mesh 20

ChE 211 Course Notes by ERLaurito

Screen Analysis
50 kg
Mesh 6 Mesh 8 Mesh 10 Mesh 14

Cumulative Screen Analysis Larger than Dp

5 kg, 0.10 20 kg, 0.40 12 kg, 0.24 6 kg, 0.12 4 kg, 0.08

n 6 8

n 0.10 0.50

3 kg 0.06
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10 14 20 pan

0.74 0.86 0.94 1.00

Mesh 20

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Screen Analysis
50 kg
Mesh 6 Mesh 8 Mesh 10 Mesh 14

Cumulative Screen Analysis Smaller than Dp

5 kg, 0.10 20 kg, 0.40 12 kg, 0.24 6 kg, 0.12 4 kg, 0.08

n 6 8

1- n

0.90 0.50

3 kg 0.06
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10 0.26 14 0.14 20 0.06 pan 0

Mesh 20

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Screening Equipment
Grizzly Screens Rotating Screens Shaking Screens Vibrating Screens Oscillating Screens

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Material Balance
Feed

F=P+R FxF = PxP+ RxR

R, xR
Oversize

F, xF

Undersize Screen

P xF xR F xP xR

P, xP

R xP xF F xP xR
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Example No.1
It is desired to remove small particles from a crushed stone mixture by screening through a 10-mesh screen. The screen analysis of feed, overflow and underflow are given in the table.
a) Calculate the mass ratios of the overflow and underflow to feed. b) Plot Dp vs Screen analysis for the feed, overflow and underflow c) Find the effectiveness and capacity of the screen if the feed rate is 100 tons/hr
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Screen Analysis
Mesh 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 35 65 Pan Dp (mm) 4.699 3.327 2.362 1.651 1.168 0.833 0.589 0.417 0.208 Feed 0 0.025 0.125 0.32 0.26 0.155 0.055 0.02 0.02 0.02 Overflow 0 0.071 0.43 0.85 0.97 0.99 1.0 Underflow

1 0.805 0.42 0.17 0.09 0.06 0.025 0

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Screen Analysis
xF=.47
4 6 8 10 14 20 28 35 65 Pan 4.699 3.327 2.362 1.651 1.168 0.833 0.589 0.417 0.208 0 0.025 0.125 0.32 0.26 0.155 0.055 0.02 0.02 0.02
DSA

xP=.85
0 0.071 0.43 0.85 0.97 0.99 1

xR=.195
CSA Smaller

CSA Larger

1 0.805 0.42 0.17 0.09 0.06 0.025 0

Solution
From the table, xF=0.47, xP=0.85, xR=0.195

xP xF R P 1 = 0.58 F F xP xR
( x P x F )(1 x R ) ( x F x R ) x P E ( x P x R )(1 x F ) ( x P x R ) x F
6/9/2011 ChE 211 Course Notes by ERLaurito

x F x R 0.47 0.195 P = 0.42 F x P x R 0.85 0.195

=0.669

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Screen Effectiveness(E)
EA = Recovery of desired material in the product (x F x R )x P Px P (x P x R )x F Fx F EB = Recovery of undesired material in the reject ( x P x F )(1 x R ) R (1 x R ) ( x P x R )(1 x F ) F(1 x F ) Px P R (1 x R ) E=EAEB Fx F F(1 x F )

( x P x F )(1 x R ) ( x F x R ) x P E ( x P x R )(1 x F ) ( x P x R ) x F
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Screen Capacity
Capacity=mass of feed/area=F/A Throughflow method: Matthews Equation

A=0.4Ct/CuFoaFs
F=100

(19-23/HB)
d=.0319

Ct= 58
Cu=.46

Fs= 1 a=.0661

Foa=100a2/(a+d)2
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Screen Series
US Sieve Size No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7 Tyler Equivalen t 2 Mesh 3 Mesh 3 Mesh 4 Mesh 5 Mesh 6 Mesh 7 Mesh Opening mm 8.00 6.73 5.66 4.76 4.00 3.36 2.83 in 0.312 0.265 0.233 0.187 0.157 0.132 0.111 US Sieve Size No. 40 Tyler Equivalen t 35 Mesh Opening mm 0.420 in 0.0165

No. 45
No. 50 No. 60 No. 70

42 Mesh
48 Mesh 60 Mesh 65 Mesh

0.354
0.297 0.250 0.210

0.0139
0.0117 0.0098 0.0083

No. 80
No.100 No. 120 No. 140

80 Mesh
100 Mesh 115 Mesh 150 Mesh

0.177
0.149 0.125 0.105

0.0070
0.0059 0.0049 0.0041

No. 8
No.10 No. 12 No. 14 No. 16 No. 18 No. 20 No. 25 No. 30 No. 35

8 Mesh
9 Mesh 10 Mesh 12 Mesh 14 Mesh 16 Mesh 20 Mesh 24 Mesh 28 Mesh 32 Mesh

2.38
2.00 1.68 1.41 1.19 1.00 0.841 0.707 0.595 0.500

0.0937
0.0787 0.0661 0.0555 0.0469 0.0394 0.0331 0.0278 0.0234 0.0197

No. 170
No. 200 No. 230 No. 270

170 Mesh
200 Mesh 250 Mesh 270 Mesh

0.088
0.074 0.063 0.053

0.0035
0.0029 0.0025 0.0021

No. 325
No. 400

325 Mesh
400 Mesh

0.044
0.037

0.0017
0.0015