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1. Introduction: World War1 had ended with the defeat of Germany.

Turkey was also defeated as it sided with Germany. The British had put hard conditions on Germany and were now planning to put even harsher conditions on Turkey. Now the allies (British and France) planned to dismember the Turkish state and to abolish the seat of caliphate. This was a great disgrace to the Muslims and so they were enraged about this. They, the Muslims were greatly perturbed over the idea of disgrace of Caliphate and the dismemberment of Turkey, a Muslim state. Muslims had a great sentimental attachment with Caliphate which was a sign of unity among the Muslim Ummah. The Muslims of India approached the Viceroy of India and later delegation was also sent to Prime Minister, but of no avail. Therefore after such struggle, Khilafat committee was formed in November, 1919 and the Muslims of India demanded that: Turkey should not be divided into parts Caliphate should not be abolished Muslim Sacred places should not be harmed. As the Khilafat Movement was against the British, Hindus also cooperated and started noncooperation movement. The Khilafat movement was started by Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, both brothers, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Hasrat Mohani and Dr. Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari. It was started in 1919 to support the Ottoman Caliphate and was short lived, ending in 1924 by the overthrow of the Caliph by Kemal Ataturk in Turkey. It was briefly supported by Gandhi as analliance of sorts was formed to gain Indian independence which was then Part of the British Raj. The movement saw its beginning through the arrival in India at the end of the 19th century of Jamaluddin Afghani an envoy of Abdul Hamid II the then Ottoman emperor. The aim was to ensure that the promises made at Versailles by the victorious British of not abolishing the Khilafat, not be rescinded. Undivided India comprising of present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh at that point of time held the largest concentration of Muslims in the world.

Causes of its failure: The reality of the Khilafat Movement in India was that the Ulama (Islamic Scholars) were aware of the importance of having the Khaleefah, even if he were dysfunctional which was the case in India since the rule of the Ottoman Khaleefah did not cover the Indian sub-continent. This was not the first time that the Muslims in India were faced with this paradoz, earlier during the reign of AKbar, who had forsaken Islam to establish a new religion, a similar situation had risen and the Ulama of his time, chiefly Mujaddid Alf e Thani issued a decree to taht effect. Agaon at the end of the Plassey War, when Siraj udd Daula was defeated at the hands of the

British, Shah Abdul Azeez Dehlawi issued a Fatwa that since the Muslims in India are no longer under the Khaleefah, it became their duty to wage jihad on the British. The awareness of the importance of Khilafah system among the India Ulama was so acute that when they sensed during World War I that the Khilafah was weakening, they got together and provided all help to the Ottoman Khaleefah. In fact Maulana Mahmood ul Hasan, the rector of the Dar ul Uloom Deoband preactically involved allthe students and faculty of the seminary for this purpose and some critics even pointed out that this way the Darul Uloom would have to be closed sown. To this, he replied that if the Khilafah can be save by these efforts, we can then establish 10 more Darul Ulooms, but if we keep the Darul Uloom safe and allow the Khilafah to collapse, then what is the use of Darul Uloom? Such was their awareness of the importance of this issue. Unfortunately, the Maulana was taken prisoner to Malta and when he returned after three and a half years,, he was physically not in a position to lead the movement, and he died within six months of his release. Atfer this movement was hijacked by forces who served the interest of the British and later the Indian government. This was why some of the most respected Ulama, like Maulana Shabber Ahmad Usmani and Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi left the movement. This became a mere tool in the hands of the government and continues to be so. Today, the remnants of that great movement are under the name of Jami'at ul Ulama e Hind and they have not not only forsaken the original cause, they have also delivered the Darul Uloom in the hands of the Indian government, which is what Shaikhul Hind Maulana Mahmood Hasan had feared. The turks under Mustafa kemal Attaurk wanted their muslim rule back in Turkey threfore they accepted all the conditions given by the britishers and put an end to the khilafat movement by exiling the khalifa the Muslims or the khilafat in india got a great blow by this decision. But after the end of khilafat movement the Muslims realized that neither British nor the Hindus can be trusted in any way. Result of movement: Khilafat movement was launched by Muslims of South Asia to force British government to protect the Ottoman Empire after WW1. The results were as under: - Indian wide protests and rallies - Civil disobedience. - Collapse of Khilafat - Collapse of Hindu Muslim Alliance 1.Gandhis involvement in the khilafat movement 2.hijrat movement 3.moplah uprising 4.chaura chori incident 5.kamal attaturks abolishment of khilafat 6.muslim league with drawl from the movement