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SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM SET 1 MATH 265 Problem 3, section 1.

1) Prove A (B C) = (A B) (A C) A (B C) = (A B) (A C) Solution: For the rst equation, we have to prove that the left side is included in the right, and vice versa. Suppose that x A (B C). Then x A and x B C. That is, x A and either x B or x C. So, either x A and x B or x A and x C. Expressing this in set notation, x (A B) (A C). Now suppose that x (A B) (A C). Then x A and x B, or x A and x C. Thus, x A and either x B or x C. Writing this in set notation, x A (B C). This proves the rst equation. Now consider the second equation. Suppose that x A (B C). Then x A or x B C. That is, x A or both x B and x C. So, both x A or x B, and x A or x C. Expressing this in set notation, x (A B) (A C). Now suppose that x (A B) (A C). Then x A or x B, and x A or x C. Thus, x A or both x B and x C. Writing this in set notation, x A (B C). This proves the rst equation. Problem 13, section 1.1) Show that if f : A B and G, H are subsets of B, then f 1 (G H) = f 1 (G) f 1 (H) and f 1 (G H) = f 1 (G) f 1 (H). Solution: For the rst equation, assume that x f 1 (G H). Then f (x) G H, and so either f (x) G or f (x) H. Thus x f 1 (G) f 1 (H). Now assume that x f 1 (G)f 1 (H), so either f (x) G or f (x) H. Then either x f 1 (G) or x f 1 (H), and so x f 1 (G H). Now consider the second equation. Assume that x f 1 (G H). Then f (x) G H, so f (x) G and f (x) H. Thus x f 1 (G) f 1 (H). Now assume that x f 1 (G) f 1 (H), so f (x) G and f (x) H. Then x f 1 (G) and x f 1 (H), so x f 1 (G H).

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM SET 1 MATH 265

Problem 2, section 1.2) Show that 13 + 23 + + n3 = [ 1 n(n + 1)]2 2 for all n N 1 Solution: For n = 1, the we have 13 = [ 2 1 (1 + 1)]2 and the statement follows. 1 Now assume that we have proved that 13 +23 + +n3 = [ 2 n(n+1)]2 . Adding (n + 1)3 to both sides, we have 1 1 + 2 + + n = n(n + 1) + (n + 1)3 2 1 = n2 (n + 1)2 + (n + 1)3 4 1 2 = n + 4(n + 1) (n + 1)2 4 1 = (n + 2)2 (n + 1)2 4 2 1 = (n + 1)(n + 2) . 2 So the statement holds for n + 1, and the induction argument is complete.
3 3 3 2

Problem 13, section 1.2) Prove that n < 2n for all n N. Solution: For n = 1, we have 1 < 2 = 21 , so the statement holds. Assume we have proved that n < 2n . Adding 1 to both sides, and using the fact that 1 < 2n for n 1, we get n + 1 < 2n + 1 < 2n + 2n = 2n+1 Thus the statement holds for n + 1, and the induction argument is complete. Problem 20, section 1.2) For all n N, dene x1 = 1, x2 = 1, and xn+2 = 1 (xn+1 + xn ). Use the principle of strong induction to show 2 that 1 xn 2 for all n N. Solution: For n = 1, we have x2 + x1 = 1 + 1 = 2, so 1 x2 2. Assume we have proved that 1 xk 2 for k = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1. This is the strong induction assumption. Then 2 xn+1 + xn 4. Dividing 1 by 2, we get 1 2 (xn+1 + xn ) 2. This completes the induction argument.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEM SET 1

MATH 265

Problem 11, section 1.3) Use mathematical induction to prove that if the set S has n elements, then P(S) has 2n elements. Solution: We start with the empty set , which has n = 0 elements. There is exactly 1 = 20 subset, itself. So the assertion holds for n = 0. Now assume we have shown that a set S of n elements has exactly 2n subsets, labeled A1 , . . . , A2n . Consider a set S with n+1 elements. We may assume without loss of generality that S S . So there is exactly one element x S which is not contained in S, and S = S {x}. Let B be a subset of S . Then B S is a subset of S, so B S = Ak for some k {1, . . . , 2n }. Also, every subset Ak of S corresponds to exactly 2 subsets Ak , Ak {x} of S . We have established a two to one correspondence between subsets of S and subsets of S. So, there must be exactly twice as many subsets of S as there are subsets of S. Since P(S) has 2n elements, it follows that P(S ) has 2n+1 elements. This completes the induction argument. Problem 12, section 1.3) Prove that the collection F(N) of all nite subsets of N is countable. Solution: For n N let F0 = {} Fn = P({1, . . . , n}). where P(A) is the power set consisting of all subsets of A. We claim that F(N) =
n=0

Fn

Indeed, if A is a nite subset of N, then it must have a largest element, say m, and then A Fm . Conversely, any member A Fn for n N has at most n elements, so A F(N). Now Fn is the power set of a set of n elements, so Fn is a nite set. Thus F(N) is a countable union of nite sets, and hence F(N) is countable.