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FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND COMMUNICATION FIK 3042 : ENGLISH FOR COMMUNICATION 2

ASSIGNMENT 3 ( 30% ) ACADEMIC PAPER ( INDIVIDUAL )

GROUP NAME

: :

SWK06(A112PJJ) NITO ANAK TONY D20112055167 DR. HJH AZIZAH ATAN

MATRIC NUMBER : TUTOR :

Acknowledgement First and foremost I would like to thank Dr. Hjh Azizah Atan for her tireless efforts in helping us to complete the course work. In addition, a great thank you goes out to all the teachers and colleagues who contributed ideas regarding to my course work. Many of their ideas were the sparks which is useful for me to complete my course work. Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Jeffery for leading us successfully through the learning process and helping us broaden our focus in the course work. Thank you.

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Gist Article 1 3. Gist Article 2 4. Reflection/Discussion 5. References 6. Appendix 1 1 2 3 7 8

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Theme : Environment. Article 1 Title: Essentials Of Environmental Education. Writer: Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail. Source: Era Hijau Volume 4, 2002. Article 2 Title: Making Your School Yard Attractive. Writer: Dr. Asiah Abdul Malek. Source: Era Hijau Volume March/June, 2005. (i) Introduction The title of the first article is about essentials of environmental education. The writer of this article is Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail. I had obtained this article from Era Hijau volume 4 (2002) magazine. The title of the second article is about making your school yard attractive. The writer of this article is Dr. Asiah Abdul Malek. I had obtained this article from Era Hijau volume March/June (2005) magazine. Both of the articles are related to environment or nature issues. (ii) Gist Article 1. The article entitled Essentials Of Environmental Education by Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail portrays about Environmental Education. Environmental Education is a learning process that increases peoples knowledge and awareness about the environment and its associated problems. Environmental education enhances critical thinking, problem solving, and effective decision making skills. We can acquire environmental education based on two ways. First, Formal Environmental Education. This takes place in primary, secondary schools and higher learning institutions. Secondly, Non Formal Environmental Education and are not considered part of the formal education system. 1

Environmental Education is very important because first it helps to create awareness and sensitivity to the total environment and its associated problems. Next, it gives you knowledge. You will gain a variety of experience, basic understanding of the environment and its associated problems. Beside that, it helps you to acquire a set of values, concern and actively participating in environment improvement and protection. Hence, it helps you to acquire the skills for identifying and solving environmental problems. Lastly, it provides you with an opportunity to be actively involved at all levels in working toward a resolution of environmental problems. As a conclusion, Environmental Education is very important. It also enhances the development of necessary skills and expertise to solve the problem related to the environment issues. Think about the environmental education activities at your school. You can start now and it is Better Late Than Never. (iii) Gist Article 2. The second article entitle Making your school yard attractive written by Dr. Asiah Abdul Malek. It suggest some tips for low maintenance landscape. Landscape maintenance involves caring of the plants to make sure they always remain attractive. All landscape and gardens require some maintenance since plants are living organisms that require regular care. Maintenance a landscape can be time consuming and also expensive. However, it is possible to have an attractive landscape that is easy to care. For, as a proverb says there is a will, there is a way. The following are a few guidelines for a low maintenance landscape. The first tip is about simple design. Simplicity is a characteristic of both good design and low maintenance landscape. Avoid overplanting because the more plants you use or plant, the more care is needed. The second tip is about plant arrangement. Plants grown in flower beds or massed together in groups are easier to maintain than many isolated plantings. The third tip is about plant selection. Selecting the right plants can help reduce maintenance chores. You should know the characteristics of the plants such as mature size and shape. Avoid plants with messy fruits and shedding branches or plants that constantly drop their 2

leaves. The fourth tip is about groundcovers. Groundcovers are low growing plants that grow close to the soil surface. They require less care compare to turf grass. The fifth tip is about annuals and perennials plants. Annuals are plants with short life cycles while perennials are plants that live for several years. The sixth tip is about mulches. A mulch is any material placed on the soil surface, around trees or shrubs or in flower beds to conserve moisture and reduce weed growth. It helps to reduce maintenance chores. The last tip is about automatic watering. Automatic watering systems such as drip irrigation and sprinklers can be used to reduce the laborious task of watering plants manually. (iv) Reflection / Discussion. Both of the articles are related to the environment or nature issues. We must aware and sensitive of the environmental problems faced by Malaysia as well as the rest of the world. Everyone has to think wisely how to make the world a better place to live. This is termed of environmental education. What is the definition of the environment? Environment means the natural world, including the land, water, air, plants and animals. Love green, love nature and be an environmentalist. It also enhances the development of necessary skills and expertise to solve the problems, and fosters attitudes, motivation, and commitment to work individually and collectively toward seeking solutions of current problems and the preventions of new ones (UNESCO, Tbilisi Declaration, 1978). Environmental sensitivity takes time to develop and is a result of an individual having positive and harmonious experiences with aspects of natural world. Role models play an important role because once they develop that sensitivity, they can pass it to their children, young generation or students. When we are knowledgeable and have a variety of experience, we can use it together. In depth investigation of an environmental issue will promote changes in human values which may lead to overt action with respect to that issue. A positive attitude will help to acquire a set of values and feelings of concern for the environment, and the motivation for actively participating in environmental improvement and protection. Once you have your own set of values, you will 3

have priorities and principles, which will influence your attitude. Besides, green schools is one of the environment project and an investment in our childrens future. Each school in our country should organize this project to educate the young generation. A Green Schools is about energy and environmentally conscious, financially responsible and well connected to the real world. The students, teachers, administrators and community all work together towards a common goal saving energy and money. Everyone benefits from Green Schools. For example, the students benefit from hands on lessons in energy conservation and efficiency that will pay off now and in the future. The Green Schools Program is a comprehensive educational initiative that encourages physical and behavior changes within the school as a whole. It combines energy efficiency management and building retrofit interventions with students being involved in planning and implementing school wide behavior changes. The article organics, with a heart by Lee Mei Li won the Best Environment Story award at the HSBC Wild Asia Responsible Journalist Program held in Janda Baik, Pahang, in October 2010. The program was designed to inspire and challenge journalists to look deeper into the root causes of environmental and social issues, to help them understand how the natural world interrelates with our daily lives. For example, only one in five Malaysians are willing to fork out more for them, according to the Nielsen 2011 Global Online Environment and Sustainability Survey, which polled over 25,000 Internet respondents in 51 countries. (The Star, Saturday, 24 March 2012, page 4) Malaysia hopes to plant 26 million trees by 2014 under the Green The Earth : One Malaysian, One Tree campaign to tally with its population of 26 million people. The trees were planted by various government departments, agencies, non government organizations and private companies. The Forestry Department does not specify the types of tree to be planted as long as they are safe and suit the environment.(The Borneo Post, Tuesday, 20 March 2012, page 8) Malaysia successfully achieved the best position in the Environment Performance Index (EPI) when it was recognized as the third best in the Asia Pacific and among the 25 best 4

countries from 132 countries throughout the whole world last year. Among the aspects which were evaluated for the EPI were climate change, agriculture, fishery, forestry, water pollution and air pollution which would affect living things.(The Borneo Post, Friday, 23 March 2012, page 3) Furthermore, the state will continue with its sustainable forest management policy, said Second Minister Of Resource Planning and Environment, Datuk Amar Awang Tengah Ali Hassan. The important point is to pass on the green heritage to future generations. The good policy had spared Sarawak of serious natural disasters like landslide and flood. Sustainable development can preserve our rich natural resources and biodiversity with many of our plants having medicinal value and cosmetic potential.(The Borneo Post, Friday, 23 March 2012, page 5) Hence, to green is to make sustainable. World Environment Day, commemorated each year on 5 June, is one of the principal channels through which United Nations stimulates worldwide awareness of the environment and enhances political attention and action. It was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1972 to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. The Accords address seven environmental areas common to all large cities : water, energy, waste, urban design, transportation, urban nature and environmental health. By implementing the Urban Environmental Accord, the cities aim to have a clean, healthy and safe environment for all members of the society. Why Urban Environment Accords is important? Just over half of the worlds people now live in the cities. It is necessary to develop real solutions to urban environment challenges. The Accords cover seven environmental categories that cities can address to enable sustainable urban living and improve the

quality.(http://www.citymayors.com/environment) What makes a city green? It must have good water and air quality, efficient use of resources, renewable energy, accessible and reliable public transportation, green building practices, parks and greenbelts and locally grown fresh food through farmers markets. 5

Affordability is included in green criteria, since the health benefits, public parks, and other amenities of living in a greener city need to be available to more than just the wealthy.(http://www.thegreenguide.com) The Green Cities Project is guided by the principles of sustainability. Sustainability is the method that ecosystems use to perpetuate themselves. To Green or To Make Sustainable are very similar concepts. In order to make our cities sustainable, we can follow the principles by which ecosystems sustain themselves. There are three basic principles of ecosystem sustainability : disposal of waste and replenishment of nutrients or resources by recycling, using sunlight as the nature source of energy and maintaining the size of consumer populations so that overuse does not occur. There are also some basic principles that guide Green Cities visionaries and these include : ecological sustainability, social justice and high quality of life for all community members. (http://www.nys.greens.org/greencities/home_page.html) As a conclusion of the discussion or reflection above, we can make a small lifestyle change and make our life greener. Beside that, promote a campaign to pledge everyone to take part in the environmental projects. We can email to all our friends, family and colleagues to get the responses. 5 June is United World Environment Day. We want you to take this chance to green your lifestyle and get involved in environmental projects. I take this chance to green my lifestyle and get involved in environmental projects. I practice the 3R program in my daily life. 3R means reduce, reuse and recycle. The latest not 3R anymore, but 5R means reduce, reuse, recycle, repair and rethink. I take time to adapt to the new changes in my life. I try my best to take this chance to green my lifestyle. It is better late than never. Together, we can make a difference.

(v) References 1. Internet http://www.citymayors.com/environment http://www.thegreenguide.com http://www.nys.greens.org/greencities/home_page.html 2. Newspaper The Borneo Post, Tuesday, 20 March 2012, page 8 The Borneo Post, Friday, 23 March 2012, page 3 The Borneo Post, Friday, 23 March 2012, page 5 The Star, Saturday, 24 March 2012, page 4 3. Magazine Dr. Asiah Abdul Malek (2005, March/June). Era Hijau. Making Your School Yard Attractive, 1920. Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail (2002, Volume 4). Era Hijau. Essentials Of Environmental Education, 11-12.

(vi) Appendix Article 1 Essentials of Environmental Education by Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail. If you are in avid reader of ERA HIJAU, I am sure you have read many things about our environment. Some of the issues that you read are eye opening. You now know many things that you do not know before. You are know aware and sensitive of the environmental problems faced by Malaysia as well as the rest of the world. You discuss it with your friends, teachers, or parents on how you can protect the air, water and land, or how you can make the world a better place to live. This is termed ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION. What is Environmental Education? Environmental Education is a learning process that increases peoples knowledge and awareness about the environment and its associated problems. It also enhance the development of necessary skills and expertise to solve the problems, and fosters attitude, motivation, and commitment to work individually and collectively toward seeking solutions of current problems and the preventions of new ones (UNESCO, Tbilisi Declaration, 1978). Environmental education enhances critical thinking, problem solving, and effective decision-making skills, and teaches you to weigh various sides of an environmental issue to make informed and responsible decisions. Environmental education does not advocate a particular viewpoint or course of action. How do you acquire Environmental Education? There are two ways you can acquire Environmental Education: (1) Formal Environmental Education this takes place in primary and secondary schools and higher learning institutions. (2) Non formal Environmental Education this takes place in businesses, nonprofit organizations, the media, and other institutions that are not considered part of the formal education system. Why is Environmental Education important? Environmental education helps to create: 1. Awareness: To help you acquire an awareness and sensitivity to the total environment and its associated problems. Environmental sensitivity takes time to develop and is a result of an 8

individual having positive and harmonious experiences with aspects of natural world. Role models play an important role because once they develop that sensitivity they can pass it to their children or students. 2. Knowledge: To help you gain a variety of experience, and acquire basic understanding of the environment and its associated problems. Knowledge alone is not sufficient to develop ownership behavior. In-depth investigation of an environmental issue will promote changes in human values which may lead to overt action with respect to that issue. Once you have invested time and efforts, you will develop an ownership becomes the motivator for action. 3. Attitude: To help you acquire a set of values and feelings of concern for the environment, and the motivation for actively participating in environmental improvement and protection. A value is a relative worth an individual places on something. Values grow out of an individuals personal experiences and background. Once you have your own set of values, you will have priorities and principles, which will influence your attitude. 4. Skills: To help you acquire the skills for identifying and solving environmental problems. 5. Participation: To provide you with an opportunity to be actively involved at all levels in working toward a resolution of environmental problems. You can do many things at school. If your school has such activities WELL DONE. If you do not, you can start now. It is BETTER LATE THAN NEVER. Article 2 Making Your School Yard Attractive by Dr. Asiah Abdul Malek. Tips for Low Maintenance Landscape. Landscape maintenance involves caring of the plants to make sure they always remain attractive. It includes activities like watering, fertilizing, pruning, mowing, pest control and other gardening practices. All landscapes and gardens require some maintenance since plants are living organisms that require regular care. A neglected landscape will soon be full of overgrown weeds and unhealthy plants. Maintaining a landscape can be time-consuming and expensive. However, it is possible to have an attractive landscape that is easy to care for. Schools, especially, should opt for a pleasant, functional landscape with low-maintenance features. The following are a few guidelines for a low-maintenance landscape. 9

>> Simple design Simplicity is a characteristic of both good design and low maintenance landscape. Keep the planting design simple. Avoid overplanting. The more plants you use, the more care is needed. Simple planting, using only a few plant species with interesting textures and colours, can be both attractive and easy to manage. >> Plant arrangement Plants grown in flower beds or massed together in groups are easier to maintain than many isolated plantings. Plants arranged in gentle curves or straight lines are easier to care for than complicated curves and shapes. >> Plant selection Selecting the right plants can help reduce maintenance chores. When selecting plants for the landscape, you should know the characteristics of the plants such as mature size and shape. Choose plants that are hardy, have a moderate growth rate and few pest problems and are suitable to the light, soil and moisture conditions in your yard. Avoid plants with messy fruits and shedding branches or plants that constantly drop their leaves. >> Groundcovers Groundcovers are low-growing plants that grow close to the soil surface. They require less care compared to turfgrass. To reduce landscape maintenance, replace some of the turfgrass with groundcovers, especially on steep slopes which are difficult to mow or shady areas where grass does not grow well. >> Annuals and perennials Annuals are plants with short life cycles while perennials are plants that live for several years. Flowers like marigold, zinnia and celosia add attractive colours to the landscape, but since they are annuals, they must be replanted every few months and hence need higher maintenance. Use them in limited numbers and only in areas where they will have the most impact. Try to use 10

more perennials flowers like bougainvillea, hibiscus or ixora. Some flowers like roses or orchids are very attractive but need special care. >> Mulches A mulch is any material placed on the soil surface, around trees or shrubs or in flower beds, to conserve moisture and reduce weed growth. Mulches such as grass clippings, dead leaves, coconut coir, sawdust or wood chip can be used to reduce maintenance chores such as weeding and watering. >> Automatic watering Automatic watering systems such as drip irrigation and sprinklers can be used reduce the laborious task of watering plants manually.

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