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Technical factors operate in favor of an increasing size.

In order to realize fu ll advantage of technology, improvements in the scale of operations should be la rge. The size of a business unit is primarily dependent on the technique of productio n employed in any business. Technical factors operate in favor of an increasing size. In order to realize full advantage of technology, improvements in the scal e of operations should be large. If you want to reduce the production costs, you must opt for the full functional capacity of a business unit. The increase in the production spreads the overhea d expenses over large units resulting in lower cost per unit. The optimum use of technical factors can be achieved through two processes namel y by division of labor and by integration of processes. The small firms cannot a fford to invest huge sums in sophisticated machines. Managerial economies are possible in case of a large firm. The success of a firm depends upon the organizing capability of the top management. With the introduc tion of large-scale production, complexities of management have increased. The s ervices of the experts are required to deal with different functions of manageme nt. The appointment of functional experts involves more cost. The expansion of produ ction is necessary to distribute the managerial cost among large units. The size of business unit is directly influenced by the availability of finance. Finance is required firstly for establishing a unit and then for expanding it. T he financial needs are in the form of fixed and working capital. Fixed capital i s required for the accusation of fixed assets and working capital is needed for routine working of the business. Small concerns such as sole traders have limited financial resources. These conc erns largely depend upon the capital contribution of the owner. Commercial banks and other financial institutions are hesitant to extend them loans for lack of security and profitability. Certain marketing economies are available if the scale of purchase and sale is h igher. When buying is done on a large scale, one can expect savings in a lot of aspects of the business. In such a case, the purchasers of large quantity also enjoy favorable terms and conditions with the company. The prices become low and cash discounts are readil y available. Moreover a large firm can afford to use the services of marketing e xperts. All these above-mentioned factors determine the optimum size of any busi ness.

the functional foremaship is a type of orginzation topic and orginzation is the function of management. fw taylor is the father of the scientific mangement and he writes this functiona l foremanship in where there are 8 foremans who works in their own departments b y their posts. there are 8 foremans and they are route clerk, information card clerk, time and cost clerk, shop disclipirian,gang boss,speed boss,repair boss and inspector.

the 1st four foreman is under planning advisior and next 4 is under production a dvisior.

Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or dir ection, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy , including its capital and people. Various business analysis techniques can be used in strategic planning, including SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Oppo rtunities, and Threats ), PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social, and Techno logical), STEER analysis (Socio-cultural, Technological, Economic, Ecological, a nd Regulatory factors), and EPISTEL (Environment, Political, Informatic, Social, Technological, Economic and Legal). Strategic planning is the formal consideration of an organization's future cours e. All strategic planning deals with at least one of three key questions: 1. "What do we do?" 2. "For whom do we do it?" 3. "How do we excel?"