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Teori Kaunseling Kerjaya

Parsons (1909) The trait factor theory was introduced by Parson. He matched personal traits to job characteristics. He stressed on psychological tests to measure traits and started classifying occupations. This led to the compiling of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (1972) a compendium of more than 40,000 jobs. His assumption is that people possess stable and relatively unchanging characteristics (traits) including interests, special talents and intelligence. Many counselors felt that mechanical tests alone did not play the role in choosing careers. In todays world the emphasis is on flexibility and adaptability rather than on a "one hole, one peg" approach. Ginzberg (1951) He introduced a developmental theory, which was divided into three periods. (a) Fantasy period up to the age of 11 where their career interest are unrealistic (b) tentative period from age 11 17 when they become aware of the necessity to make a vocational decision, and (c) realistic period late adolescence to early adulthood when they narrow their career choices and opt for a specific job. Ginzberg made no attempts to explain how career development occurs within each stage or from stage to stage. Anne Roe (1956) Based her research on personality traits of eminent artists and scientists. According to her, occupational choice is the result of personality and is based on early parent child relationships. She proposed that individuals who enjoy working with others were raised by warm and accepting parents. She divided occupations into 8 groups: service, business contact, organization, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, arts and entertainment. Her theory did not receive the support because her belief that different child-rearing practices produce different vocational choices was difficult to validate. Donald Super (1957) Supers model is self-concept. As people grow they develop a view of their own roles, personality traits and abilities. They compare their self-view with various occupational concepts. Supers theory is also a matching theory. He also stresses extensively on career maturity. For example, a teenager who shows a high level of career maturity is deemed ready to make a career choice. Super also incorporated socioeconomic status, gender, social change and the process of change. His theory became more complex and was not practical to use. Tiedeman and OHara (1961) Based on the work of Super and Ginzberg, they identified a series of decisions a person makes in the course of his career development. They divided the process into two periods, each with several stages. Tiedemans decision-making paradigm was used as the basis for a computer-assisted career counseling program in1969. It was not widely accepted because it was not cost effective in terms of computer time. Krumboltz (1969) His theory is based on social learning theory and in classical behaviorism. According to him personality develops as a result of interactions with the environment. For example, a

young girl s new stepfather is a farmer, so the family moves from the city to the country. She has no interest in animals but enjoys her stepfathers company and comes to associate caring for animals with a feeling of being loved. In time, caring generalizes from animals to people and forms the basis of a later career in child welfare. He sees life as involving a dynamic interaction between person and environment, which means that changes is constantly occurring or is at least able to occur. In other words, personality traits, interests, and even self-concept are capable of alteration at any point in life. John Holland (1985) His theory of vocational personalities and work environments has been revised five times since 1959. Holland began with the principle that people with certain personality traits are attracted to and suited for jobs with certain specific definable characteristics. Therefore, if we know what a person is like, we can predict what sort of occupation is most likely to produce satisfaction and achievement for that person. If we identify a particular job clearly, we can assess what sort of person we should look for to fill that slot. According to Holland, career choice need not be as complex as is often maintained and that effective self-help is to be preferred to invasive and unnecessary career counseling. Hollands Self Directed Search is widely used as a simple and effective way to introduce people to the subject of career choice.

Introduction Step 1 Discovering Yourself

Discovering Yourself

Getting to know yourself well requires some honest assessment of yourself, such as knowing your interests, your skills, your hobbies, your occupational likings and your values. Know your own strength and weakness, your likes and dislikes, what you prefer and what you wish to avoid. Why Discover Yourself? No one knows you better than yourself. Always remember that you are the worlds foremost authority on yourself. No matter how confused you are and where you are going, no one knows your inner thoughts, hopes, dreams, likes, interest and your reasons for acting or reacting in a manner in a

situation. When you look inwardly and search for a career, you are also searching for your true identity. To understand yourself better in the quickest way, try out our FREE online Career Test.

Take a Career Test Take a Career Test

This Career Test consists of series of questions on : Interests Skills Hobbies Occupation Values

This test will help you discover your personality type and careers that are suitable for you based on your personality. Proceed with the Career Test Next : Personality & Careers

Step 2 Exploring Options

Exploring Options

You have learned many things about yourself. What you have just completed is only a very basic self assessment. Many believe that if a person can find a career that makes the person happy, everything else will take care of itself. If you are happy in a particular career, you will automatically do a better job and this will lead to money, power, personal satisfaction, and recognition. Finding a career that will make you happy is a matter of matching and balancing your values, abilities, interests, aptitudes, talents

and feelings about your work environment with a particular career. Discover more about the careers that you have listed down earlier before making any decision.

Next : World of Careers

World of Careers

The world of careers is very advanced and complicated. There are more than 20 000 occupations available in the labour market. You need to find out more about these careers or careers that interests you the most.

Labour Market

Getting a job immediately after graduation is great and indeed good news. But this is not the case for everyone. Finding a perfect job in a competitive environment isnt easy. However, in order to be competitive and outstanding from the rest, getting to know whats happening in the labour market and its trend is important. You need to keep up to the standards in the labour force and having the qualities and skills sought after by employers is definitely an added advantage. Such qualities are : Communication skills Strong work ethics Teamwork skills Initiative Interpersonal skills Problem-solving skills Analytical skills Flexibility / adaptability Computer skills Technical skills

When you decide on a career, you need to know the future of the career. You can start with analyzing the labour trend and fast-growing careers. There is a serious problem if the chosen career has no future in terms of employment, where you might end up jobless. Therefore, be wise when you plan and choose a career. In general, the majors that are in demand are :

Accounting Mechanical Engineering Electrical Engineering Computer Science Business Administration / Management Finance / Economics Marketing Management Information Systems Psychology

Percentage Distribution of Employed Persons by Occupations (Q1 2007) Service / Sales Workers - 15.7 % Skilled Agricultural / Fishery Workers - 13.1 % Plant and Machine Operators - 13.0 % Technicians and Associate Professionals - 12.8 % Elementary Occupations - 11.3 % Craft and Related Trade Workers - 11.3 % Clerical Workers - 9.6 % Legislators, Senior Officials and Managers - 8.0 % Professionals - 5.2 %

Percentage Distribution of Employed Persons by Industry (Q1 2007) Manufacturing 19.1 % Wholesale, Retail, Repair of Vehicles, Household Goods 15.6 % Agriculture and forestry 14.0 % Construction 9.1 % Hotels and Restaurants 7.4 % Public Administration and Defense 6.7 % Real Estate and Business Activity 5.6 % Education 5.4 % Transport, Storage and Communications 5.1 % Private Households 2.7 % Financial Intermediation 2.6 % Other Community and Social Services 2.5 % Health and Social Work 2.2 % Fishing 1.1 % Electricity, Gas and Water Supply 0.6 % Mining and Quarrying 0.3 %

Source : Department of Statistics Malaysia

Next : Decision Making

Step 3 Making Decisions

Decision Making

Having discovered your strengths and weaknesses, you must now move on to make decisions. Making decision for yourself is a very important responsibility. Since its your future at stake, its you who should be in control. Dont worry about making a right or wrong decision. Be confident and put yourself in the best hands your own! To make a good decision, you need lots of information. The more information you have, the better your decision will be. As you can see, a particular occupation may be quite different from what we think. A person in that occupation may actually do something different from what we think they do. That is why we need to learn all we can about the occupation before we decide on it. To help you make the right decision, follow on the 7 steps to Decision Making. 1. Identify the decision you need to make (choosing a career, course / institution). 2. Write a list of all possible options that appeals to you. 3. Collect all the information about each option. 4. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each option. 5. Choose one option. 6. Plan how to put the decision into action. 7. Take necessary action. Next : Obstacles to Consider

Obstacles to Consider

Having completed your education, never presume that the road ahead is going to be very smooth. Making career decisions is not easy. Some students know what they want, so they can make their decisions quickly. Many do not know what they want, so they find it difficult to decide. There is a simple guide that can help you make the right career decision. There are 3 situations that you should consider when deciding. Narrow down your choices First learn about yourself. Discover your hidden talents. Find out what you want to avoid, what is your interest, skills, values, personality, likes, dislikes, favorite subjects, etc. Explore the careers that match you. If you are a creative person and like art, designing, colors, creating ideas, etc. explore

careers such as Advertising, Graphic Design, Visual Communication, Art & Design, etc. Make a list of careers that you like. Discuss with family members Your parents have provided you education for the last 11 or 12 years. They may be knowledgeable on careers or they may not be. Whatever it is, please discuss your shortlisted careers with your family members. Let them know the careers you have in mind and why you have selected them. They may like some of the careers you have selected or they may not like any of them. Find out the reason behind their choices. Make a list of careers, which your family members prefer. Societys needs Based on your list of careers, your family would have short-listed some careers. Next, find out societys needs. What are the careers in demand? This is not an easy task. Ask your school teachers or counselors. Ask people who work in these careers. Do a little research on your own. Read about these careers in the newspapers, books, magazines, etc. You will realize that some of the careers you and your family have selected, are not in demand. You may find it difficult to get a job locally. On the other hand, there may be careers, which are in demand. Consider seriously about such careers. Select one that you like most, your parents like and society needs.

You cannot decide on a career overnight. Career Planning is Life Planning. You need to invest time and energy doing some research. The more well equipped you are, the easier it would be to make the right decision.

Next : What Next?

What Next?

Every year some leave school knowing what they intend to do next. Some will leave school thinking that they will do what their peers are intending to do. Some will follow their parents, relatives and teachers. However there will be some who would not know what to do. Whether you know what to do or do not know what to do, there are many options available to you. What options are there for school leavers? Career Planning is life planning. The career you choose today will decide the life that you will lead tomorrow.

Whatever you do, do not panic. Do not be disappointed or give-up studying. Learning never ends. Take up a training program or a skill if your results are not satisfying. If your results are average, go for a Diploma program. After obtaining your Diploma, you can still study if you want to. Lastly, if your results are good, obtain the highest qualification that is available to you.

Next : Taking Action

Step 4 Taking Action

Taking Action

Having spent a lot of time and effort researching and compiling your data on careers, you need to put it into action. Find out more about :

Who offers the course What is the duration of the course What qualification you will be awarded How much it will cost, etc

You need to choose a college or university where you can study for this course. You need to find out if this course is recognized in Malaysia or not. You can obtain this information by telephoning the institution, by writing to them or through the Internet. You can also visit education fairs or open days to help you decide.

Next : What is an Action Plan?

What is an Action Plan?

An action plan is like a map, providing you with directions to get on and stay on the road that will lead you to your destination. An action plan is also a way of recording what you need to do to reach the career of your choice. Think of what you must do to reach your goal and make a list. Be sure that you also write the date by which you would have done the item. Sample Action Plan I WANT TO BE A DOCTOR


ACTION SPM STPM University Housemanship Doctor

1 2 3 4 5

DEADLINE 2008 2010 2011 - 2015 2016 - 2017 2017



You can draw up your own Action Plan and decide on the route you wish to take. Plan ahead to ensure that you know exactly what you are doing and going to do in the future. Action Plan Template

Next : Financial Aid

Financial Aid

There are two options available to those who complete SPM. They can either study in the Public Education System (Government Route) or the Private Education System (Private Route). Whether you choose the Government Route or the Private Route, you still need sufficient funds to study. There are many scholarships, education loans and various forms of financial aid available to students who study in both the Public and the Private Education System. To help you start exploring about financial aid, a list of major sources of financial aid are available.


There are many scholarships available for students who need financial assistance. To help you start exploring about scholarships, click on some of the major sources available below. Bank Scholarships Corporate Scholarships Government Scholarships Universities Scholarships Other Scholarships Bank Scholarships OCBC Bank Scholarship Hong Leong Foundation Scholarship Corporate Scholarships Astro Scholarships Award British American Tobacco (BAT) Malaysia Foundation Scholarship CCM Scholarships Gamuda Scholarship Awards IJM Corporation Berhad Scholarships LITRAK Scholarship Magnum Scholarship Maxis Scholarship For Excellence NST Learning Curve Scholarship Fund 2008 Petronas Education Scholarship Putrajaya Perdana Scholarship Awards Shell Curtin Scholarship The Star Education Fund Scholarship Awards Yayasan Proton Scholarship Yayasan Sime Darby Scholarships Yayasan Telekom Malaysia Scholarship YTL Power Scholarship UEM Group Scholarships Government Scholarships India Scholarship Undergraduate Japanese Government Scholarship Singapore Scholarship The Italian Government Scholarship University Scholarships The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus High Achievers Scholarships HELP University College Scholarship Award La Trobe University MACC Scholarship Leeds University Scholarships Loughborough University Human Science Scholarships Nanyang Technological University Scholarship Other Scholarships Chevening Scholarship Hubert H Humphrey Fellowship Program

National Science Scholarships Rotary International Ambassadorial Scholarship Asean Scholarship

There are many education loans available for students who need financial assistance. To help you start exploring about education loans, click on some of the major sources available below. Government / Corporate Loans Bank Loans Government / Corporate Loans Perbadanan Tabung Pendidikan Tinggi Nasional (PTPTN) MARA Loan Maju Institute of Education Development (MIED) Bank Loans OCBC Bank Bank Rakyat RHB Bank Scholarships Loans

Investigative (I)

You generally like to be involved in activities that have to do with ideas and thinking. You like to observe, learn, investigate, analyze, evaluate or solve problems.

You have mathematical and scientific ability. You like to search for facts and figure out problems mentally.

Your personal characteristics are : Analytical Cautious Complex Curious Intellectual


Passive Pessimistic Rational Unpopular

Your matching occupations / careers include :

Aeronautical Engineer
Aerospace Engineer Air Traffic Controller Astronomer Biochemist Chemist Credit Analyst Dentist

Food Technologist Lab Assistant Medical Technician Microbiologist Paramedic Pathologist Pharmacist Physical Therapist Programmer Psychiatrist Veterinarian Zoologist

Dietitian Doctor Economist

Enterprising (E)

You generally like to be involved in activities that have to do with starting up and carrying out projects. You like to work with people, influencing, persuading, performing, leading or managing for organizational goals, decision-making or economical gain. You have leadership and speaking abilities. Your personal characteristics are : Adventurous Agreeable Ambitious Domineering Energetic Your matching occupations / careers include : Announcer Business Manager Businessman / women Buyer Communication Consultant Economist Film Producer Financial Planner Industrial Relations Officer Insurance Agent Judge Lawyer Marketing Manager Media Director Newspaper Columnist Operations Manager Pesticide Control Inspector Politician Project Manager Public Relations Officer Real Estate Agent Restaurant / Hotel Manager Sales Representative Stockbroker Extroverted Optimistic Self-confident Sociable Talkative

investigative dr



Computer programmer

Science teacher


Air traffic controller Dietition










Song producer


Eksekutif pemasaraan

Pegawai perunding


Broadcast director


List of Careers
A Actor Actuary Advertising Advocate Aeronautical Engineer Aerospace Industry Trades Agricultural Economist Agricultural Engineer Agricultural Extension Officer Agricultural Inspector Agricultural Technician Agriculture Agriculturist Agronomist Air Traffic Controller Ambulance Emergency Care Worker Animal Scientist Anthropologist Aquatic Scientist Archaeologist Architect Architectural Technologist Archivist Area Manager Armament Fitter Armature Winder Art Editor Artist Assayer Sampler Assembly Line Worker Assistant Draughtsman Astronomer Attorney Auctioneer Auditor Automotive Body Repairer Automotive Electrician Automotive Mechinist Automotive Trimmer B Babysitting Career Banking Career Beer Brewing J Jeweler Jockey Joiner and Woodmachinist Journalist K Knitter L Labourer Land Surveyor Landscape Architect Law Learner Official Leather Chemist Leather Worker Lecturer Librarian Life-guard Lift Mechanic Light Delivery Van Driver Linesman Locksmith M Machine Operator Machine Worker Magistrate Mail Handler Make-up Artist Management Consultant Manager Marine Biologist Marketing Marketing Manager Materials Engineer Mathematician Matron Meat Cutting Technician Mechanical Engineer Medical Doctor Medical Orthotist Prosthetist