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INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT Nature of conflict and its manifestation In the present time there are disputes relating to terms

of employment and others issues between the employer and employee, which if not attended to in time, may be a reason of conflict. These conflicts can be divided into four groups, vizs ; Industrial conflicts can be classifed into four groups, viz. Interest Dispute: These are the disputes that arise out of deadlocks in negotiations. ii. Grievance Disputes: These are the disputes that arise from day to-day grievances. iii. Unfair Labour Practices: These are the disputes that arise from the acts of interference with the exercise of right to organise etc. iv. Recognition Dispute : These are the disputes that arise due to the recognition of trade union as bargaining agent.
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Definition of Dispute Any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person. Characteristics. Dispute must be between (A) employer and employer, (B) Employer and workmen (C) Workmen and workmen 2. Connected with terms or conditions of employment The term Industrial Dispute as analyzed by courts and on the basis of which the principles of Industrial Dispute are as under:-

1. The dispute must affect large group of workmen 2. The dispute should be taken-up by Union or others on behalf of workers. 3. Demands should be for redress and grievance 4. The parties to the union must be directly involved 5. Individual dispute referred by government for adjudication can not be converted into industrial dispute. Features of Industrial conflicts:1. Devoid of cost i.e. long drawn conflicts 2. Labour pressure by the management pressure of lock out. 3. Most of the strikes are political strikes 4, Lockouts more frequent in eastern region Causes of Industrial Conflicts. A. B. C. D. A. Industrial Factors Managements attitude towards workers. Government machinery and Other causes. Industrial factors,

a) Terms of employment and condition of employment; b) Dismissal or non employment of any person c) Registered agreements, settlement and awards; d) 0Demarcation of the function of an employee; e) Demand for higher wags according to rise in prices and living standard. f) Due to influx of educated class of employees there is self consciousness of ones rights g) The trade union often failed to safeguards the interest of the workers due to rivalry, multiplicity and non-recognition as bargaining agent. h) Compulsory adjudication, working on the basis of caste or community divides the workers and industrial conflicts may sets in. i) Union workers are working with ulterior motives. B. Management attitude towards labour

i. Management refusal to talk with the union representative in case of any dispute ii. Management unwillingness to recognize union iii. Even after recognition of the trade union leaders, the management dont delegate authority to their representative to settle the dispute iv. Some times, favour of management by the trade union leaders enraged the workers. v. Managements insistence that they are the only authority for recruitment promotions etc. vi. Management negative attitude to offer right benefits to the employees C. Government Machinery 1. Irrelevancy to meet the requirement of present industrial climate; 2. Inability to understand the development of industrial promotion 3. Non-implementation of the rules and regulations by employers and no action on the part of government. 4. Improper functioning of conciliation machinery 5. Non-provision of the number of officials as required for early settlements of industrial disputes. A. Other causes

i. Affiliation of trade unions with different political parties created problems in settling the disputes. ii. Political instability iii. Rampant corruption etc.

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