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In a quality control test, viscosity of a liquid food is being measured with a viscometer.

A shear stress of 4 dyne/cm 2 at a shear rate of 100 s _ 1 was recorded. Calculate the viscosity and express it as Pa s, cP, P, kg/m s and mPa s.

Given
Shear stress _ 4 dyne/cm2 Shear rate _ 100 s _ 1

Approach
We will use the defi nition of viscosity given in Equation (2.10) to calculate the viscosity. For unit conversions, note that 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 dyne/cm2 = g/(cms2 )_ . kg/(ms2 )_ . N/m2 _ . Pa

Example 2.1 Solution


1. Shear stress in SI units is


_ _ _ _ 4 01 1 04 04 [ 2] . [ ] [] . . d ne/cm kg/(m s ) d ne/cm kg/(m s ) Pa
2 2 2

y y 2. Viscosity in Pa s _ _
_

0.4[Pa] 100[s 0.004 Pa s 1] 3. Viscosity in P _ __


_

4[d ne/cm [s [d ne s)/cm d nes/cm P y y y


2 1 2 2

100 0 04 11 0 ]

] .] [ ]/ [ ] .04 P 4. Viscosity in cP


_ _ 0 04 1 100 4 . [P] [P]/ [cP] cP 5. Viscosity in kg/(m s) Since Pa kg/(m s kg/(m s) 11 0 004 _2 _ ), . 6. Viscosity in mPa s Since mPa s cP mPa s 11 4 _ _

The volumetric fl ow rate of beer fl owing in a pipe is 1.8 L/s. The inside diameter of the pipe is 3 cm. The density of beer is 1100 kg/m 3 . Calculate the average velocity of beer and its mass fl ow rate in kg/s. What is the mass fl ow rate? If another pipe with a diameter of 1.5 cm is used, what will be the velocity for the same volumetric fl ow rate?

Given
Pipe diameter _ 3 cm _ 0.03 m Volumetric fl ow rate _ 1.8 L/s _ 0.0018 m 3 /s Density _ 1100 kg/m3

Approach
First, we will calculate velocity, u, from the given volumetric fl ow rate using Equation (2.17). Then we will use Equation (2.15) to obtain mass fl ow rate.

Solution
1. From Equation (2.17), Velocit [m /s] m] y, u _ m/s _ _ 0 0018 0 03 4

2 55
3 2 2

. . [ .

2. From Equation (2.15), Mass flow rate_ _ kg/m _ m m/s] _ _ _ _ _ m m 1100 0 03 4 2 55 19


3 2

[]2 . [].[ .

8 kg/s 3. New velocity if the diameter of the pipe is halved and the volumetric fl ow rate is kept the same: u_ _ _ 0 0018 0 015 4 10 19
3 2 2

. . ] . [m /s] [m m/s

4. Note that by halving the diameter, the velocity is increased fourfold.

2.3.2

Water at 30_C is being pumped through a 30 m section of 2.5 cm diameter steel pipe at a mass fl ow rate of 2 kg/s. Compute the pressure loss due to friction in the pipe section.

Given
Density ( ) _ 995.7 kg/m3 , from Table A.4.1 Viscosity ( ) _ 792.377 _ 10 _ 6 Pa s, from Table A.4.1 Length ( L ) of pipe _ 30 m Diameter ( D ) of pipe _ 2.5 cm _ 0.025 m M ass fl ow rate ( m_ ) _ 2 kg/s

Approach
The pressure drop due to friction is computed using Equation (2.51) with the information given. Equation (2.51) requires knowledge of the friction factor f as obtained from Figure 2.16 . Figure 2.16 can be used once the turbulence ( N Re ) and relative roughness ( / D) values have been determined.

Solution
1. Compute mean velocity u from Equation (2.15): u_ _ ( ( . )[ ( . ] . 2 995 7 0 025 4 4 092 3 2 kg/s) kg/m m) / m/s

2. Compute the Reynolds number: NRe kg/m m)( m/s) Pa s) _ _ _


_

( . )( . . (. , 995 7 0 025 4 092 792 377 10 128 55


3 60

3. Using the given information and Figure 2.16 , relative roughness can be computed: / m m D_ _ __
_ _ 45

7 10 0 025 1 828 10
6 3.

. . 4. Using the computed Reynolds number and the computed relative roughness, friction factor f is obtained from Figure 2.16 : f _0.006

5. Using Equation (2.51): P

_ 2 0 006 _ 4 092 30 0 025 241 12


2

( . ) 22 (.( (. . m/s) m) m) m /s 6. Note that (1 J _ 1 kg m2/s2) P

_ 241.12m2 /s2 _ 241.12 J/kg represents the energy consumed due to friction on a per-unit-mass basis.

Example 2.8
7. The pressure loss is calculated as (Note that 1 J _ 1 kg m2/s2) P _( 241.12 J/kg)(995.7 kg/m3)_ 240.80_103 kg/(ms2 ) P _ 240.08 kPa

2.4