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Biology

Bird Flu
Name: Anis Nadhirah bt Mohd Sharuddin Class: 4 Kreatif Teacher: Puan Saunah Sayuti School: Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Jalan Empat

Introduction
Problem statement: What are the causes and effects of bird flu Aim: To investigate the causes and effects of bird flu Apparatus: Computer Material: Articles from internet, data and statistic Technique: Surf the internet Procedure: 1. A computer is prepared 2. Information are obtained from the internet 3. Data and statistic are obtained from the internet 4. Information. Data, and statistic is gathered to make a folio

Content Definition
Bird flu is an infectious disease caused by strains of the Type A influenza viruses that ordinarily only infect birds. Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infected and caused the deaths of people.

Factors of Bird Flu


1. Farming Environment Much farming in Asian countries takes place on a small scale. Animals live in close contact with humans and each other. Of special concern is the proximity of pigs and fowl. Pigs can contract both avian and human influenza viruses. Viruses have a high mutation rate, and the risk exists that the two kinds of virus could combine in pigs to a strain that could transmit from human to human. Many Asian farming environments lack the hygenic standards of Western operations, so the possibility of viral contamination from farm to farm is high.

2. Water Source Environment Migratory waterfowl can shed viruses through droppings and nasal secretions into water used for bathing and drinking by humans and domestic animals. Viruses can survive in water for four to 30 days, depending on water temperature, according to Rothstein. An infected animal or domestic bird could also carry the virus to water on fur or feathers. Animals can be infectious before serious illness sets in.

3. Market Environment Asian marketing customs involve open live animal markets or wet markets. Consumers in China and southeast Asia prize freshly killed animals, so live birds and animals are brought to market and held in crowded, unsanitary conditions. Animals are often transported over long distances to be sold at wet markets. Such practices could lead to wide-spread viral contamination.

Effects of Bird Flu


In America
The initial spread of H5N1 that infected migratory birds left the Americas out of the loop. It is highly unlikely that the highly deadly form of the avian flu virus (H5N1) will be carried the long distance to the Americas by migratory birds. To date there have been a couple of outbreaks of the milder forms of the avian flu virus in the Americas. There are however no reported outbreaks caused by the H5N1 virus. These milder outbreaks occurred in the past five years and were kept under control and stamped out. In New York in 2003 a patient was determined to have been infected by the bird flu H7N2 virus. In 2004 Canada there was an outbreak of the H7N3 in the poultry in the Fraser Valley region of British Columbia. The H7N3 infected two individuals who reported flu like symptoms. They were treated with antiviral medication which led to their recovery. There also have a few outbreaks among poultry flocks with no transmission to humans. In 2004 in Texas H5N2 was detected in flock of chickens and H7N2 was reported to have infected two chicken farms in Delaware and four live bird markets in New Jersey and a flock in Maryland.

In Europe
The bird flu virus is now on the move. The bird flu virus has made an appearance in Eastern Europe; Turkey. After the confirmation of the deaths of the individuals in Turkey with bird flu the European Union stepped up its efforts to contain the deadly virus from spreading further. European Union promptly increased it importation ban on birds and revised its surveillance efforts. The EU had originally banned imports of live birds and poultry products like feathers from Turkey and recently extended the ban to include imports from Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iraq, Iran, Georgia and Syria. By stepping up on sanctions and embargoes the EU hopes to control the spread of the H5N1 across the borders. The real test however, will come about when the virus is able to be transmitted from person to person. This is one of the first signs of a global pandemic.

Impact on Travel Industry There are currently no substantial impacts to the travel industry; Europeans are still traveling to destinations all over Europe and Asia. The risk of contracting the bird flu is low for travelers as the virus is yet to be transmitted from person-to person. The bird flu virus can only be contracted by coming in contact with contaminated surfaces or coming in direct contact with an infected bird. Economic Impact Europeans are eating less chicken, possibly because of the looming threat of the bird flu virus. This decline will affect the financial aspects of the poultry industry. It is expected that half the work force of some of the major European business will be out sick or looking after sick family members. People will start staying away from public places like theater, restaurants and transport systems causing a huge blow to the economy. Many of the European countries have contingency plans that will go into effect in the event of the bird flu pandemic. The contingency plans are designed for different pandemic scenarios. They cover business staffing aspects; letting employees telecommute, hence avoiding public transportation and the risk of contracting bird flu. Some of the European Union nations are stocking piling the antiviral medication Tamiflu. Spread of Bird Flu The bird flu is spread by the secretion of feces and the influenza virus in birds. The virus is air borne and can cause infections in animals as well as humans. When the Bird Flu Began? H5N1 was first found in humans in 1997 in Hong Kong. Scientist at the time indicated that H5N1 jumped from the sick birds to humans. The first outbreak of bird flu in 1997, 18 people became ill with H5N1. There were no human deaths from this outbreak, but chickens were slaughtered across the Hong Kong territory to prevent the spread of the flu.

Data and Statistics

Closing / Conclusion
Bird flu (or swine flu or cat flu or any influenza like infection in animals) is a common illness seen for ages in wild and domestic birds. It attains massive proportions and occasionally may cause human infection due to carelessness from the part of humans itself. Spreading frightening theories and the panic stricken public resorting to extreme measures are the main cause of fatality in almost all cases. With a little common sense and care we can prevent another pandemic. As learned men we owe at least that much to the humanity.

References Internet
http://www.bird-flu-facts.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird_flu

Book
Biology Text Book Form 4

Acknowledgement
I would like to thanks everyone who has helped me in completing this project. Especially my parents, who are willing to support me and always being with me when I needed help. Also, Id like to thank my biology teacher, Puan Saunah Sayuti, who has given me the chance to do this project which has made me realized the importance of taking care of our Earth. Finally, a million thank you to my friends that have given me support and also giving a great idea to put in this folio.