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Pakistan Studies

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Key Question 5: To what extent have Urdu and regional languages contributed to the cultural development of Pakistan? Ans:Languages have a great value in countrys culture.After the independence of Pakistan,Urdu was choosen as the National language of the country.Firstly because it was widely spoken by the Muslims from the subcontinent as it has same dialect like Persian, Arabic and Turkish. Secondly, Urdu has high status and a vast and rich literature. It was classed as an important language of the world.Even before partition, high rank poets like Mir Ghalib, Hali and shibli were famous because of their Urdu poetry.Thirdly, It was choosen as national language because it had close relation with Pakistan movement as one of the objective for Muslim league was protection of Urdu.For promotion of sindhi language and sindhi literature Board was created A largenumber of books magazines and newspapers were printed.For Pashto language academy was established which publis hed Pashto dictionary and books.Pushto newspaper were also widely read.Balochi language was promoted by collection of balochi folks and songs and balochi university is also established for promotion of language.Punjabi language is greatly popular as it is easily understood by all provinces of Pakistan, Romantic poetry of Sufi poets contributed greatly to the poularity of Punjabi language and several organization are also working for the betterment of this language.

Pakistan Studies

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Key Question 6:How far did the Pakistan Movement develop during the early 20th century?
In early 20 the first major political crisis which British government faced after winning the control of subcontinent was over plans to partition the province of Bengal. Bengal was the most densely populated province, In western half of Bengal there were 54 million people out of which 42 million were Hindus and 12 million were Muslim. In eastern province there were another 31 million people out of which 18 million were Muslim and 12 million were Hindu. In order to control this much populated provinces huge administration was needed upon this Lord Curozon ordered to partion the province. Three divisions in the old province namely Dhaka Chittagong and Mymensingh were merged up to make a new province named as East Bengal The immediate reaction was that both communities were divided along communal lines Muslims were happy on this as they formed majority in new province. But on other side Hindus were unhappy on it an the outcry was so loud on it that by 1911 British turned theie decision and reversed the partition. It did not take Muslim to realize that they cannot afford to stay disorganized because Indian national congress was seems to be the representative of Hindus only. On 8 October prominent Muslim leaders met. This simla Delegation, as it became known having to set of demands first that Muslims should be represented by separate electorates and second demand was that they should be given weightage in elected bodies. The long term importance of this meeting was that tension between Hindus and Muslims were into constitutional plans. The Main manifesto for the Muslims to create the party was to represent themselves separately in political process Muslim League was created when influential Muslim delegates were to gather at Dhaka to attend the 20th session of the Mohammedan Educational Conference. After the creation of league co-operation of the Muslim League with Congress started as Muslim thought that Hindus will help them to exile British out from subcontinent but things went opposite Congress attacked on separate electrodes for Muslim This made Muslim league furious and they broke any future cooperation with congress.

Pakistan Studies

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British rule and attempts to make constitution reforms were failed badly starting with Morley minto in that enlarging of Provisional and Imperial councils were made and major repercussion was the official acceptance of the right of Muslim to separate electorates. This has been rightly seen as the first step towards Pakistan but surprisingly the reform were widely criticized by Congress party and the provision of separate electrodes were attacked. In spite of the concessions given by Morley Minto reforms to Muslims relation between British government and league were strained. In 1912 the role of Muslim league was defined and congress also accepted that Muslim league was not just British front but was a Party made for protection Muslims interest

At this time new figures was appearing on the scene Muhammad Ali Jinnah it was mainly with his efforts that both league and congress had their annual meetings at Bombay and some proposals were made during it This culminated in December 1916 with Lucknow Pact Muslim league was lead by Muhammad Ali Jinnah.The Lucknow Pact is significant as it marked some major concessions, most notably the acknowledgment of separate electrodes for Muslim and secondly Muslims were given one third of the seats in Parliament .Two things regarding Lucknow pact were worth nothing. First Muslim league came to know that they have to work hard to protect the Muslim political right and second that Hindus became convinced that problem of subcontinent were so deep that partition would be inevitable.

The impact of the First World War on Subcontinent rulers also it was inconceivable that any major reform of the British Indian Empire would be held but soon after wards the momentum accelerated and Montague Chelsmford Reform were held it was significant because it was first time that an official document stated that possibility of self rule by Indians in all internal matters A greater list of provincial powers was made, Official majorities were abolished and replaced with elected ones .And the most important reform was that provincial governor has sweeping power, A diarchy was introduced for the provincial governors, These reforms disappointed Muslim league and the

Pakistan Studies

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congress Party, as they both hoped for more powers in their hand. The qualification required for voting was relaxed in order that more People can Vote.

The feeling of resentment was compounded when the British passed infamous Rowlatt act which includes the right to arrest anyone with out warrant and detention with out bail.after Listening to this Act storm broke out meetings which were organized by organizers were banned by British but Sikh, Hindus and Muslims showed up and estimated crowd of 20000 were gathered at Amritsar for peaceful demonstration at Jallainwala Bagh but a sad event happened British officer General Dyer ordered open fire with out warning any one;by this act around 400 people were killed this was known as the Amritsar Massacre 1919.

Pakistan Studies

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Key Question 7: How successful was the Khilafat Movement in advancing the cause of the Pakistan Movement?

Khilafat Movement was started in India in 1919 because at the end of world war 1 Turkey was badly defeated by Britain and upon this Britain were going to put hard conditions on Turkey.Muslim were concern because they will also demolish caliphate which was great sign of unity for Muslim.Upon this khilafat committee was made which made demands that Turkey should not be divided into parts,Caliphate should not be abolished,Muslim sacred places should not be harmed.Since khilafat movement was against British,Congress also joined it and gave a great support to moment.The khilafat movement got good momentum as Muslims and Hindus got united. Protests and marches became regular throughout sub-continent after the khilfat leaders were arrested.All of sudden Congress withdrew from movement;this was major setback to khilafat movement.But the main reason why it ended in failure in 1924 was that the Turkish government themselves abolished caliphate and brought democratic system.So there was no reason for Muslims to fight for something which was no more into existence.

Pakistan Studies

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Key Question 8:How successful was the Pakistan Movement in the years 1927 to 1939?

In aftermath of the bloody events of 1919 it was hardly surprising that Congress boycotted election of 1920.these were the First election after Chelmsford Reforms, How ever Congress decided to fight 1923 elections. During this period of time till 1927 both parties were trying to clear their manifesto .In 1927 Muhammad Ali Jinnah Called a conference of Muslim Leaders in Delhi to discuss the future of constitutional reforms ,In the end of this meeting some Proposals were made these were known as Delhi Proposals. The stage was now set for the British to make their own recommendations to resolve the political crisis. It was decided by the British that a commission should be established to take stock of various shades. The composition of the Simon commission immediately caused offences as it comprised only British members. The main features of the simmon Report was abolition of diarchy.Althogh the Simon commission agreed on separate electrodes should stay but one third majority should be finished. The other conclusions of the report were also bad news for Muslim league The congress party decided to hold a civil disobedience campaign against the findings of the Simon commsion, Gandhi and Nehru were both arrested, The Muslim leaguer kept quite and stayed way from this campaign because Muslim league point was that congress struggle was nit just for independence but for ruling over Muslims. In reply to to simmon commission Congress brought Nehru Report which can define some principles which might govern a future Indian constitution. The chairman of this report was Motilal Nehru. The Nehru Report stated the immediately full dominion status should be given to India and with two tier Parliament. The main controversy of the report was over the question of separate electrodes for Muslim rights. The commit believed that if full religious liberty was granted there was no need for separate electrodes, even worse as far as Muslim leaguer was concerned the Nehru report stated that there should be no reserved seats for Muslims

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All these things convinced Muslim league that congress is the only party for Hindus so M.A. Jinnah decided to issue the 14 points in 1929 as a response to the Nehru report and one last attempt made by Quaid at an all party conference .Mr. Jinnah suggested 3 amendments to Nehru Report but they were rejected by the congress. At annual meeting of Muslim League in 1929 at Delhi, Mr Jinnah gave his 14 points to safe guard and protects the rights and interests of Muslim. These 14 points included demand of federal form of government ,provincial autonomy full protection of all minorities specially for Muslims separate electrodes for Muslim and one third of seats in Central Assembly. These 14 points were first ever demand of Muslims put to British and History tells us that Nehru Report was soon forgotten but the 14 points of Mr.Jinnah became the basis of Muslim political efforts later.

In 1930 Allama Iqbal was chairing the Muslim League Conference .It was in his presidential address that he formally stated that the Muslims of the subcontinent should now start working towards an independent Muslim homeland.Iqbal stated that I would Like to see Punjab, The North West frontier and Balochistan into single state .This was the first that any senior Muslim polition had made a such a demand

Pakistan Studies

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After the Failure of Second round table conference there was little chance that Third Round table conference will be successful ,so the British decided that

Pakistan Studies

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they would impose Communal Award for future election, the Muslims were given weightage in Hindu Dominated provinces, but the Muslim Majority in the Punjab and Bengal was reduced. The Communal Award was unpopular with both Muslim league and Congress Party but as the Muslim league had themselves suggested a British award they Promise to abide it, And Congress Party rejected it.

After the failure of the conferences British decided to right the recommendations that were made during Round Table conferences on white paper, This Act was formally titled the Government of India Act 1935 and proves to be Last legislation that the British would pass before Independence. The most important feature of the Act was that for the first time during British Raj Provincial autonomy was granted and the system of diarchy introduced earlier in the provinces was abolished.Ministeries in the provinces were to have control over all departments except maintenance of public orders. The new Province of Sindh and Orissa were created .The Government of India act was also important for movement of Pakistan as First time during British Raj that a large population were given chance to exercise their vote

Pakistan Studies

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In 1937 elections were held were held under The Government of India Act and both Parties thought that it will be worth contesting the elections of 1937.The election results for the Muslim League were not as good as hoped but Jinnah was not too disappointed or discouraged as the leaguer was recovering from the damaging internal dissensions of the early 1930,s. Congress Ministries were formed in 8 out of 11 provinces of India and they worked under the instruction of Mr. Gandhi and some other members.

The Congress rule was hated because it adopted policies which harmed and hurt the Muslims in many ways. Some of the steps taken by Congress were:-

Song of Banda Matram which clearly hurt Muslim Feelings was adopted as national anthem Widya Mandir scheme and Wardha Scheme were educational schemes which encouraged Hindu religion and culture. Teaching was to be in Hindi with no Religious education

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Muslim children were required to show reverences for Gandhis portrait which was hung up in the school Ban on cow slaughter Frequent occurrences of Hindu-Muslim riots in which always the Muslims were made victim. The Congress rule was hated on account of these anti-Muslim policies and the Muslims heaved a sigh of relief when Congress ministries resigned in November 1939 .Upon this The Day of Deliverance was officially called by Muslim League as a celebration to mark the end of Congress tyranny and injustice.

Pakistan Studies

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