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Activity 1 a) How would you define : Positive transfer: It occurs when the previous learning facilitates a subsequent execution.

E.x. : When I was 6 years studied ballet about 2 years; then at school I learn dances and I was the best because I was very flexible and I had very good body language, and this improved each time. I took acting class 2 years ago and then I took oratory classes so I realized that my acting classes helped me to develop similar techniques to public speaking and so both classes strengthened my knowledge more and more.

Negative transfer: It is when previous learning in some way hinders or interferes with new learning. E.x: I played volleyball all the time when I was a little girl so when I learned to play basketball at school I was struggling for receiving the ball .For some times I thought I was in a game of volleyball so my techniques were completely different. I was very confused, unstable because I was wrong to pass the ball.

Zero transfer : The zero transfer occurs when no effect on the previous learning again. E.x.: Topics of religion subject like the commandments, prayers, verses, were always repeated every year, not altered, nor hindered my learning in my school years.

b)

Find the definitions of :

Proactive interference : Current (new) information is lost because it is mixed up with previously learned, similar information. For example : 1. Proactive interference causes the professor to have a harder time remembering the names of people in class because he has learned so many names in the past. 2. If the student who had learned about the French Revolution thereafter studied The Industrial Revolution and had trouble remembering the events of The Industrial Revolution. 3. Some people have a harder time learning how to drive an automatic car because of their preexisting knowledge of how to drive a mechanical car or viceversa.

By Tania Pastor Gaspar

Retroactive interference :

Previously learned information is lost because it is mixed up with new and somewhat similar information.

For example: 1. An example about Retroactive interference would be the professor having trouble remembering people's names from a year or two before because he has learned new people's names and they have overridden the names he learned in the past. 2. Or a student studied French in the first semester and now is in the process of doing Spanish, it will be more difficult to recall the French than the Spanish , because the current topic is fresher in his mind.

By Tania Pastor Gaspar

Activity 2

Learning to learn Learning to learn or Metacognition is the ability to organise our own learning. It includes effective management of time and information, both for ourselves and in groups.

For example : When a student known to extract the main ideas of a text that supports their memory or organize information in a concept maps favors the recovery of a significant and begins to analyze how to improve this.

Learning hierarchy

This theory refers that there are several different types or levels of learning. The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning.

For example :

for cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be a chance to

practice developing new solutions to problems; to learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments. After learning It refers to set aside time to review the new knowledges and practice new skills using any job aids provided during the process learning. For example : To find ways to feedback on the teaching learning like the flow charts ,summaries,and other similar strategies.

By Tania Pastor Gaspar