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Integrated Waste Management Systems, Inc.

Air Quality Technical Response Document

April13,2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SectionPage Number
1. 2. 3. 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. 6. 7. 8. ExecutiveSummary..........................................................................................................................11 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................21 . WhyMacclenny,FLfortheproposedfacility? ..................................................................................31 . Whataretheemissionsfromtheproposedfacility?.........................................................................41 UNITSOFMEASURE .................................................................................................................................. 1 . 4 BREAKDOWNOFTHEEXHAUSTSTREAM.................................................................................................. 2 4 BREAKDOWNOFTHEEMISSIONLIMITS.................................................................................................... 4 4 QUANTIFICATIONOFEMISSIONS.............................................................................................................. 6 4 Aredioxinsemittedfromthisproposedfacilityandhowcantheyaffecthumans?...........................51 Whatabouttheash?........................................................................................................................61 Whatistheoverallimpactofthisproposedfacilityonourcommunity?...........................................71 References.......................................................................................................................................81

IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument

1.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc.(IWMS)proposestoconstructabiomedicalwastethermal reduction facility in Baker County, FL to provide jobs for the county and service the rapidly growing medical waste needs of the region. In an April 9, 2012 letter to the Baker County Board of County Commissioners(Board),IWMSpromisedtosubmitthisTechnicalResponseDocumenttotheBoardto addresssomeofthetechnicalissuesraisedbytheBoardandthepublic. IWMSbelievesthatBakerCountyisastrategiclocationfortheproposedfacilitybasedonitsproximity to metropolitan areas (customers) and the interstate highway system (transportation system); the regulatoryframeworkandexperienceoftheregulatorsdealingwithsimilarhospital/medical/infectious wasteincinerators(HMIWIs);andtheopportunitytopartnerwithBakerCounty. Due to the complexity of the regulations that govern HMIWIs, there are technical considerations that should be understood by key stakeholders. This document highlights some of these technical considerations and presents them in a context that relates to both the technical and nontechnical stakeholders.Thetechnicalconsiderationsaddressedinclude: Lessthan0.1%byvolumeoftheexhaustgasstreamiscomprisedofregulatedairpollutants;the remaining99.9%isnitrogen,carbondioxide,oxygen,andwater(i.e.,theprimaryconstituentsof ambientair). TheemissionlimitsfornewHMIWIsarebasedonthetopperformingunitintheindustryfor each pollutant. Any new unit constructed to meet such a combination of extremely stringent standards was referred to as a super unit in the regulatory development process. IWMS proposestoconstructasuperunit. Relatingoverallcancerrisktotheconstructionoftheproposedfacilityisnotsimple.Thereare numerousriskfactorsthatmustbeconsideredandtheemissionsfromtheproposedfacilityare justonecomponentoftheoverallrisk.All10existingHMIWIsinFlorida,noneofwhichhave thecontrolsofasuperunit,arelocatedincountiesthathavedecreasingdeathsattributedto cancerandhavedeathratesthatareeitherequalto,orlowerthan,thenationalaveragecancer deathrates.(NationalCancerInstitute,20042008)
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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument Dioxins from all incinerators in the U.S. have been reduced by approximately 99% from 1985 levels.BackyardburnbarrelemissionsnowrepresentthemajorityofU.S.dioxinemissionsand generateanywherefrom1,728to75,314timestheemission(onag/kgofwasteburnedbasis) fromamunicipalwastecombustor.(AmericanChemistryCouncil,2012) Ash will be thoroughly tested in compliance with all applicable environmental standards and properlydisposedofinasafemanneratanappropriatelylicensedlandfillthatwillacceptthe waste. TheIWMSprojectteamiscommittedtotheprojectbeingamodelfacilityfortheindustrythatwillmeet or exceed the applicable emission limits and will incorporate an environmentallyconscious design. IWMSbelievesthatawellpermitted,designed,constructed,operated,andmaintainedHMIWIfacilityin BakerCountycanbeavaluedcommunitypartner.

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2.

INTRODUCTION

AsoutlinedinIntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc.s(IWMSs)April9,2012lettertotheBaker CountyBoardofCountyCommissioners(Board),thepurposeofthisdocumentistoprovideadditional air quality regulatory and technical information related to a planned biomedical waste thermal reduction facility in Baker County, near Macclenny, Florida. Information is very powerful and misinformationcanbeequallypowerful.Theinternetprovidessocietyaccesstoinformationlikenever before some of it current and valuable, some of it outdated and misleading. The owners of this projectwishtosharetheresourcesthatwerereliedupontoevaluatetheplannedfacility. TheIWMSevaluationwasbaseduponthefollowinggoal: TheGOAL:Partner,Build,andServe IntegratedWasteManagementSystems(IWMS)isseekingapartnershipwithBakerCounty tobuildabiomedicalwastethermalreductionfacilitytoprovidejobsforthecountyand servicetherapidlygrowingmedicalwasteneedsoftheregion. TheplannedfacilitywillbeownedandoperatedbyIWMS.IWMSwillconstructandoperateuptofour (4) hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators (HMIWIs), each burning a maximum of 30 tons per day(tpd)ofbiomedicalwaste(30tpdisapproximatelyfour(4)tofive(5)tractortrailersofwasteeach 24hourperiodperunit).Theproposedfacilitywillalsoincludeone(1)emergencygeneratorandone (1) emergency fire pump, each permitted to operate a maximum of 500 hours per year, during emergencyconditions.Theemergencygeneratorandemergencyfirepumpareintendedtomaximize thesafeoperationofthefacility.Theemergencygeneratorwillprovidebackuppowerintheeventofa poweroutageandtheemergencyfirepumpwillpermitoperationofthefiresuppressionsystemsinthe eventofafireandassociatedlossofpower.Thisbackupcontingencywillfacilitatethesafeshutdown oftheoperationsintheeventofapowerfailure. ThisoperationwillbeverytightlyregulatedbytheU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(U.S.EPA)and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). On October 6, 2009, the U.S. EPA
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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument dramatically revised the federal air regulations that govern HMIWIs significantly lowering the allowable emission rates and enhancing the ongoing activities required to demonstrate compliance. Onepartoftherevisedregulationsaddressesexistingunits(i.e.,thosealreadyinoperation)andanother sectionoftheregulationsaddressesnewunits(liketheplannedIWMSfacility).Uponconstruction,the proposedIWMSfacilitywouldbesubjecttothenewunitrequirementsunder40CFRPart60,SubpartEc (NewSourcePerformanceStandardsforHospital/Medical/InfectiousWasteIncinerators). The remainder of this air quality technical response document has been assembled to address the followingkeyconsiderations: WhyMacclenny,FLfortheproposedfacility? Whataretheemissionsfromthisproposedfacility? Aredioxinsemittedfromthisproposedfacilityandhowcantheyaffecthumans? Whatabouttheash? Whatistheoverallimpactofthisproposedfacilityonourcommunity?

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3.

WHY MACCLENNY, FL FOR THE PROPOSED FACILITY?

Thefirstquestionisprobably:Whybuildanyofthesefacilitiesatall?Theshortansweristhattheyare needed to effectively treat the medical waste that is being generated every day. From a business planningperspective,IWMSconsideredthefollowingfactorsforlocatingtheproposedfacility: 1. An area with multiple major medical facilities with declining options for required disposal of medicalwaste. 2. Asitelocationthatwouldprovideaccesstomajorinterstatehighwaysystems. 3. Aregulatoryframework(i.e.,StateofFlorida)andregulatorsthatwerefamiliarwiththeHMIWI regulations due to existing facilities and the ability for proactive planning to properly incorporatethenewfederalHMIWIregulations. 4. Acountythatwaslookingforapartnertoprovidejobsandservicetherapidlygrowingmedical wasteneedsoftheregion. BakerCountysatisfieseachofthefirstthreefactorsoutlinedabove.IthasbeenIWMSsgoalfromthe introductionofthisprojectoverayearagotoagroupofBakerCountybusinessandgovernmentleaders toensurethatthefourthfactorisalsosatisfied.

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4.
4.1

WHAT ARE THE EMISSIONS FROM THE PROPOSED FACILITY?


UNITS OF MEASURE

The first place to start is with the units of measure the numbers do not mean much without an understandingoftheunitsofmeasure.Mostfolksarefamiliarwiththeunitof%.Fromourearlydays in school, a 90% on a test meant that we got 9 out of 10 correct or 90 out of 100. For the main constituents (i.e., components, ingredients, or makeup) in air; like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide,theunitsof%makesensebecausetheymakeupalargeportionofair.However,whenlooking at regulated air pollutants, % is too large of a scale and a smaller scale is used with different units of measure. Different scales are used to put numbers in terms that we can easily read; however, the relative magnitude of numbers can be easily lost. Consider, for example, units of measure and the correspondingtoolthatyouwouldusetomeasuredistance.TomeasurethedistancefromMacclenny toJacksonville,onewouldprobably Unitsofmeasure The distance from Macclenny to Jacksonville = 30 miles or 158,400feet. The typical dimensions of a bedroom are 10 feet by 12 feet = 0.00189milesby0.00227miles Theconcentrationofoxygeninambientairis21%,byvolume= 210,000ppm,byvolume The concentration of HCl in the exhaust gas is 5.1 ppm, by volumeor0.00051%,byvolume appropriate. Applying this analogy to the breakdown of air Oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide would be measuredinmiles[orvolume%inreality]andregulatedairpollutantswouldbemeasuredininches [orpartspermillioninreality].
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usemilesastheunitsofmeasure, andthenutilizeacarsodometerto determine the distance from

Macclenny to Jacksonville in miles. It does not make sense to use feet or inches to measure the distance when the scale of miles is more appropriate. It also doesnt make sense to measure the dimensionsofabedroominmiles when feet or inches is more

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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument Soletsputthecommonunitsofmeasureforregulatedairpollutantsinperspective: NitrogenOxideHMIWIemissionlimit=140ppmvat7%O2 LeadHMIWIemissionlimit=0.69g/m3 Bothexamplesabovehighlightthatforeachpollutant,adifferentsmallerscalehasbeenutilizedso thatthenumbersareeasilyreadandcanbemoreeasilyevaluated. 16,016,610,000g/m3isequalto1lb/ft3 Leadconcentrationlimit=0.000000000043lb/ft3 10,000ppmisequalto1%. NitrogenOxideconcentration=0.014%,byvolumeat7%O2

4.2

BREAKDOWN OF THE EXHAUST STREAM

Thebreakdownoftheexhauststreamisthefirstplacetostart.Theregulatedairpollutantscomprise just0.1%ofthetotalexhauststream,byvolume.Table1providesabreakdownoftheexhauststream both numerically and graphically. Notice that the regulated air pollutant fraction is so small that it barelyshowsupasapiesliverinthegraphic.Forcomparisonpurposes,dryambientairiscomprisedof approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other constituents (including carbon dioxide, methane,helium,hydrogen,andargon).

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4.3

BREAKDOWN OF THE EMISSION LIMITS


Theproposedunitswillbesubjecttofederalregulationsthatwere

Thecarbonmonoxidelimitof11 ppmv is comparable to the average concentration emitted from a properly operated gas stoveinyourhome. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html

originallypromulgatedin1997andthenupdatedin2009.Among other changes, the emissions limitations established in the 1997 rule were significantly reduced in the 2009 rule. The rule establishes emissions limitations for units depending on whether they are new or existing units, as well as whether they are classified as small, medium, or large units. The proposed IWMS

unitswillbeclassifiedasnew,largeunits.WhiletheotherFloridacommercialunit(locatedinApopka, FL) will be subject to the 2009 standards for existing, large units (to be implemented by 2014), the proposedIWMSunitswillbesubjecttothemorestringent2009standardsfornew,largeunits(tobe implementeduponoperationofanewunit).Acomparisonofthe1997standardsfornewandexisting largeunitstothe2009standardsfornewandexistinglargeunitsisprovidedinthetablebelow. Table2 EmissionLimitComparisonforExistingandNewLargeHMIWIs 1997Standardsvs.2009Standards(@7%O2)
Existing Units Pollutant 1997 Standard 2009 Standard Reduction (%) 1997 Standard New Units 2009 Standard Reduction (%)

PM/PM10 (gr/dscf) Carbon Monoxide (CO) (ppmv) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) (ppmv) Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) (ppmv) Hydrogen Chloride (ppmv) Dioxins/Furans (ng/dscm) Dioxins/Furans TEQ (ng/dscm) Lead (mg/dscm) Cadmium (mg/dscm) Mercury (mg/dscm)

0.015 40 55 250 100 125 2.3 1.2 0.16 0.55

0.011 11 9 140 6.6 9.3 0.054 0.036 0.0092 0.018

26.7 72.5 83.6 44.0 93.4 92.6 97.7 97.0 94.3 96.7

0.015 40 55 250 15 25 0.6 0.07 0.04 0.55

0.008 11 8.1 140 5.1 9.3 0.035 0.00069 0.00013 0.0013

46.7 72.5 85.3 44.0 66.0 62.8 94.2 99.0 99.7 99.8

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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument SuperUnitDesignation Theemissionslimitationsestablishedfornewunitsrepresenttheemissionratesachievedinpracticeby thebestperformingexistingunitatthetimethe2009rulewasdevelopedonapollutantbypollutant basis. Since the emissions limitations were developed on a pollutantbypollutant basis, no single unit could achieveallofthebestperformingemissionratesatthesametime(i.e.,thebestperformingunitforNOX maynothavebeenthebestperformingunitforCO).Thisnonexistentunitwasreferredtoasasuper unitintheruledevelopmentprocess;however,theresultingemissionslimitationsfornewunitswill,in effect,requirenewunitstobecomesuperunits.Thatistosay,newunitswillhavethelowestoverall emissionsofanyHMIWIunitcurrentlyinexistence.IWMSisproposingtoinstallsuperunitsaspart ofthisproject. EmissionLimitsineverydayterms It can be very difficult to understand the context of what part per million or milligram per dry standardcubicmetermeans.Apartpermillionmeansonepartoutofonemillionparts.Ifyouthinkof itintermsofgrainsofsand,tryfinding8grainsofsandoutofatubof1,000,000grainsofsand.Thatis a comparison of the allowable sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentration in the exhaust gas for a new, large HMIWI[SO2limitis8.1ppmv].

Theykeeploweringthelimits One of the most common questions is Since they keep lowering the limits, does that mean that emissionswerentsafebefore?Theansweristhatastechnologycontinuestoimprove,thelimitswill continuetobereduced.Technologyinfluencestheemissionlimitsonanumberoffronts: Theairpollutioncontroltechnology(theequipmentthatcleansthegasstreamofregulatedair pollutants) continues to evolve. Since the regulatory limits are technologybased limits, as technologyimprovesthelimitswillgodown. The ability to detect pollutants at lower concentrations continues to evolve. The dioxin limit identifiedaboveisintheunitsofnanogramsperdrystandardcubicmeter.Thereare1billion nanogramsinonegram.Laboratoryequipmentcannowbecalibratedtoanalyzelevelsthatare

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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument onebillionthofagram.ThatisequivalenttofindingONEpersonoutofallthepeopleinNorth America,LatinAmerica,andtheCaribbean,combined! Oneoftheprimarygoalsoftheregulatoryreviewprocessistoforcecontinuedimprovement andloweremissionlimits.TheU.S.EPArulesrequireroutinereviewsonceeveryfive(5)years to determine if the emission limits should be lowered. This approach protects human health andtheenvironment. Whataboutcancerrisk? We consulted the National Cancer Institutes database to seek clarity on this issue. Figure 1 shows a mapofFloridaandchartscancerincidenceratesbycounty.Alsoshownonthefigurearethelocations of the 10 existing HMIWIs. There is no clear correlation between HMIWI location and an increased cancer risk. What is significant is that all 10 existing HMIWI are located in Florida counties that have decreasing deaths associated with cancer (over the 20042008 period) and have death rates that are eitherequalto,orlowerthan,thenationalaveragecancerdeathrates.(NationalCancerInstitute,2004 2008)

4.4

QUANTIFICATION OF EMISSIONS

WhiletheemissionlimitspresentedinTable2providealevelofconfidencethattheconcentrationsin the exhaust gas stream are very low and will represent a super unit designation, it is the MASS of theseregulatedairpollutantsemittedintotheatmospherethatismostimportant.Themajorityofthe airqualityrequirementsaretriggeredbasedontheweight(ormass)ofemissionsthatarereleasedinto the atmosphere. Table 3 provides a summary of anticipated maximum mass emission rates from the four(4)IWMSunitsbasedontheconcentrationlimitsfromtheregulationsandananticipatedmaximum exhaust gasflowrateout ofthestack thesetwo valuescanbeused tocalculatethemassemission ratesoutofthestack.

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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument Figure1 CancerIncidenceRatesforFlorida(20042008)

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Table 3 Maximum HMIWI Mass Emission Rates Emission Factor Pollutant PM PM10 PM2.5 NOX SO2 CO VOC HCl Cd Hg Pb Dioxins and Furans Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Chlorine Chromium Copper Hydrogen Bromide Hydrogen Fluoride Iron Manganese Nickel Silver SO3 Thallium Total PCBs
Notes:
(a)

Units gr/dscf @ 7% O2 gr/dscf @ 7% O2 gr/dscf @ 7% O2 ppmv @ 7% O2 ppmv @ 7% O2 ppmv @ 7% O2 lb/ton ppmv @ 7% O2 g/dscm @ 7% O2 g/dscm @ 7% O2 g/dscm @ 7% O2 ng/dscm @ 7% O2 lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton lb/ton

Footnote (c) (b) (b) (c) (c) (c) (d) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d)

Potential to Emit(a) (lb/hr) (ton/yr) 2.97 2.97 2.97 43.40 3.49 2.08 0.24 1.24 2.11E-05 2.11E-04 1.12E-04 1.51E-06 1.50E-02 7.55E-04 7.30E-05 3.70E-04 1.92E-05 5.25E-01 9.60E-04 1.38E-03 2.21E-02 6.65E-02 7.20E-02 2.84E-03 1.42E-03 3.60E-04 4.54E-02 5.50E-03 2.33E-04 13.00 13.00 13.00 190.07 15.30 9.09 1.03 5.42 9.23E-05 9.23E-04 4.90E-04 6.60E-06 6.55E-02 3.31E-03 3.20E-04 1.62E-03 8.41E-05 2.30E+00 4.20E-03 6.02E-03 9.68E-02 2.91E-01 3.15E-01 1.24E-02 6.22E-03 1.57E-03 1.99E-01 2.41E-02 1.02E-03

0.008 0.008 0.008 140 8.1 11 0.047 5.1 0.13 1.30 0.69 9.3 2.99E-03 1.51E-04 1.46E-05 7.39E-05 3.84E-06 1.05E-01 1.92E-04 2.75E-04 4.42E-03 1.33E-02 1.44E-02 5.67E-04 2.84E-04 7.19E-05 9.07E-03 1.10E-03 4.65E-05

Emission calculations are based on the following information. Parameter Value 17,520 Stack Gas Volumetric Flow Rate 395 Stack Gas Temperature 10,819 Standard Stack Gas Volumetric Flow Rate 2,500 HMIW Feed Rate (per HMIWI) 8,760 Operating Time 4 Number of Incinerators 60 Conversion Factor 1 7,000 Conversion Factor 2 2.2046E-09 Conversion Factor 3 35.31 Conversion Factor 4 385.35 Molar Volume of Air @ STP Molecular Weight of NO x (as NO2) 46 Molecular Weight of SO 2 64 28 Molecular Weight of CO 36 Molecular Weight of HCl

Units ACFM @ 7% O2
O F DSCFM @ 68 OF lb/hr hr/yr Units min/hr gr/lb lbg ft3/m3 scf/lb mol lb/lb mol lb/lb mol lb/lb mol lb/lb mol

(b) Emission factor represents emission guarantee provided by Tri-Mer Corporation for an UltraCat Filtration (UCF) Air Pollution Control System for total filterable particulate matter. (c) Emission factor represents emission limit for new units subject to 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart Ec Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators." (d)

Emission factor from U.S. EPA, AP-42: Chapter 2.3.

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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument So how do the emissions from the proposed IWMS facility compare to other existing Baker County facilities? There are numerous permitted and unpermitted sources of air pollution located in Baker County. Submitting environmental permit applications, receiving environmental permits, and then operating pursuanttothepermitsiscommontomunicipal,governmental,industrial,andmanufacturingfacilities. The regulatory agencies understand the rules and the requirements, and the regulated community understands that such permits are required. The rules and requirements are developed with two commongoals:(1)protecthumanhealthandwelfare,and(2)preventadverseenvironmentalimpact. Thisisaccomplishedbyaformalrulemakingprocessthatisbasedonscientificdata,involvesthepublic, andmandatesongoingreviewandreconsiderationofemissionlevels. To provide some perspective: The City of Macclenny has a permit to operate an Air Curtain Incinerator. [FDEP Permit7775429002AO] This unit is subject to unitspecific federal New Source PerformanceStandards(40CFRPart60,SubpartAAAA)justliketheproposedIWMSfacility(40CFRPart 60, Subpart Ec) and is not equipped with any addon air pollution control equipment. In addition to being permitted to burn yard waste, this incinerator is permitted to be used for the destruction of animalcarcassesinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofRule62256.700(6),F.A.C. If such carcasses were burned in the proposed The City of Macclenny is currently permitted to operate an Air Curtain Incinerator. The unit is subjecttotheNewSourcePerformanceStandards (40 CFR Part 60, Subpart AAAA) and is permitted tobeusedforthedestructionofanimalcarcasses. IWMSfacility,theexhaustgaswouldbetreated andexhaustedthroughtheairpollutioncontrol system. The requirement for operation of the Citys Air Curtain Incinerator when burning animalcarcassesisonlythatWhenusingtheaircurtainincineratortoburnanimalcarcasses,untreated wood may also be used to maintain good combustion. [FDEP Permit7775429002AO, Emission Unit SpecificCondition9]Therearenoadditionalairpollutioncontrolrequirementsassociatedwithburning animalcarcassesintheCityofMacclennysincinerator. ThisexampleisnotcitedtoimplythattheCityofMacclennyisdoinganythingwrong.Onthecontrary, the example is provided to show what is typically required by the regulations and what is currently
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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument permitted to operate in Baker County. In addition, this example highlights the ADDITIONAL level of control and the ADDITIONAL requirements that would be associated with the proposed IWMS facility whentreatingsimilarwastestreams.

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5.

ARE DIOXINS EMITTED FROM THIS PROPOSED FACILITY AND HOW CAN THEY AFFECT HUMANS?

DioxinEmissions Dioxinsisthegenericnamethatisgiventoagroupofchemicalcompoundsthataretoxicandshare many of the same chemical structures and biological characteristics. Dioxins have been around since theinventionoffireandcanbereleasedintotheatmospherefrombothnaturalsourcesandmanmade sources.Themostcommonsourcesofdioxinsare: The first step to understanding dioxins is to make Makesurethedataiscurrent! Emissions of dioxins from US industrial and municipal sources have declined by 92 percent since 1985. U.S. EPA anticipates that dioxin emissionsfrommunicipalwastecombustorsand incinerators will have been reduced by approximately 99% and mercury emissions by 95%whentechnologybasedemissionsstandards for industrial and combustion sources are fully implemented. http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrnd02/2002_a irtrends_final.pdf surethattheinformationbeingreviewediscurrent. Data showing that the leading source of dioxins is incinerationisoutdated.Emissionsofdioxinsfrom U.S. industrial and municipal sources have been dramaticallyreducedbyupto92%from1985levels and backyard burn barrels now comprise the majorityofalldioxinemissionsintheU.S.Thefigure below provides a graphical representation of this dramatic transformation (American Chemistry Council,2012).Twothingsareimmediatelyclear: Forestfires; Backyardburningoftrash(burnbarrels); Certainindustrialactivities;and Pastcommercialwasteburning.(Agency,2010)

1. Total dioxin emissions have dramatically reduced from 1985 levels of 13,949 grams of dioxins (TEQbasis)tothoseprojectedin2002/2004of1,106gramsofdioxins(TEQbasis).Thisisatotal emissions reduction of 92%. [NOTE: TEQ means dioxin toxic equivalents and provides a weighting factor for each member of the dioxin family. 2,3,7,8TCDD is the most toxic of the
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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument bunchandisgivenatoxicequivalencyfactor(TEF)ofone.Allotherdioxinfamilymembersare givenaTEFbasedon2,3,7,8TCDDandareoneorless.] 2. Contributionofdioxinemissionsfromburnbarrelsisover50%ofthe2002/2004levelswhilethe contributionfromincinerationislessthan5%.

Mr.PaulLemieuxoftheU.S.EPAsNationalRiskManagementResearchLaboratoryperformedastudyin 1999thatanalyzedtheemissionsofdioxinsfromburnbarrels.(Lemieux,1999)Thestudyveryclearly showed that the dioxin generation rate (on a g/kg of waste burned basis) from backyard waste burningwereanywherefrom1,728to75,314timeshigherthanthatforamunicipalwastecombustor. Thetablebelowhasbeenreproducedfromthat1999study.Thendvaluerepresentsnonedetected basedonthedetectionlimitatthetimeofthetest.

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For comparison purposes, the current dioxin emission limits for municipal waste combustors are 13 nanograms/dscm @ 7% O2 [Total dioxins/furans]. The proposed HMIWIs at the IWMS facility would havealowerdioxinpermitlimit.ThedioxinemissionlimitfortheIWMSunitsis9.3nanograms/dscm@ 7%O2[Totaldioxins/furans].Thiscorrespondstoemissionratesof1.51x106poundsperhourand6.6x 106tonsperyearofdioxins/furans.Assumingthatagrainofsandweighs0.1milligrams,theIWMS emissionraterepresentstheequivalentof6grainsofsandperhouremittedfromthefacility. Atremendousamountofefforthasbeenspenttryingtounderstandhowdioxinsareformedandalso abouttheirimpactsonhumanhealthandtheenvironment.Oneofthekeyconsiderationsforformation of dioxins is The 3T Rule. (Council, 2007) The 3T Rule Combustion temperature, time, and turbulenceconditionsareadjustedtominimizedioxinformation. The3TRuleisafundamentalprincipalofallregulatedwastecombustionsectorsandhasproventhat combustiontechnologydoesworktoreducedioxinemissions.Combustiontemperatureappearstobe the primary driver in minimizing dioxin formation. The temperature range most conducive to dioxin formation is approximately 390 deg F to 750 deg F. Dioxin formation in that temperature range is approximately ten times higher than that below 390 deg. F, while dioxin concentrations are next to totallydestroyedabove750deg.F.(Vehlow,2005)TheIWMSHMIWIswilloperateattemperaturesin excessof1,600deg.Fintheprimarychamberandinexcessof1,800deg.Finthesecondarychamber. Inaddition,IWMSwillemployrapidquenchtechnologyintheairpollutioncontrolsystemtominimize thetimethattheexhauststreamwillbeinthecriticaltemperaturerange.Dioxinformationwillbevery lowinthehightemperaturezonetypicalofcombustion,andinthelowtemperaturezonerequiredto maintaintheintegrityoftheairpollutioncontrolsystem.Inaddition,IWMSwillberequiredtotestand 53

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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument toestablishoperatingparameterlimitsthatarecontinuouslymonitoredandrecordedtoensurethatthe emissionlimitsaresatisfied. DioxinAffects Dioxins have been categorized by U.S. EPA as likely to be human carcinogen and are anticipated to increasetheriskofcanceratbackgroundlevelsofexposure.(Agency,PersistentBioaccumulativeand Toxic (PBT) Chemical Program Dioxins and Furans, 2011) Our most common exposure to dioxins is primarilyfromthefoodweeatanimalfatsassociatedwitheatingbeef,pork,poultry,fish,milk,and otherdairyproducts. Dioxins have been widely studied by the U.S. EPA and health organizations and the health effects of dioxinsdependonavarietyoffactorsincluding: TheU.S.EPAissuedadrafthealthassessmentfordioxinsin1994.Sincethatinitialreport,14additional documents have been released on the subject often contradicting the previous documents. www.DioxinFacts.org summarizes the February 2012 U.S. EPA document as presented below and concludes that current exposure to dioxins does not pose a significant health risk. (American ChemistryCouncil,2012) Thelevelofexposure, Whensomeoneisexposed,and Forhowlongandhowoftensomeoneisexposed.(Agency,Dioxin,2010)

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WHAT ABOUT THE ASH?

Therearetwotypesofashthatwouldbegeneratedatthefacility:bottomashandflyash.Bottomash istheashgeneratedintheprimarycombustionchamberandflyashistheashthatiscollectedfromthe fabricfilterbaghousesystemthatispartoftheairpollutioncontrolsystem.Bottomashissimilartothe ashthatremainsafteracampfire.Theflyashisaveryfinepowderthisisacombinationofthesodium bicarbonatethatisaddedtotheductworkjustpriortothefabricfiltersystemtocontrolacidgasesand anyparticulatematterorotherpollutantsthatsticktothesodiumbicarbonate.Theflyashiseither sodiumbicarbonateandparticulatematter(i.e.,bakingsoda)orasodiumsaltbasedonthereactionof the sodium bicarbonate and chlorine acid gases). The fly ash particles are prevented from being dischargedintotheatmospherewiththeexhaustgasstreambecausetheyaretoolargetofitthrough the microscopic holes of the bag filters. This controlled fly ash falls to the bottom of the hopper whereitiscollected. The bottom ash and fly ash are both collected in covered hoppers. The respective ashes are then sampled,analyzed,andthenproperlytransportedanddisposedofinanappropriatelylicensedlandfill basedontheresultsofthesampling.Eachlandfillisalsoregulatedandwillonlyacceptwaste(ashin ourcase)thatmeetscertaincriteria.IWMSwillonlysendtheashtopermittedlandfillsthatacceptour ashcriteria.IWMShasnointentionoflandapplyinganyoftheashcollectedatthefacility.IWMSwill follow a strict sampling/analysis/transportation/disposal plan that will minimize the potential environmentalimpactoftheashandwillonlydisposeoftheashatanappropriatelylicensedlandfill.

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WHAT IS THE OVERALL IMPACT OF THIS PROPOSED FACILITY ON OUR COMMUNITY?

Afterallthetechnicaldataispresentedandreviewed,thefinalquestionisWhatistheimpactonour community? This question can be analyzed from many different perspectives from the economic impacttotheimpactonhumanhealthandtheenvironment.Theeconomicimpactwasaddressedinan independent study commissioned last year that identified 100 local jobs, $27 million in construction spending,andalmost$200millionineconomicimpact.Thefocusofthisdocumentissolelyonhuman healthandtheenvironment.Thereareafewfundamentaltruthswhenconsideringthehumanhealth andenvironmentalimpactoftheproject. 1. HMIWIshavesuccessfullyoperated,andcontinuetooperate,intheU.S.and10unitscurrently operaterighthereinFL.Therearespecificbiomedicalwastestreamsthatarebesttreated,and insomecaseslegallyrequiredtobetreated,byincineration. 2. The updated 2009 emission limits and the process for developing the emission limits are as stringentasU.S.EPAhaseverapprovedforanyindustry/sector.Thedevelopmentofthe2009 rulesgoverningHMIWIswasbasedonatwostepprocess: Step1:Establishtechnologybasedstandardsthatreflectthemaximumlevelsofcontrol that U.S. EPA determines are achievable for new and existing units after considering costs,nonairqualityhealthandenvironmentalimpacts,andenergyimpacts. Step2:Reviewandrevisethestandardsasnecessaryeveryfive(5)yearstoprovidean ample margin of safety to protect public health and to prevent (taking into consideration costs, energy, safety, and other relevant factors) an adverse environmentalimpact. 3. The system design, training (both operator training and customer training), emission testing, continuous parameter monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting are extremely rigorous with thepurposeofdemonstratingcontinuouscompliancewiththestringentemissionlimits. 4. IWMS is committed to this project being a model facility for the industry that will meet or exceedtheemissionlimitsandwilluseanenvironmentallyconsciousdesign.

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IntegratedWasteManagementSystems,Inc. BioMedicalWasteThermalReductionFacility AirQualityTechnicalResponseDocument The IWMS project team believes that a properly designed, permitted, constructed, operated, and maintainedHMIWIfacilitywillbeasafeandvaluedcommunitypartnerhereinBakerCounty.

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REFERENCES

Agency,U.S.(2010,August12).Dioxin.RetrievedApril10,2012,fromU.S.EPAResearch EnvironmentalAssessmentDioxin: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/CFM/nceaQFind.cfm?keyword=Dioxin Agency,U.S.(2011,April18).PersistentBioaccumulativeandToxic(PBT)ChemicalProgramDioxins andFurans.RetrievedApril10,2012,fromU.S.EPA:http://www.epa.gov/pbt/pubs/dioxins.htm AmericanChemistryCouncil.(2012).DioxinFacts.orgDioxininDepth.RetrievedApril11,2012,from DioxinFacts.org:http://www.dioxinfacts.org/ Council,A.C.(2007).TrendsinDioxinEmissionsandExposureintheUnitedStates.RetrievedApril10, 2012,fromDioxinFacts.org:http://www.dioxinfacts.org/sources_trends/trends_emissions.html Lemieux,P.M.(1999).EmissionsofPolychlorinatedDibenzopdioxinsandPolychlorinated DibenzofuransfromtheOpenBurningofHouseholdWasteinBarrels.AmericanChemistry Society. NationalCancerInstitute.(20042008).StateCancerProfiles.RetrievedApril11,2012,fromCancer.gov: http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/cgibin/quickprofiles/profile.pl?12&001 Vehlow,J.(2005,December1013).DioxinsinWasteCombustionConclusionsfrom20Yearsof Research.RetrievedApril10,2012,fromIEABioenergyTask36.org(BioenergyAustralia2005): http://www.ieabioenergytask36.org/Publications/2004 2006/Report%2010_Dioxins%20in%20%20Waste.pdf

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