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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES LIST OF CHARTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 INTRODUCTION INDUSTRY PROFILE REVIEW OF LITERATURE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY SCOPE OF THE STUDY LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS FINDINGS SUGGESTIONS CONCLUSION 5 10 16 18 20 22 24 33 63 66 68

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BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX

I IV

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

TITLE
DEPARTMENTT WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION MANAGEMENT LEVEL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN THE ORGANIZATION PAY PACKAGE PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION NATURE OF JOB COMPLETION OF WORK IN TIME WORK OVERLOAD STRESS IN JOB KIND OF STRESS IN JOB AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES 2

1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15

1.16

1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24

LEVEL OF STRESS KIND OF INCONVENIENCE PREFERENCE FOR INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES KIND OF INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES

ORGANIZATION COPING STRATEGIES


AGE Vs LEVEL OF STRESS AGE Vs PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE EMPLOYEE LEVEL Vs STRESS LEVEL WEIGHTED AVERAGES FOR THE LEVEL OF STRESS AMONG THE EMPLOYEES OF VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS

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LISTOF CHARTS
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CHART NO.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16

TITLE
DEPARTMENT WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION MANAGEMENT LEVEL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN THE ORGANIZATION PAY PACKAGE PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION NATURE OF JOB COMPLETION OF WORK IN TIME WORK OVERLOAD STRESS IN JOB KIND OF STRESS IN JOB AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES 4

1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21

LEVEL OF STRESS KIND OF INCONVENIENCE PREFERENCE FOR INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES KIND OF INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES ORGANIZATION COPING STRATEGIES

1. INTRODUCTION IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY 20TH century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in human history. Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period. Peter Drucker has called it The Age of Discontinuity, John Galbraith has called it The Age of Future Shock and Hari Albrecht called it The Age of Anxiety. Stress has become the 21 century buzz word, from the high pervading corporate echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants nurseries we find this world liberally used. Stress is part of modern life. Various events in life cause stress, starting with the birth of a child and enduring with the death of a dear one. Urbanization, industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of the reasons for rising stress. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. The telephone goes out of order, power is shut down, water supply is disrupted, children perform poorly at school etc, we feel frustrated and then stressed. The word stress is derived from a Latin word stringere, meaning to draw tight. From the view point of physical sciences, the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials when they are subjected to force, pressure, strain or strong-front. Every material steel, rock or wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without being damaged. Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. Stress is highly individualistic in nature. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. In fact, some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their best results. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform to full capacity. If the stress experience is below the optimum level, then the individual gets bored, the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes, forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and also leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the other hand, stress experience is above the optimum level, it leads to too many conflicts

with the supervisor or leads to increase of errors, bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia, stomach problems, and psychosomatic illness. The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individuals reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity, constraint, or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. In short stress is a response to an external factor that results in physical, emotional, behavioral deviations in a person. Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human life. Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce stress. Those can be divided into factors related to the organization and factors related to the person which include his experience and personality traits. Job related factors are work overload, time pressures, poor quality of supervision, insecure political climate, role conflict and ambiguity, difference between company values and employee values. Person related factors are death of spouse, or of a close friend, family problems, change to a different line of work, prolonged illness in the family, change in social activities, eating habits, etc., Personality traits are Type A personality. They are impatient, ambitious, competitive, aggressive, and hardworking. They set high goals and demands of themselves and others. And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory emotions such as anxiety.

REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESS There are two major approaches to reduce stress. They are, Individual approaches Organizational approaches An employee can take individual responsibility to reduce his/her stress level. Individual strategies that have proven effective include, implementing time management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network. Time management Many people manage their time very poorly. Some of well known time management principles include, o Making daily list of activities to be accomplished o Scheduling activities according to the priorities set o Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency o Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job. Physical exercise Practicing non-competitive physical exercises like aerobics, race walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bi-cycle. Relaxation training Relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis and bio-feedback. The objective is to reach in state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed, somewhat from detached from the immediate environment. Fifteen or twenty minutes a day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness. Social support Having families, friends or work colleagues to talk provides an outlet, when stress levels become excessive. So expand your social support network that helps you with someone to hear your problems. 9

INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES

ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role demands and organizations structure are controlled by management. As such they can be modified or changed. Some of the strategies that management want to consider include improved personal self section and job placement, use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs, improved organizational communication and establishment of corporate wellness programmes. Certain jobs are more stressful than others. Individual with little experience or an external lower of control tend to be more proven to stress. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration. Goal setting helps to reduce stress. It also provides motivation. Designing jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress, because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others. Increasingly formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainly by lessency role ambiguity and role conflict. Wellness program, say, employee counseling form on the employees total physical and mental condition. They typically proud work ships to help people quit smoking, control alcohol usage, eat better and develop a regular exercise program. Another remedy for reducing stress is cognitive restructuring. It involves two step procedures. First irrational or maladaptive thought processes that create stress are identified. For example Type A individuals may believe that they must be successful at everything they do. The second step consists of replacing these irrational thoughts with more rational or reasonable ones. One important remedy to reduce stress is the maintenance of good sleep. Research conducted on laboratory specimen to have met with startling discoveries. Sleep starved rats have developed stress syndrome. The amount of sleep one requires varies from person to person and is dependent on ones lifestyle. The American National Sleep Foundation claims that a minimum of eight hours of sleep is essential for good health. Generally studies shows that young adults can manage with about 7-8 hours. After the age of 35, six hours of sleep is sufficient whereas people over 65 years may just need three or four hours. 10

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2. INDUSTRY PROFILE

KST is a global IT solutions provider leading the offshore revolution with its cutting-edge services that provide support and impetus to emerging & established businesses in the areas of IT consulting, product engineering, social networking, custom software development, application integration and maintenance. With its signature innovative approach to technology solutions, KST has effectively leveraged the market presence & profitability for clients hailing from backgrounds as diversified as entertainment houses, educational institutions, healthcare industries, financial organizations, travel companies and regional communities, among others. Right since its inception KST has dominated the booming Indian services sector through repeated excellence in empowering the IT community with progressive technological developments. Through our cost-effective solutions, entertainment and social networking communities worldwide have been consistently enjoying record success and increased productivity, generating measurable ROI's that speak volumes about our proficiency. Mission To lead in the various avenues of Software Outsourcing market, implement novel ideas in project development and deliver cost effective and required solutions to its prospective clients. Vision To earn global admiration as an IT Outsourcer, by building and maintaining long lasting relationship with people and technology and deliver functional software and excellent services.

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Value We cherish and nurture our values and interactions with all our employees and clients. We have high regards for individual value which creates a transparent atmosphere ensuring outstanding teamwork and rapport, built within the company. We promise to live up to our values. Our values reflect in: Bonding relationship with clients Client Intimacy Confidentiality with respect to work Reflective atmosphere Integrity expressed Independent business objectives WHY US This page demonstrates Kalam Software Technology strengths that distinguish us among our competitors.

Experience and Expertise

Having worked on numerous projects, Kalam Software Technology has gained unmatched business and technological expertise. We have built a large database of knowledge that we apply to deliver solutions that meet customers' needs, expectations and budget.

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Business Experience Kalam Software Technology has over 5 years experience in providing professional web development services for clients across the globe. We have successfully completed hundreds of projects of different sizes and complexity in various business and technology domains. Capitalizing on the accumulated experience Kalam Software Technology provides full-cycle services ranging from business analysis and consulting to project implementation and support. Vertical and Domain Expertise Our rich business domain experience enables us to speak the same language with customers and understand their business needs easily. Our knowledge stretches from application design, development and integration to operating key processes. This knowledge base and experience help us save clients' precious time and deliver the right solution for every specific situation. Technology Competence Our unique competence in various technologies enables us to deliver integrated, scalable, robust solutions with the optimal cost/performance ratio. Our Tech Lab constantly conducts research on new technology products to meet the ever-growing customer needs.

Commitment to Quality

While retaining competitive rates we never compromise the quality of our services. A dedicated quality assurance department monitors project activities at all development phases and guarantees defect prevention, project risk mitigation and high quality results. Personnel Quality The quality of our people makes us stand out. We hire and retain only the best professionals. At Kalam Software Technology we set up a thorough personnel selection 14

process and a challenging environment to grow and improve our large resource pool of topnotch experts. Process Quality Kalam Software Technology follows a proven development methodology on every project we undertake. We implement the best industry standards and practices like RUP or Agile Methodology depending on project size and complexity. These standards and Kalam Software Technology's experience guarantee outstanding results and allow us to better serve clients with regards to cost, quality and timeframes.

Customer-Focused Approach

Kalam Software Technology is a client-centric organization. We make it our business to understand and help our clients to achieve their business goals. Individual Approach We thoroughly study each customers case. Depending on project requirements we engage a dedicated team of business analysts to analyze and understand clients' specific objectives and needs to find the solutions that meet them. Easy Communication We understand that effective communication is crucial for success of any project. We establish a productive customer communication environment providing all the required resources. All our employees who are engaged in commutation with customers speak fluent English. Delivering Business Value Delivering exceptional business value to clients is the primary goal at Kalam Software Technology. This requires more than just focusing on the software development process. 15

This way we can offer our clients technology solutions that add real value to their business. Its simple we understand that our success is measured by success of our clients. We never stop improving our services, including development technologies, engineering practices, management methods and QA standards to improve team capabilities and increase customer satisfaction

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Stress may be referred to as an unpleasant state of emotional and physiological arousal that people experience in situations that they perceive as dangerous or threatening to their well-being. The word stress means different things to different people. Some people define stress as events or situations that cause them to feel tension, pressure, or negative emotions such as anxiety and anger. Others view stress as the response to these situations. This response includes physiological changessuch as increased heart rate and muscle tensionas well as emotional and behavioral changes. However, most psychologists regard stress as a process involving a persons interpretation and response to a threatening event. Stress is a common experience. We may feel stress when we are very busy, have important deadlines to meet, or have too little time to finish all of our tasks. Often people experience stress because of problems at work or in social relationships, such as a poor evaluation by a supervisor or an argument with a friend. Some people may be particularly vulnerable to stress in situations involving the threat of failure or personal humiliation. Others have extreme fears of objects or things associated with physical threatssuch as snakes, illness, storms, or flying in an airplaneand become stressed when they encounter or think about these perceived threats. Major life events, such as the death of a loved one, can cause severe stress. Stress can have both positive and negative effects. Stress is a normal, adaptive reaction to threat. It signals danger and prepares us to take defensive action. Fear of things that pose realistic threats motivates us to deal with them or avoid them. Stress also motivates us to achieve and fuels creativity. Although stress may hinder performance on difficult tasks, moderate stress seems to improve motivation and performance on less complex tasks. In personal relationships, stress often leads to less cooperation and more aggression. If not managed appropriately, stress can lead to serious problems. Exposure to chronic stress can contribute to both physical illnesses, such as heart disease, and mental illnesses, such as anxiety disorders. The field of health psychology focuses in part on how stress affects bodily functioning and on how people can use stress management techniques to prevent or minimize disease. 18

WHAT IS STRESS? Whilst there is little disagreement about the prevalence of stress there is considerable debate about what the word (stress) actually refers to. In ordinary conversation we seem to be willing to apply the word to both cause and effect. In other words, the common sense view of stress is that it is a combination of external stressors and our response in the early and highly influential research of Selye (1936). Stress is as the result of an interaction between an individuals emotional, intellectual, social, and physical resources and the demands on him or her. Marshall & Cooper (1981) argue that stress is a different phenomenon form pressure. Stress is something more than mere pressure. It carries strong overtones of the breakdown of normal human performance. In an earlier work, Cooper & Marshall, (1978), the same two authors concluded that stress is essentially individually defined and must be understood with reference to characteristics of both the individual and his environment, as it is the outcome of the two (p.4) The following are the various definitions of the term stress: A. Stress is the excitement, feeling of anxiety, and/or physical tension that occurs when the demands placed on an individual are thought to exceed his ability to cope. This most common view of stress is often called distress or negative stress. The physical or psychological demands from the environment that cause this condition are called stressors. (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2004) B. Holmes & Rahe,(1967) defined stress as a stimulus event that presents unusual demands. C. It is defined by Ganster and Murphy (2000) as a form of strain provoked in response to situational demands labeled stressors which occur when jobs are simultaneously high in demands and low in control.

D. Is an adaptive response, mediated by individual differences and/or psychological processes, that is, a consequence of any external (environment) action, situation, or event 19

that places excessive psychological and/or physical demands on a person. (Weihrich and Koontz, 1993) E. Stress is the mental or physical condition that results from a perceived threat of danger (physical or emotional) and the pressure to remove it. (Leslie & Lloyd, 1977) F. Selye (1976) define stress as the bodily response we make to the troublesome event. G. Stress is any circumstances or transactions with the environment that threaten or are perceived to threaten our well-being and thereby tax our adaptive capacities. (Weiten, 1986). H. An adaptive response, moderated by individual differences, that is a consequence of any action, situation, or event and that places special demands on a person. (Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson, 1987) I. Stress (psychology), an unpleasant state of emotional and physiological arousal that people experience in situations that they perceive as dangerous or threatening to their well-being. (Auerbach et al, 2007 / Encarta 2008) J. In physics, stress refers to the external force applied to an object for example, a bridge girder. The response is strain, which is the impact the force has on the girder. K. Stress is defined as a nonspecific response of the body to a stimulus or event (stressor). Under a general model of the stress response, when an individual experiences a stressor, the stressor will lead to a physiological response, one that can be measured by several indicators, such as elevated heart rate. In related literature, the term stress is used to refer to this physiological response. Stressors vary in form and can include extreme temperature or lighting, time pressure, lack of sleep, and exposure to threat or danger, among others. All stressors, however, tend to produce similar physiological responses within the body. (Selye, 1956) Transactional model of stress championed by Richard Lazarus and his colleagues (Holroyd & Lazarus, 1982; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) - A theory that proposes that the experience of stress depends on ones subjective appraisal of events. Thus, stress is neither a stimulus nor a response but a stimulus-response transaction. Lazarus emphasizes that the experience of stress is highly personal & subjective, depending on how people appraise the events they encounter. From the above definitions of the term stress, stress means different things to different people. From a laypersons perspective, stress can be described as feeling tense, anxious, or worried. The term stress 20

itself has been defined in literally hundreds of ways in the literature. Virtually all of the definitions can be placed into one of the two categories, however; stress can be defined as either a stimulus or a response. A stimulus definition treats stress as some characteristic or event that may result in a disruptive consequence. In a response definition, stress is seen partially to some stimulus, called a stressor. A stressor is a potentially harmful or threatening external event or situation. In a response definition, stress is the consequence of the interaction between an environmental stimulus (a stressor) and the individuals response. That is, stress is the result of a unique interaction between stimulus conditions in the environment and the individuals predisposition to respond in a particular way. In a nutshell it is useful to view stress as the response a person makes and to identify stimulus conditions (actions, situations, events) as stressors. Stress is the consequence of the interaction between and environmental stimulus (stressor) and the individuals response. General Principles of Stress by Richard Lazarus I. Stress may be either physical or psychological: Examples of physical stress include infections, exposure to excessive heat or cold failure to get adequate sleep, and pain. Examples of psychological stress include arguing with your spouse, starting a new job, staring at a stack of bills you are unable to pay, and being lonely. II. Physical and psychological stress may overlap and interact: although it is convenient to distinguish between physical and psychological stress, you should not think of these two types of stress as being altogether independent. They may overlap in that a single event, such as being wounded in combat, can produce both physical and psychological stress. Furthermore, there is evidence (Friedman, Ader & Glasgow, 1965) that physical and psychological stressors may function interactively. III. The appraisal of stress is not necessarily objective: when under threat, people respond emotionally and seem particularly prone to deviate from objective and rational modes of thought (Folkman, Schaefer & Lazarus, 1979). 21

IV. Stress may be self-imposed: we tend to think of stress as something imposed on us from without by others and their demands. Surprisingly often, however, it would seem appropriate to characterize stress as self-imposed. For example, you might put pressure on yourself to get good grades or to climb the corporate ladder rapidly. These overly high expectations often lead to perceptions of failure and feelings of disappointment. V. Our response to stress is complex and multidimensional: stress affects us at several levels. It tends to produce changes in our emotions, our physiology, and our behavior. VI. The effects of stress may be cumulative or additive: it had long been suspected that stress has cumulative effects along the lines of the fabled straw that broke the camels back. Recent evidence (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer & Lazarus, 1981) that little everyday hassles can add up to damage ones health appears to confirm that suspicion. For example, you might be experiencing stress of moderate intensity at home, at school and at work. Coping with each source of stress singly, you might be able to handle things without great difficulty. But collectively, the stress in these three areas of your life might be overwhelming. Moreover, it appears that the stressful events do not have to take place at the same time in order to have additive effects. The evidence suggests that a series of stressful events, following closely on one another, may also have cumulative effects. SOURCES OF STRESS (Auerbach et al, 2007 / Encarta 2008) The circumstances that cause stress are called stressors. Stressors vary in severity and duration. For example, the responsibility of caring for a sick parent may be an ongoing source of major stress, whereas getting stuck in a traffic jam may cause mild, short-term stress. Some events, such as the death of a loved one, are stressful for everyone. But in other situations, individuals may respond differently to the same eventwhat is a stressor for one person may not be stressful for another. For example, a student who is unprepared for a chemistry test and anticipates a bad grade may feel stress, whereas a classmate who studies in advance may feel confident of a good grade. For an event or situation to be a stressor for a particular individual, the person must appraise the situation as threatening and lack the coping resources to deal with it effectively. Stressors can be classified into three general categories: catastrophic events, major life changes, and daily hassles. In addition, 22

simply thinking about unpleasant past events or anticipating unpleasant future events can cause stress for many people. a) Catastrophes A catastrophe is a sudden, often life-threatening calamity or disaster that pushes people to the outer limits of their coping capability. Catastrophes include natural disasterssuch as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, floods, and hurricanesas well as wars, torture, automobile accidents, violent physical attacks, and sexual assaults. Catastrophes often continue to affect their victims mental health long after the event has ended. For example, in 1972 a dam burst and flooded the West Virginia mining town of Buffalo Creek, destroying the town. Two years after the disaster, most of the adult survivors continued to show emotional disturbances. Similarly, most of the survivors of concentration camps in World War II (1939-1945) continued to experience nightmares and other symptoms of severe emotional problems long after their release from the camps. b) Major Life Changes The most stressful events for adults involve major life changes, such as death of a spouse or family member, divorce, imprisonment, losing ones job, and major personal disability or illness. For adolescents, the most stressful events are the death of a parent or a close family member, divorce of their parents, imprisonment of their mother or father, and major personal disability or illness. Sometimes, apparently positive events can have stressful components. For example, a woman who gets a job promotion may receive a higher salary and greater prestige, but she may also feel stress from supervising coworkers who were once peers. Getting married is usually considered a positive experience, but planning the wedding, deciding whom to invite, and dealing with family members may cause couples to feel stressed.

c) Daily Hassles Much of the stress in our lives results from having to deal with daily hassles pertaining to 23

same hassles every day. Examples of daily hassles include living in a noisy neighborhood, commuting to work in heavy traffic, disliking ones fellow workers, worrying about owing money, waiting in a long line, and misplacing or losing things. When taken individually, these hassles may feel like only minor irritants, but cumulatively, over time, they can cause significant stress. The amount of exposure people have to daily hassles is strongly related to their daily mood. Generally, the greater their exposure is to hassles, the worse is their mood. Studies have found that ones exposure to daily hassles is actually more predictive of illness than is exposure to major life events. EFFECTS OF STRESS Negative effects A. Impairment of cognitive functioning: a moderately common effect of stress is impairment of ones mental functioning. In some people, stress may lead to a narrowed form of attention, reduced flexibility in thinking, poor concentration and less effective memory storage. Such effects are far from inevitable. (Mandler, 1979) B. Shock and disorientation: severe stress can leave people dazed and confused. (Horowitz, 1979) In these states, people tend to feel emotionally numb and they respond in a flat, apathetic fashion to events around them. They often stare off into space and have difficulty maintaining a coherent train of thought. Their behavior frequently has an automatic, rigid, stereotyped quality. C. Burnout: burnout is a buzzword for the eighties. This is a stress-related syndrome wherein ones behavior comes to be dominated by feelings of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. The physical exhaustion includes chronic fatigue, weakness, and low energy. The emotional exhaustion refers to feeling hopeless, helpless, trapped, and emotionally drained. The mental exhaustion is manifested in highly negative attitudes toward oneself, ones work, and life in general. D. Disruption of social relations: there is one evidence that stress can lead to deterioration in ones normal social relations. The effect of stress on interpersonal behavior has not attracted much attention. However, researchers working with Vietnam veterans suffering from the delayed stress response syndrome (also called posttraumatic stress disorder) observed disruptions in social functioning with some regularities. These disruptions include feeling of alienation, difficulties in relating to spouses and friends, and impairments in the 24

capacity to love and trust others. (Blank, 1982; Shatan, 1978) Delayed Stress Response Syndrome: dysfunctional behavior attributed to exposure to significant stress, which emerges only after the stress has been alleviated. E. Psychological Problems and Disorders: on the basis of clinical impressions, psychologists have long believed that stress might be a key factor in the causation of many kinds of psychological problems and mental illness. In the domain of common psychological problems, it is clear that stress may contribute to poor academic performance, insomnia, sexual difficulties, drug abuse, excessive anxiety, nervousness, dejection, and depression. Above and beyond these everyday disorders. F. Physical problems and illness: the existence of a connection between stress and certain kinds of physical illness has long been recognized. Examples of illnesses that have long been viewed as stress-related are asthma, hypertension, migraine headache, and ulcers. Positive effects The beneficial effects of stress are more difficult to pinpoint than the harmful effects because they tend to be more subtle. First, we would probably experience a suffocating level of boredom if we lived a stressfree existence. Life would be very dull indeed if it were altogether devoid of challenge. There is evidence (Suedfeld, 1979) that an intermediate level of stimulation and challenge tends to be optimal for most people. Although most of us think of stress in terms of stimulus overload, it is clear that underload can be extremely unpleasant as well. Second, stress may frequently promote personal growth. Basically, personal growth refers to movement toward greater psychological health. Stress must sometimes force us to develop new skills, learn new insights, and acquire new strengths. In other words, the adaptation process initiated by stress may often lead to personal changes for the better. Confronting and conquering a stressful challenge may lead to improvement in a specific coping abilities and to favourable alternative in ones self-concept. problems we have evidence that stress frequently plays a role in the onset of full-fledged psychological

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Third, todays stress can inoculate us so that we are less affected by tomorrows stress. If stressful experience is moderate in intensity and does not overwhelm us, it may increase our subsequent stress tolerance. Thus, a fellow who has previously endured businesss setbacks may be much better prepared than most people to deal with the fact that the bank is about to foreclose on his home. In light of the negative effects that stress can have, improved stress tolerance is a desirable outcome.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary objective: To undergo an in-depth study about the stress among the employees of Kalam Software Technology

Secondary objective: To identify the factors causing stress among the employees. To find out the level and kind of stress among the employees of different age groups. To study about the effects of stress on employees in Kalam Software Technology. To identify the coping strategies to manage stress.

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individuals reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. Hence this study would help the organization to know the factors of stress and to reduce the stress in employees. Since it is a well known fact that healthy employee is a productive employee.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In that there are certain limitations.

spite

of

the

precautions,

vigilance

and

scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make the study objective, it cannot be denied

The employees were reluctant to give correct information. Even though the employees gave correct information during the unstructured interview conducted, they gave positive answer while answering the questionnaire.

The investigator intended to cover only few areas of stress relevant to the proposed study. As the study was done within a limited time, investigator could not select a sufficiently large sample for the study.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Resdevelopment of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so.earch is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The research methodology in the present study deals with research design, data collection methods, sampling methods, survey, analysis and interpretations. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH Descriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days. In this approach, a problem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule. This approach enables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation.

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RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

A well structured questionnaire is framed. Data is collected from the employees in Kalam Software Technology. Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given.

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DATA SOURCES There are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary data collection. PRIMARY DATA The primary data is defined as the data, which is collected for the first time and fresh in nature, and happen to be original in character through field survey. Primary data collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and, until you publish, no one else has access to it. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:

questionnaires interviews focus group interviews observation case-studies diaries critical incidents portfolios.

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SECONDARY DATA The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and have been passed through statistical process. The secondary data for this study are already available in the firm's internal records, annual report, broaches, and company's website. In research, Secondary data is collecting and possibly processing data by people other than the researcher in question. Common sources of secondary data for social science include censuses, large surveys, and organizational records (Mintel). In sociology primary data is data you have collected yourself and secondary data is data you have gathered from primary sources to create new research. In terms of historical research, these two terms have different meanings. A primary source is a book or set of archival records. A secondary source is a summary of a book or set of records. Advantages to the secondary data collection method are - 1) it saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data, 2) provides a larger database (usually) than what would be possible to collect on ones own However there are disadvantages to the fact that the researcher cannot personally check the data so it's reliability may be questioned.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD The data collection method used in this research is survey method. Here the data are systematically recorded from the respondents. RESEARCH TOOL A structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from the respondents. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the respondents for their despondence. The various types of questions used in this survey are: Open ended questions Closed ended questions Multiple choice questions

SAMPLING-MEANING 37

Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties (weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice. The sampling process comprises several stages:

Defining the population of concern Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame Determining the sample size Implementing the sampling plan Sampling and data collecting Reviewing the sampling process

SAMPLE UNIT The employees of KALAM SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGYare the sample unit in the survey. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size chosen for this study is 100. HR CIVIL ELECTRICAL ACCOUNTS COMMERCIAL 5 ---------100 TYPE OF SAMPLING 38 10 25 10 15

The sampling type is non-probability which involves deliberating selections of particular units constituting a sample, which represents the universe. STRATIFIED SAMPLING Stratum means a layer population from which samples are to be selected may contain a number of layers from each layer a few samples are selected that is why this method is called stratified sampling. STATISTICAL METHODS USED Percentage analysis Bars & charts Pie diagrams STATISTICAL TOOLS USED Chi-square test Weighted average PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used in making comparison between two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describe relative terms the distribution of two or more series of data. No. of Respondents Percentage of Respondents = -----------------------Total Respondents X 100

39

DEFINITION OF HYPOTHESIS: According to Goode and Hatt, "Hypothesis is a proposition, which can be put to test to determine validity". A hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of testable statement. NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0): Null hypothesis is formulated only to test whether there is any relationship between variables related to the problem being studied. Usually the null hypothesis is formed as a negative statement. ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS (H1): Alternate Hypothesis (H1) is a statement, which is accepted after the null hypothesis is rejected based on the test result. The alternate hypothesis usually is formed as a positive statement CHI-SQUARE TEST: The Chi-Square test is one of the simplest and most widely used non parametric tests in statistical work. The symbol X2 is the Greek letter Chi. Karl Pearson first used the chi-square test in the year 1980. The quantity chi-square describes the magnitude of the discrepancy between theory and observation. In this Chi-square test Yates correction is used when the value of observed frequency in less than 10. The formula is given as, X2 = (|Oi Ei|)2 Ei Power of Association Test: If calculated value (cal) > X2 table value the Null hypothesis is rejected and it is interpreted that the two variables are associated with each other. This chi-square test is strong one for determining the existence of association between two variables.

40

WEIGHTED AVERAGE: It can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of weights. If x1, x2, x3 ...xn are n values and f1, f2, f3........fn are their weights (frequencies) respectively then, f1x1+f2x2+.....+fnxn X = --------------------------f1+f2+.......+fn PILOT STUDY (Tested with 10 samples initially): Pilot study is defined as a study, which is done in the initial stage of the project in order to find the reliability of the questionnaire and to restructure the questionnaire on the respondent's suggestions. IMPORTANCE OF PILOT STUDY: It will increase the reliability of the scheduler. It helps to restructure the scheduler. It identifies the defects in the scheduler. It helps to add or remove the questions in the scheduler.

AREA AND PERIOD OF SURVEY: The project is being done for a period for three months from January 7, 2008 to April 7, 2008 and the survey was conducted in AVTAR STEELS, Chennai.

41

42

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS


Table 1.1: AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

AGE (21-30) YRS (31-40) YRS (41-50) YRS 50 & ABOVE YRS Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 69 75 72 84 300

PERCENTAGE 23% 25% 24% 28% 100%

CHART 1.1: AGE WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

Y R

Y R

Y R

14 0

130

150

(2

(3

(4

Inference: It is observed from the survey that 25% of the respondents are between (31-40) yrs, 24% of the respondents are between (41-50) yrs, 28% of the respondents are above 50 years and 23% of the respondents are between (21-30) yrs.

50

&

O V

R S

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

N .O O F R ESPO D T N EN S

43

TABLE 1.2: GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

GENDER MALE FEMALE Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 171 129 300

PERCENTAGE 57% 43% 100%

CHART 1.2: GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES

MALE FEMALE

Inference: It is found from the survey that 57% of the respondents are male and 43% of the respondents are female.

44

TABLE 1.3: CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

QUALIFICATION SSLC UNDER GRADUATE POST GRADUATE TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL Total

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 60 69 51 51 69 300

PERCENTAGE 20% 23% 17% 17% 23% 100%

CHART 1.3: CLASSIFICATION ON EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

SSLC UNDER GRADUATE POST GRADUATE TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 69% of the respondents are professionally qualified,23% of the respondents have graduation, 17% of the respondents have post graduation and technically qualified, 20% of the respondents have only done finished SSLC.

45

TABLE1.4: WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS

ATTRIBUTES < 5 YRS (5-10) YRS (10-15) YRS > 15 YRS TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 75 69 84 72 300

PERCENTAGE 25% 23% 28% 24% 100%

CHART1.4: WORK EXPERIENCE WITH AVTAR STEELS


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 <5 YRS (5-10) YRS (10-15) YRS > 15 YRS NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 24% of the respondents have more than 15 years of experience, 23% of the respondents have (5-10) yrs of experience and 28% of the respondents have their experience between (10-15)yrs remaining 24% of the respondents have less than 5 years of experience.

TABLE 1.5: PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION 46

SATISFACTION HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NUETRAL HIGHLY DISSATISFIED DISSATISFIED TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 69 84 72 51 24 300

PERCENTAGE 23% 28% 27% 17% 8% 100%

CHART1.5: PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITION OF THE ORGANIZATION


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NUETRAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that more than half of the respondents (28%) are satisfied with the physical working condition of the organization. 27% of the respondents are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the physical working condition of the organization, 23% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the physical working condition of the organization, 17% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied wth physical condition provided and 8% respondents are dissatisfied with physical working condition of the organization.

TABLE 1.6: OPINION ABOUT THE PAYPACKAGE PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION 47

DISSATISFIED

HIGHLY DISSATISFIED

SATISFACTION HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NUETRAL HIGHLY DISSATISFIED DISSATISFIED TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 84 72 69 24 51 300

PERCENTAGE 28% 24% 23% 8% 17% 100%

CHART 1.6: OPINION ABOUT THE PAY PACKAGE


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NUETRAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 28% of the employees are highly satisfied with the pay scale provided, 24% of the respondents are satisfied with their pay scale, 23% of them are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 8% of them are highly dissatisfied, and 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the pay scale provided. TABLE1.7: OPINION ABOUT THE JOB

PARTICULARS

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

DISSATISFIED

HIGHLY DISSATISFIED

PERCENTAGE 48

CHALLENGING INTERESTING ROUTINE BORING MONOTOUS TOTAL

24 84 51 72 69 300

8% 28% 17% 24% 23% 100%

CHART 1.7: OPINION ABOUT THE JOB


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
AL LE N IN TE GIN G RE ST I RO NG UT IN BO E RI M N O NO G TO US

PARTICULARS NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is observed from the survey that 28% of the respondents feel the job interesting, 24% of them feel it boring, 17% of the respondent feel it routine, 23% of them feel it boring and 8% of them feel it challenging.

TABLE 1.8: OPINION ABOUT THE COMPLETION OF THE WORK AT THE SPECIFIED TIME

SATISFACTION STRONGLY AGREE AGREE

CH

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 69 24

PERCENTAGE 23% 8% 49

UNDECIDED STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE TOTAL

72 84 51 300

24% 28% 17% 100%

CHART 1.8 : PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADAPTED TO MANAGE STRESS


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 UNDECIDED STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE AGREE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 23% of them strongly agree that they can complete the work at time, 8 % of them agree that they can complete work at time, 24% of them have no idea, 28% of them strongly disagree that they cannot complete the work in time, 17% of them disagree that they cannot finish the work in time.

TABLE 1.9: WORK OVERLOAD

PARTICULARS STRONGLY AGREE AGREE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 50

UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

72 69 24 300

24% 23% 8% 100

CHART 1.9: WORK OVERLOAD


STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

50

100

Inference: It is observed from the survey that 17% of the respondents are overloaded with work, 24% left it undecided and 23% of the respondents say that they are not overloaded with work.

TABLE 1.10: STRESS IN JOB

51

PREFERNCE YES NO TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 183 117 300

PERCENTAGE 61% 39% 100%

CHART 1.10: STRESS IN JOB

YES NO

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 61% of the respondents suffer stress and 31% of the respondents do not suffer stress.

TABLE 1.11: STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES

FACTORS ROLE OVERLOAD

NO.OF RESPONDENTS 120

PERCENTAGE 40% 52

ROLE UNDERLOAD INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP TOTAL

93 87 300

31% 29% 100%

CHART 1.11: STRESS CAUSING FACTORS AMONG DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES


140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
RL O AD DE IN RL TE O RP AD ER SO RE NA LA L TI O N SH IP

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

O VE LE RO

Inference: It is observed from the survey that for most of the respondents of all the level of employees role overload is the major stress causing factor; the second place goes to the role under load and then comes the inter personal relationship

TABLE 1.12: KIND OF STRESS IN JOB AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

RO

LE

UN

PARTICULARS

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

53

PHYSICAL MENTAL BOTH TOTAL

93 87 120 300

31% 29% 40% 100%

CHART 1.12: KIND OF STRESS AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUP


140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
PH YS IC AL EN TA L BO TH

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 31% of them suffer physical stress, 29% of them suffer mental stress and the remaining of them suffer from both the stress.

TABLE 1.13: LEVEL OF STRESS

54

LEVEL OF STRESS VERY HIGH HIGH MODERATE LOW VERY LOW TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 69 51 72 36 300

PERCENTAGE 24% 23% 17% 24% 12% 100%

CHART 1.13: LEVEL OF STRESS

LO W

HI G H

O DE RA HI G TE H

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 17% of the respondents have moderate level of stress, 24% of the respondents have high level of stress, and only 12% of the respondents have very low level of stress.

VE R

20

40

60

80

TABLE 1.14: PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE DUE TO STRESS PREFERNCE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 55

YES NO TOTAL

156 144 300

52% 48% 100%

CHART 1.14: PHYSICAL INCONVENIENCE DUE TO STRESS

YES NO

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 52% of the respondents suffer from physical inconvenience due to stress and 48% of the respondents do not suffer stress.

TABLE 1.15: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

INCONVENIENCE HEADACHE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE DIGESTIVE PROBLEM

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 36 69

PERCENTAGE 24% 12% 23% 56

HYPERTENSION NERVOUSNESS TOTAL

72 51 300

24% 17% 100%

CHART 1.15: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 DIGESTIVE PROBLEM HYPERTENSION HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE NERVOUSNESS HEADACHE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 24% suffer from headache and hypertension and second comes the digestive problem due to stress, then comes the nervousness and only less % of the respondents suffer from nervousness and digestive problems.

TABLE1.16: ORGANIZATION STEPS TO MANAGE STRESS

57

PREFERENCE YES NO TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 153 147 300

PERCENTAGE 51% 49% 100%

CHART 1.16: ORGANIZATION STEPS TO MANAGE STRESS

YES NO

Inference: It is evident from the survey that 51% of the respondents agrees that their organization is helping them in overcoming stress, and the 49% of them are not satisfied with the help provided by the organization to overcome stress.

TABLE 1.17: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE

INCONVENIENCE HEADACHE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE DIGESTIVE PROBLEM

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 36 69

PERCENTAGE 24% 12% 23% 58

HYPERTENSION NERVOUSNESS TOTAL

72 51 300

24% 17% 100%

CHART 1.17: KIND OF INCONVENIENCE


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 DIGESTIVE PROBLEM HYPERTENSION HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE NERVOUSNESS HEADACHE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 24% suffer from headache and hypertension and second comes the digestive problem due to stress, then comes the nervousness and only less % of the respondents suffer from nervousness and digestive problems.

TABLE1.18 PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADABTED TO MANAGE STRESS

PARTICULARS EMPLOYEE COUNSELING EFFECTIVE & TRAINING DEVELOPMENT

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 72 36

PERCENTAGE 24% 12% 59

PROGRAM WORK GROUPS HEALTH CLUBS AUTONOMOUS TRANSPORT SUBSIDY TOTAL

69 72 0 51 300

23% 24% 0% 17% 100%

CHART 1.18: PROGRAMS THAT COULD BE ADABTED TO MANAGE STRESS


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 EMPLOYEE COUNSELING WORK GROUPS AUTONOMOUS

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is observed from the survey 24% groups, and the remaining need transport subsidy. of them recommend employee counseling,12% of them need effective training, 23% need work groups, 24% need health

TABLE 1.19: OPINION ABOUT COUNSELING TO REDUCE THE STRESS

PARTICULARS

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE 60

STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

51 84 72 69 24 300

17% 28% 24% 23% 8% 100%

CHART 1. 19 : OPINION ABOUT COUNSELING TO REDUCE THE STRESS


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 STRONGLY AGREE NEUTRAL STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE AGREE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that counseling can overcome stress, 28% of them agree that they can over come stress through counseling, 24% of them dont have any idea, 28% disagree and the remaining disagree.

TABLE 1.20: ORGANIZATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE STRESS FREE

PARTICULARS HIGHLY ACCEPTED

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51

PERCENTAGE 17% 61

ACCEPTED NOT ACCEPTED HIGHLY NOT ACCEPTED TOTAL

84 72 93 300

28% 24% 31% 100%

CHART 1. 20: ORGANIZATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ARE STRESS FREE

ACCEPTED

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents accept that the companies policies are stress free, 28% of them have accepted that organization policies are stress free, 24% of them have not accepted it, 31% of them have not accepted that their organization policy is full of stress.

TABLE 1.21: BEST INTERVENTION TO REDUCE STRESS PARTICULARS RELAXATION TECHNIQUES TIME MANAGEMENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT WORKING TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS 93 84 72 51 300 PERCENTAGE 31% 28% 24% 17% 100% 62

ACCEPTED

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 HIGHLY

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

NOT

CHART 1. 21: BEST INTERVENTION TO REDUCE STRESS

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 TIME MANAGEMENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT WORKING Relaxation techniques

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is observed from the survey that most of the respondents 31% says that relaxation techniques, 28% of them need time management,24% says that training is the best intervention,17% says working intervention is the best thing to overcome stress.

TABLE 1.22: OPINION ABOUT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP

PARTICULARS STRONGLY AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84 72 69 24 300

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 24% 23% 8% 100 63

CHART 1. 22 : OPINION ABOUT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 STRONGLY AGREE NEUTRAL STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE AGREE

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that they have strained interpersonal relationship, 28% of them agree that they have strained interpersonal relationship stress , 24% of them dont have any idea, 28% disagree that they do not have strained interpersonal relationship.

TABLE 1.23: OPINION ABOUT STRESS LEVEL IN NIGHT SHIFT COMPARED TO DAY SHIFT

PARTICULARS VERY HIGH HIGH MODERATE LOW VERY LOW

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 51 84 72 69 24

PERCENTAGE 17% 28% 24% 23% 8% 64

TOTAL

300

100

CHART 1. 23 : OPINION ABOUT STRESS LEVEL IN NIGHT SHIFT COMPARED TO DAY SHIFT
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
HI G O H DE RA TE H LO W LO W HI G

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

VE R

Inference: From the above we can find that17% of them strongly agree that they have stress in night shift, 28% of them agree that they have stress in night shifts,24% of them dont have any idea, 28% disagree that they do not have any stress in night shift.

TABLE 1.24: SPENDING THE WEEKEND PARTICULARS GOING TO MOVIES GET TOGETHER VISIT FRIENDS/RELATIVES MUSIC CLASSES ANY OTHER (SPECIFY) TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS 84 51 72 69 24 300 PERCENTAGE 28% 17% 24% 23% 8% 100 65

VE R

CHART 1.24: SPENDING THE WEEKEND


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 GET TOGETHER VISIT FRIENDS/RELATIV ES GOING TO MOVIES MUSIC CLASSES ANY OTHER (SPECIFY)

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: From the above we can find that 28% of them would like to go to movies, 17% would like a get together,24% would like to visit friends/relatives, and23% would like to go to music class and the remaining prefer any other thing.

TABLE 1.25: FAMILY FACTOR WHICH INFLUENCE STRESS PARTICULARS DEPENDENT ILLNESS FINANACIAL POSITION NO.OF RESPONDENTS 93 87 60 PERCENTAGE 31% 29% 20%

66

OTHER PROBLEMS TOTAL

60 300

20% 100%

TABLE 1.25: FAMILY FACTOR WHICH INFLUENCE STRESS


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 DEPENDENT FINANACIAL POSITION ILLNESS OTHER PROBLEMS

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

Inference: It is found from the survey that 31% of them says dependency influence stress, 29% says that illness influence stress, 20% of them says that financial as well as other problem influence stress.

TABLE 1.26: PERSONAL FACTOR INFLUENCING STRESS PARTICULARS PERCEPTION ATTITUDE HEALTH CONDITION NO.OF RESPONDENTS 60 87 60 PERCENTAGE 20% 29% 20% 67

PERSONALITY TOTAL

93 300

31% 100%

TABLE 1.26:PERSONAL FACTOR INFLUENCING STRESS


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PERCEPTION

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

ATTITUDE

HEALTH CONDITION

Inference: It is found from the survey that 20% of them says perception influence stress, 29% says that attitude influence stress, 20% of them says that health condition influence stress, and the remaining says that personality influence stress.

TABLE 1.27: STRATERGY TO REDUCE STRESS FACTORS YOGA MEDITATIO N MOTIVATIO N HIGHLY SATISFIED 10 10 11 SATISFIED 10 11 11 NEUTRA L 10 11 10 DISSATIS FIED 10 17 20 HIGHLY DISSATISF IED 11 20 20 TOTA L 50 69 72 68 PERCENTAGE

PERSONALITY

17 23

24

COUNSELIN G INDOOR GAMES OHTERS

0 11 2

0 20 10

0 20 6

9 11 10

0 11 0

9 72 28

3%

23

6%

CHART 1.27: STRATERGY TO REDUCE STRESS


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Sa tis f Sa ied tis fie Ne d Hi D g h is s utra a ly l Di tisf ie ss at d isf ie d To ta l

YOGA meditation MOTIVATION COUNSELING INDOOR GAMES OHTERS

Inference: It is found from the above table that 17% prefer yoga, majority prefer indoor games, and the next majority prefer motivation.

CHI-SQUARE TEST ON SPENDING WEEKEND Vs STRATEGY TO REDUCE STRESS

Hi gh ly

69

Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant relation between spending weekend and strategy to reduce stress Alternate Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant relation between spending weekend and strategy to reduce stress TABLE.1.1: CROSS TABULATION FOR SPENDING WEEKEND Vs

STRATEGY TO REDUCE STRESS


STRATEGY

YOGA
SPENDING WEEKEND

MEDITA TION

MOTIV ATION

COUNS ELING

INDOOR GAMES

ROW OTHER TOTAL

GOING TO MOVIES GET TOGETHER VISIT TO FRIENDS/ RELATIVES MUSIC CLASSES ANY OTHER COLUMN TOTAL

16

4 8

4 28

22

10

10

48

12

4 42

4 6 32

2 14

12 8 100

Degrees of freedom = 12 Calculated value = 27.497 For 12 degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance, the chi-square table value is 5.226. Inference: Calculated value > Tabulated value. Hence H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. 70

Conclusion: There is a significant relation between the spending weekend and strategy to reduce stress

71

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FINDINGS Out of the total sample most of the respondents are male and many are between 50 and above. Most of the respondents are under graduate and have professional qualification. Most of the respondents have 10-15 years of long association with the organization. Almost all the respondents are satisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization, and only fewer respondents are dissatisfied with the psychological working condition of the organization. The opinion about the training programs conducted by the organization is almost better, according to majority of the respondents. Almost all the respondents are satisfied with the pay package provided by the organization and nearly half of the respondents feel that they do a routine job. Most of the respondents agree that they can complete their work within the specified time and some of the respondents are undecided. Nearly half of the respondents agree that they are overloaded with work. More than half of the respondents suffer stress in their job. Among all other factors, role overload cause more stress according to most of the respondents. Most of the respondents from steels department suffer from physical stress; most of the respondents from accounts department suffer from mental stress, and most of the respondents from civil department suffer from both physical and mental stress. Most of the respondents feel only moderate level of stress and some of the respondents feel high level of stress in their job. More than half of the respondents have physical inconvenience due to stress and most of the respondents suffer from headache and high blood pressure. Almost all the respondents prefer to follow coping strategies personally, to manage stress and they prefer to do meditation and yoga to reduce stress. Most of the respondents say that the organization does not take suitable steps to manage stress. Employee counseling and effective training & development programs are the company wide programs that could be adapted to manage stress. 73

74

75

3.

SUGGESTIONS

The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by they can complete their work within the specified time. Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that we can reduce the overload of work. Adopt the work to home transition strategy. It means instead of carrying the pressures of the work to home, the suggestion is to start the unwinding process during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind.

Giving counseling to the employees when they face problems, because counseling is the discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an employee in order to help the employee cope within better.

The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees, because there is a strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. EAP includes counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse, managing personal finances, handling conflicts at the work place, dealing with marital and other family problems, and coping with health problems.

Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise, because it stimulates the brain and the body. Also the employee must do meditation and yoga in their daily life.

76

CONCLUSION

Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century. Much of the stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack of rewards and praise, and more importantly, by not providing individuals with the autonomy to do their work as they would like. Most of the employees were not satisfied with the grievance handling procedure of the organization which was found by the unstructured interview. Organization must begin to manage people at work differently, treating them with respect and valuing their contribution. If we enhance the psychological well being and health of the employees, in the coming future the organization would make more revenue as well as employee retention. Because it is said that,

A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ahuja. K.K- Industrial psychology and organizational behavior, Khanna publishers, New Delhi, 1991. Biswanath Ghosh- A new look organizational behavior, Himalaya Publishing House New Delhi, 1994. Finemann- A Psychological Model of Stress and its application to managerial unemployment, Human relations, 1979. Ghosh P.K. and Ghorpade M.B. - Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay 1991. Kapur S.K, Punia B.K.-Organizational Behavior and Management, S.K.Publishers, New Delhi. Laurie J. Mullins Organizational Behavior, Pitmans publishing Ltd, London, 1990. PaulHersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 1998. Srivastava.A.K, A study of Roll Stress Mental health relationship a moderator by adopted coping strategies, psychological studies, 1991. 9. Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall, U .K. 1999.

JOURNALS AND MAGAZINES


1. 2. 3. 4. Business line, The stress is beginning to show, Financial Express published by Hindu, Trivandrum, 1989. Brief A.P. and Atieth J.M., Studying Job Stress: Are we making mountains out of mole Hills? Journal of occupational behavior, 1987. Jamal M., Job Stress-Prone Type A behavior and personal and organizational consequences, Canadian Journal of Administrative. Dr.Satish Chandra Pandy, Indian ways of winning Stress, The Journal of Indian Management and Strategy, 1997.

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QUESTIONNAIRE PERSONAL PROFILE


Kindly provide your valuable personal information. : _______ 1. Name: 1. Age group 2. 3. 5. yrs Sex :Male / Female Educational Qualification: Experience > 15 yrs SSLC/UG/PG/Technical/Professional : < 5 yrs (5-15) (2 (21-30) yrs (41-50) yrs (31-40) yrs 50 & above yrs _______________________ Dept:

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE 6. How do you feel about the physical working condition of the organization? Highly satisfied Dissatisfied 7. 8. 9. How do you feel about the psychological working condition of the organization? Highly Amicable Excellent Highly satisfied Dissatisfied 10. How do you feel about your job? Challenging Boring Interesting Routine Monotonous Cordial Good Neutral Better Satisfied Strained Bad Neutral Very poor Worse Highly dissatisfied What is your opinion about the training programs conducted in the organization? How do you feel about the pay package provided by the organization? Satisfied Neutral Highly dissatisfied

11.

Do you agree that you can complete your work within the specified time? 81

Strongly agree 12. Strongly agree Disagree 13.

Agree Agree

Undecided Strongly Disagree Undecided

Disagree

Do you agree that you are overloaded with work? Strongly Disagree

Do you suffer any stress in your job?

Yes

No

FACTORS AND EFFECTS OF STRESS 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. In your accordance which of the following factors cause more stress? Role overload Physical Very high Yes If yes, what kind of inconvenience? Headache High blood pressure Hypertension Digestive problem Nervousness Role under load Mental High No Both Moderate Low Interpersonal relationship What kind of stress do you suffer in your job? What is the level of stress that you feel in your job? Do you suffer any physical inconvenience due to stress in your job?

COPING STRATEGIES 19. 20. Have you taken any coping strategies personally to manage stress? Yes Exercise walk 21. Yes 22. No Meditation Listening music Take a What kind of strategies of the following have you taken? Spend time with children No

Does this organization take any suitable steps to manage stress?

What type of company-wide programs that are/could be adapted to manage stress?

82

Employee counseling Transport subsidy 23.

Effective Training & Development program Health clubs

Autonomous work groups

Kindly give your suggestions to reduce stress

83