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Organised by the Arthur M.

Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, in collaboration with the Mehrangarh Museum Trust, India

Teachers resources Key sTages 2 and 3

3 5 6 8 12 14 17 Visiting the exhibition Curriculum links Background information for teachers Activity sheets Classroom activities Garden and Cosmos PowerPoint Further resources

Teachers resources for The exhibiTion garden and cosmos: The royal PainTings of JodhPur
Garden and Cosmos: The Royal Paintings of Jodhpur features 56 paintings from India that have never been displayed before in Europe. It is a fantastic opportunity to explore Indian artwork. These teachers resources are designed to support your visit, providing background information, advice on curriculum areas that can be supported by a visit to the exhibition, and teaching resources to use before, during and after your visit. Schools groups gain free entry to the exhibition. For booking details and practical information see visiting the exhibition, below.

VisiTing The exhibiTion

BOOkInG yOur VISIT The exhibition is open from 28 May to 23 August 2009. Entrance to the exhibition is free for school groups but all visiting groups must pre-book through the British Museum Ticket Desk. Telephone +44 (0)20 7323 8181 tickets@britishmuseum.org yOur VISIT It is suggested that students move through the exhibition in small groups looking at and discussing the paintings and relevant text. This pack includes activity sheets for pupils to use in the exhibition. Alternatively, you may wish to give pupils a focus for details to spot and draw, for example: patterns, animals, flowers, instruments, hats, textiles, seats or buildings. Teachers and students need to be aware that they may be visiting the space alongside the general public and must behave with consideration for other visitors. If an area gets overcrowded, please advise students to act sensibly and wait their turn or move on to another and come back later. Permission to take photos in the exhibition must be arranged with the Museum before your visit. The Museum requires adult to children ratios of one adult to six pupils for primary schools; one adult to eight pupils for secondary schools.

rECOMMEnDED GAllEry AnD DISPlAy room 33, The Joseph E Hotung Gallery (south asia, southeast asia and china) Objects in this gallery span the history of India from prehistory to the present, focusing on the development of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. india landscaPe Kew at the british museum West lawn, museum forecourt 1 may 27 september 2009 India Landscape features a selection of plants from the Indian subcontinent, displaying a range of colours and scents found in various climatic zones of South Asia. Some of the plants in India Landscape appear in paintings in the exhibition Garden and Cosmos. Star plants include the areca palm which produces betel-nut, lotus, coconut palm, holy basil, Himalayan blue poppy and mango. India Landscape is the result of a unique partnership between the British Museum and the royal Botanic Gardens, kew. For more information, visit www.britishmuseum.org

curriculum linKs
The paintings and the single large textile in Garden and Cosmos and the plants in India Landscape are an excellent starting point for single-subject and cross-curricular work in a number of areas. ArT AnD DESIGn The exhibition offers pupils an opportunity to: se Indian art as a source of inspiration for their own artwork u evelop knowledge and understanding of the role of artists in the Jodhpur royal d court between the 17th and 19th centuries nvestigate the artistic traditions of Jodhpur, including landscapes, portraits, i palace scenes and illustrations from sacred texts explore use of colour, pattern, scale, perspective and symbolism rElIGIOuS EDuCATIOn Paintings in the exhibition provide opportunities to explore and engage with representations of Hindu deities: scenes of krishna in the Bhagavata Purana and scenes from the Ramayana (the epic of rama), symbols and religious expression, creation stories, temples and shrines, spiritual practices such as yoga, forms of worship, and festivals. CrOSS-CurrICulAr THEMES buildings: palaces, garden pavilions and terraces, temples, shrines nature: plants, animals, gardens, natural environments (jungle, mountains) Textiles: costume, palace textiles, embroidery, printing, use of pattern and colour stories and storytelling: scenes and characters from epic stories and creation myths, explore the narrative structure of stories, how stories may be represented visually, the use of images for storytelling Palace life: display of wealth, symbols of power and status, music, dance, pastimes

bacKground informaTion for Teachers

JODHPur-MArwAr Marwar was a kingdom in north-western India, located on the edge of the Great Thar Desert and with its capital city at Jodhpur. The Marwar state was established in the 15th century and for centuries was ruled by a single raja (later Maharaja). It is today part of the state of rajasthan in India, and this region within the modern state is still sometimes referred to as Jodhpur or Jodhpur-Marwar. THE FOrTS OF JODHPur-MArwAr The paintings in the exhibition Garden and Cosmos were produced between the 17th and mid-19th centuries in two important centres the fort of nagaur and at the city of Jodhpur, which was dominated by the massive fort of Mehrangarh. Each fort served as a defended military base, a site of devotion with temples and shrines, and a palace for rulers and the royal court. The forts were centres for the arts, music and literature. rOyAl COurT PAInTInG In Jodhpur during the early 17th century, court painting was partly based on a local style that has its roots in the art traditions of rajasthan. Artists used two-dimensional blocks of bold colour and simplified figures and vegetation. using squirrel-tail brushes, they painted in opaque watercolour made from mineral and vegetable pigments and gold on handmade paper. During the later part of the 17th century, the Marwar rulers came into contact with the sophisticated and cosmopolitan court culture of the Mughal Empire. Marwar artists adopted many imperial techniques, including creating luminous surfaces by rubbing the backs of paintings with a smooth stone to fuse the pigments. Their paintings began to show Mughal influence, using shading to indicate volume and a broader colour palette incorporating pastel colours. They displayed an interest in portraiture. The artists also began to incorporate accurate representations of intricate textile patterns and architectural motifs, presenting the court in all its luxurious splendour. Most of the paintings in Garden and Cosmos were created by royal court artists during the reign of three maharajas, Bakhat Singh (17251751), Vijai Singh (17521793) and Man Singh (18031843).

maharaja bakhat singh Most of the large paintings created during Maharaja Bakhat Singhs reign at nagaur and shown here depict life in the palace. During his reign, Bakhat Singh created a pleasure palace with quarters for the women of the palace, assembly halls, verandahs and an elaborate hydraulic system to irrigate his gardens. The paintings show the maharaja enjoying life in his palace, watching music and dance performances, celebrating the festival of Holi, conducting krishna puja (rituals to honour the deity), watching elephant fights, and receiving public adoration. The paintings display the sumptuous palace architecture, the formal gardens and the flowering jungle trees outside the fort. maharaja Vijai singh During the reign of Maharaja Vijai Singh, monumental manuscripts were created to express the maharajas religious devotion. The manuscripts record the stories of the Hindu deities krishna, rama and Durga and are illustrated with full-page paintings. Paintings displayed in the exhibition illustrate dramatic narratives from the Ramayana (the epic of rama), and the Bhagavata Purana (which includes the story of krishnas life on earth). These paintings may have been used during recitations of the stories in the court. maharaja man singh During his reign Maharaja Man Singh dedicated his kingdom to the ascetic Jallandharnath and his spiritual descendants, the nath yogis. The paintings created at this time reflect the changes he made to the power structures of the kingdom, and his religious devotion to the adherents of the nath yogis doctrines. The paintings include illustrations from religious manuscripts, as well as scenes showing Man Singh venerating Jallandharnath, and meeting his guru and political advisor Dev nath in the great temple. Other paintings by Man Singhs artists attempt to map the universe and represent the cosmos and its creation. These paintings include Hindu gods and scenes from their stories, as well as enigmatic paintings of cosmic oceans, whose meanings and symbolism are not yet fully understood.

acTiViTy sheeT STOry quEST: ADVEnTurE STOry PArT 1 Some of the paintings in the exhibition Garden and Cosmos were used to tell stories. find a painting in section 3 called Ramas Army Crosses the Ocean to Lanka This painting shows an adventure story. The hero is called rama. He is blue-skinned. ama appears in the painting many times because the artist has shown R different parts of the story happening in one picture. Can you spot rama? he villain is a demon with ten heads. He has kidnapped Ramas wife Sita. T Can you find him in his fortress? The story is set in a dramatic landscape. Can you spot: storm clouds? the mountains? the forest? the ocean? a stone bridge?

ama has armies of monkeys and bears to help him. R Can you spot them? what do you think they are going to do?

How do you think the story ends?

STOry quEST: ADVEnTurE STOry PArT 2 now use the paintings in the exhibition to create your own adventure story. walk around the exhibition and look carefully at the paintings. Choose objects, people, animals and places from the paintings to use in your story. hoose a person from a painting to be the hero of the story. C Give him or her a name. hoose a piece of treasure that your hero must find. C It could be an object, a plant, or an animal. Decide why your hero is looking for the treasure. Choose a place for your adventure. ind a problem your hero must overcome. It could be an ocean to cross, F a mountain to climb, a dangerous animal or a villain to overcome. ind some friendly characters that will help your hero. F They can be humans or animals. ow will your hero try to overcome the problem and find the treasure? H Decide now. Will the hero succeed or fail? you decide. Get ready to tell your story. Think about: names for all your characters how your story will begin how you will make the adventure exciting and dramatic how your story will end. will it be a happy or a sad ending?

acTiViTy sheeT PAlACE lIFE The rulers of the kingdom of Jodhpur were known as maharajas. The maharajas built themselves palaces where they could enjoy themselves. They had pictures painted to show off their beautiful palaces and their luxurious lifestyles. Start in Section 2: royal pastimes in the gardens find a painting that shows maharaja bakhat singh watching elephants. The elephants are just outside the palace wall. How is the maharaja staying safe?

ind a painting that shows maharaja bakhat singh on a boat. f He is boating on a water tank in his garden. who is in the boat with him? How are they entertaining him?

ind a painting that shows a maharaja watching a dance performance f from his palace window. Can you find the musicians? what instruments are they playing?

Go to Section 3: Divine play in the gardens find a painting that shows the hindu god Vishnu and his wife lakshmi in their heavenly palace. what has the artist included to make the palace look heavenly and special?


acTiViTy sheeT GODS The rulers of the kingdom of Jodhpur were known as maharajas. Some of the maharajas were deeply religious. They had pictures painted to show the gods they worshipped and the legends linked to each god. Start in Section 4: The cosmos and Man Singh can you find a painting with ganesha in? Ganesha is a god with a round belly and an elephants head. Count his arms. why do you think he is shown with this number of arms?

ind a painting called Death of Vali; Rama and Lakshmana Wait Out f the Monsoon. Prince rama appears three times in this painting. rama is blue-skinned. Can you spot him? what does he carry on his back?

Go to Section 7: Shiva, centre of the universe ind a painting called Shivas Wedding Procession. f This painting shows the god Shiva on his way to meet his bride, Parvati, on their wedding day. find the god shiva. He is riding a white bull and is being showered with flowers from the heavens. ind the god Vishnu. His is blue and has four arms. He is being carried on f the back of a bird-man called Garuda. ind the god brahma. He has four heads and rides a large white bird. f


classroom acTiViTies
The following is a list of suggested activities which can be undertaken in the classroom to support a visit to Garden and Cosmos as either preparatory or follow-up work. ocate Marwar in an atlas. L which region in which country does Marwar form part of today? what are the key geographical features of the area? esearch the climate and environments of India. R what are the indigenous plants that grow there? use www.plantcultures.org to find out. what plants do you expect to see in the paintings from Jodhpur-Marwar? Research Indian animals. which animals can you find in the paintings? he paintings in the exhibition were painted for maharajas (great kings). T what do you think the maharajas wanted the paintings to say about them? what do the paintings tell us about the maharajas, their lifestyles and their beliefs? Do you think the paintings show the whole truth? escribe a day in the life of the maharaja. D Describe his palace and gardens, the people he meets, the animals he sees and how he spends his time. isten to Indian classical music. Research instruments such as the sitar, L tambura, talam, pakavaj and sarangi. How do they produce their sounds? How are they played? Can you spot them in the paintings? se Explore and Ancient India websites (see further resources, on page 17) U to find representations of Hindu deities and their wives such as Shiva, Parvati, krishna, Vishnu, lakshmi, Brahma and Ganesha. How can we recognise these deities? ind out how the festivals of Holi and Diwali are celebrated today. F Compare pictures of modern celebrations to the paintings in the exhibition. Are the festivals still celebrated in the same way?


ead the stories of the Ramayana (see further resources on page 17). R Marwar artists would show several episodes from the story in one painting. Choose a series of events in one of these stories. Discuss how they could be represented visually in a painting. How will you identify the characters? How will you represent the action taking place and the order of events? hoose a painting and discuss the sounds that could be heard if the painting C came to life. recreate the sounds of, for example, voices, movement, music, weather and animals to create a soundscape for the painting. esign or describe your perfect garden. D what plants will you include and how will you arrange them? How will you use your garden and what will you need? Think about paths, lawns, water features and other structures. How will you look after the plants and protect the environment? esign or describe a garden for an Indian maharaja. Use the paintings D in the exhibition (or the PowerPoint slides) to help you. what could you include to keep the maharaja and his court cool? what does he like to do in his garden? what features will he need? what plants and animals will he like to see? How will your garden design show off his power and status? lder pupils can use Explore (see further resources on page 17) to find O Mughal art created in the 17th to 19th centuries. Compare these paintings to those created in the Marwar court. How did Mughal art influence Marwar court artists? Examine use of colour, perspective and the subjects of the paintings. se the exhibition PowerPoint to view images which can be used as a U starting point for activities around Art and Design, rE, History and Citizenship. The PowerPoint can also be used as preparation for a visit or a way to remind students of some of the images they saw in the exhibition.


garden and cosmos PoWerPoinT

maharaja bakhat singh at the Jharokha window of the bakhat singh mahal nagaur, 1737 Mehrangarh Museum Trust

maharaja bakhat singh Watches a dance Performance at the bakhat singh mahal nagaur, c. 1737 Mehrangarh Museum Trust

maharaja bakhat singh rejoices during holi nagaur, c. 174850 Mehrangarh Museum Trust During the Hindu festival of Holi participants throw coloured water at each other or spray water through syringes.


death of Vali; rama and lakshmana wait out of the monsoon Jodhpur, c. 1775 Mehrangarh Museum Trust From the ramayana. This painting depicts prince rama and his brother lakshmana.

ramas army crosses the ocean to lanka Jodhpur, c. 1775 Mehrangarh Museum Trust From the ramayana. This painting depicts prince rama, his brother lakshmana the armies of bears and monkeys, and the demon ravana in his fortress.

Krishna frolics with the gopis (cowherder girls) Jodhpur, c. 1765 Mehrangarh Museum Trust

Jallandharnath and the Princess fly over King Padams palace 1830 Mehrangarh Museum Trust

The creation of the cosmic ocean and the elements 1828 Mehrangarh Museum Trust


The mandala of shiva Jodhpur, 1827 Mehrangarh Museum Trust The painting depicts Shiva and Parvati and their sons, Skanda and Ganesha. cosmic oceans (one of seven folios from the Nath Charit) 1823 Mehrangarh Museum Trust

The equivalence of self and universe 1824 Mehrangarh Museum Trust In this painting, the siddhas body incorporates a vast cosmos, numerous deities and all manner of creation. Four heavens are located along his chest and head; three middle worlds are situated on his lower torsos; seven underworlds are incorporated in his feet and the folds of his dhoti. The worlds forests rest on his thighs; and his ribs, shoulders and head bear the worlds mountains.

chakras of the subtle body 1823 Mehrangarh Museum Trust


furTher resources
BrITISH MuSEuM wEBSITES explore Explore is an online database of over 5000 objects from the Museums collection. To investigate Indian objects, visit www.britishmuseum.org ancient india website An interactive website with text, images and maps relating to the civilizations of ancient India. The majority of the content does not relate directly to the exhibition Garden and Cosmos, but information about Hindu deities may be useful. www.ancientindia.co.uk statues and symbols WebQuest Pupils can use this structured online learning resource to explore Hindu sculpture. Visit http://nmolp.britishmuseum.org/webquests and select Statues and Symbols from the Our webquests carousel. BOOkS Many of the books listed below are available for reference at the Paul Hamlyn library, the British Museums public reference library. Teachers can also access a range of resources to use in the galleries and in the classroom and find out more about the Museums collections at terminals in the library. books for children Das, P. I is for India, Frances lincoln Childrens Books, 1991 Das, r. Hinduism (21st century religions), london, Hodder wayland, 2005 kadodwalia, D. Divali, london, Evans, 2005 kadodwalia, D. Holi: The Hindu Festival of Colours, london, Evans, 2005 Mamdani, S. Traditions from India, Hove, wayland, 1998 naidu, V. Stories from India, Hodder wayland, 2006 nanji, S. and Corr, C. Indian Tales A Barefoot Collection, Barefoot Books, 2007 Souhani, J. Rama and the Demon King, Frances lincoln Childrens Books, 2005


books for adults Ahluwalia, r. Rajput Painting, london, British Museum Press, 2008 Blurton, T. r. Hindu Art. BM Press, london. 1992 and editions. Dallapiccola, A. Hindu Myths. BM Press, london. 2005 Dallapiccola, A. Hindu Visions of the Sacred, london, British Museum Press, 2004 Diamond, D., Glynn, C., and Singh Jasol, k. Garden and Cosmos: The Royal Paintings of Jodhpur, British Museum Press, 2009 Gillow, J. and Barnard, n. Indian Textiles, london, Thames & Hudson ltd, 2008 kumar, r. Costumes and Textiles of Royal India, london, Christies Books, 1999 losty, J. The Ramayana: Love and Valour in Indias Great Epic, london, British library, 2008