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SHELF

N
,

* ADAMS

^^tC^yv.tZt^ </^^;'^-^'

PRIZE DISSERTATION,
-.vhicu

was honored with the magellanic gold midal, by the American Philosophical Society, Janx'ary, 1793.

CADMUS
O R, A

TREATISE

ON the

ELEMENTS

Written Language,
Illujlrating, by aphilofophical divifion of

SPEECH^

the

power

of each character,

thereby mutually Jixing the

Orthography and

Orthoepy,
CUil

KESCIRE, FVDEN3 PRAVE, qUAM DTSCKRE MALO?


Nor. Ars. Poet. F. 88.

With an essay on

the

mode of teaching
to

the

surd or deaf,

and confequently dumb,

speak.

By
Member

WILLIAM THORNTON,
:

M. D.

of the Societies of Scots antiquaries of Edinburgh AND Perth; the Medical Society, and the Society of Natural Hist, o? Edin the American Philosoth ical Society, &c.

PHILADELPHIA:
PRINTED BY
R,

AltlCEN

^ SON,

N.

2%,

MARKET

STREET,

M.DCC.XClIIi

ADAMii|-?3./i

Unavoidable hajle in pajftng the following Treatifes through

t/jg

prefs, has occajlonedfeveral inaccuracies, the principal of which

are corrected in this table of

ERRATA.
Addrcfs,
line 7.

In satlsfai.fan, trafe l and infcrt K. I. li.For OVIT, tead, OOVir* 18 /"or folio, readioXo. 1. %o For deendjras, r<'a^deendj3ras
1.

Page vMine

11. For iLelaJls,put z.


1.

16. Betiveen KloQsliand alaid,

itifcrt

a hyphen.

Cadmus. Page 50.

for 'j,put E. p. 52. 1. 3. \^from bottom] in pinrf deU T. p. 56. 1. 18. Fcr 5 and (San.cch) D, put y^ and (Caph)^. l.az. ^.-/d therefore. In the tabic of Sounds, firft horiz line, flrike out all the examples but y, yi; for J can only be ufed before and has the fame relation to
14.
:

/",

it

that

-IV

has to u. Erafe

them

alfo

thoughout the work,

p. 55

I.

14 For vou, read


16..

y^ufor
fQu,

ulzzard, read uizjrd.


uisart.
1.

1.

p. 66,
p.

I.

13.
1.

For boe, read booO.

14. poth

67

20. /"or the place, r^aytheirrefidence.

pooth.

p. 75.

1.
1.
1.

14.
17. 18.
1.

For ^ourz, read iiuurz, line i^ for uiQ read uiB)


Comma after O'^m, read oG^m. Comma after trakts. p. 76 1. 9
modes,
i^or

kovart,

r^fai

Uavnrt.

/"or e-bl-nes,

r^a^ee-bl-neii

infert we Ihould. For Komma, r^^d' Komatfemikolon, r^-tfifemlkoolon; p. 91 tivolaf lines ^tfrji line For kolon, read koo\on. p. p. 95 line 14. /"^r when, r^a</by the. p. 96. 1. a /or have, rftf</lu. p. lOI 1. II. /"oris, rfcd' it would be. p. 104 1. 5. Z>^/^ which are. p. 106 1. l3/o>- in, readmtQ, 1. 3. [from bottom] p. 107 for will, r^a^ would. I, 8. /"trwas, rfa</werc. p. 109 N. B. There are feveral inaccuracies in the punduatlon, &c. not noticed bove, luice they do not materially affed the fenle.
laji

p. p. p. p.

78 82 83 90

12. Infert as, ^^or^ arbitrary,


17. For the only
-fft/cTi?

1.

r-far/isthe

only mode,

1.14.

written,

///fr/ be.

line After and,

The Specimen
J^nghfbf

of the reformed mods will fiicw


line*.

how

by coaming the

iruch Ihortcr

jt ^a

than thi

Tu Da Sitiznz
Mai
diir

ov Nore AmarlKa,

Kuntrimen,
]&is

In prizentiD tu iu

smnnl uJrk

ai siik les

DJ

gratlfiKeef Jn

ov obteeniD

iur feevar,
if

Ban

cv rendariiD maiself iusfal; and


ai

bj

benifits
leebcrr,

Kontempleet r ud

bi diraivd

from mai

ai ral

endjoi a satisfaicran itf deo onli Kan

tJrmineet*

Bai

Ba grand jjr ov KaraKtJr Bathaz


iu,

so loD

distinguifd

and bai oitf

in hav, in

meni

instansiz, biin Karrid ov^ir eenr ant predjudisiz


tu

DJ
liid

ful

ateenmant ov parfeKfan, a hoop


stil

iz

inspaird Bat iur egzarranz uil

bi direKtid

tu

B3

rftaindz

ov ae.^rz from Bi influana


tu si adopf jn

ov

iroonl:is

KJSt:iQi

ov djjst

prinsiplz.

Iu hav nlredi trnt a rees ov

men
riizn

tu ridjeKt b:i impozif an ov tirani, and hav set


a briliant egzampl, oitr nul uil folio,

oen

haz asiumd hjr suee.

Iu hav KoreKtid

Ba

dcendjras doKtrinzov luropiian pnuarz, KorreKt nnu B a languid jiz iu hav importid, for Bi opresed ov varies

nccranznoK

at iur geets

and

To

the Citizens of

North America.

My
lefs

dear countrymen,
fmall work,
I

J.!N prefenting to you this

feek

the gratification of obtaining your favour,


;

than of rendering myfelfufeful


nefits
I

and

if

the be-

contemplate fhould be derived from


I fhall

my

labour,

enjoy a fatisfadtioa which death

only can terminate,

By the
many
hope

grandeur of charader that has

fo

long

diftinguiflied you,

and by which you have, in

inftances,

been carried over ancient pre-

judices to the full attainment of perfe<fl:ion, a


is

infpired that

your exertions

will

(till

be

direded to lead the minds of others from the


influence of erroneous cuftom to the adoption

of juft

principles.

You have
the
fet

already taught

a race of

men

to rejel

impofition of ty-

ranny, and have


all will

a brilliant example,

which

follow,

when

reafon has

aflfumed her

fway.

You have correded

the

dangerous

dodrines of European powers, corred

now

the

languages you have imported, for the oppreffed of various nations

knock

at

your gates, and


defire

vl

and dizair
admit

tii

bi rlsiivd az

iiir

brcDrin.

Az

iu

Dem

fasilkeet iur

imarKoors and
Di

iu uil

iniutu:ili en.^j^i

d3

benifits.

AmariKJn

laD-

guidj
fri

uil BHii bi

az distiDt az
foliz

DJ ^eavarm^nt,
onli regiuleetar.

from nnl D3

cv anfilosofiKal faran,
its

and

rcstiD .ipon truuo az

Ai pjrsiiv no
Bee aar not
liaz

difiKaltiz

if iu

faind eni

ai trast

n^BHiit remjdi.

If mai ignjrjnsf

led

mi intu

:irarz, ai fal

Konsidjr Bccr
;

KoreKf ::n az an aKt ov frendf ip


lament
if,

for a: f ud
ai

Gail siikiD tu enlaitn

aecrs

rud

bi uzzKiiD in

darKnJs maiself.
iur prinsiplz

Uie

D:r sin&iir:Tst uifiz eat

ov

self-ga[Y3:rm2:nt

and

iKunl^ti

Bemselvz oovar bj oool aro,


bc:i
Ti

mee cKstend mecKiDiu eecr;';rcet

a Kioosii alaid part ov dcl

famili

ov

an, and

lSad
iur

iur Konilntual inKriis in no]

ioj,

and

iiarnal saivccf::n,

ai

sabskraib maiself

uiB m:itf satisfaKfn:n,


iur

alcKianat

felo-sitizn

BI

zzezi^o

vii

dcfirc to be received

as

your brethren.

As

you admit them


and you

facilitate

your intercourfc,
the benefits.
vv-Ill

will mutually enjoy

The American Language


difiin^l: as

thus be as
all

the government, free

from

the

follies

of unphilofophlcal fafhion, and reftlng


its

upon
no
led

truth as

only regulator.

perceive

difficulties:

it

you

find any, I

are not without remedy.

If

my

they ignorance has


truil:

me

into errors,

1 fhall

connder their corI

re(3:ion as

an acL of friendfliip; for

fnould
I

lament,

if,

while feeking to enlighten others

{hould be v/alking in darknefs myfeif.

With
ciples

the

fincerefl:

wiflies

that

your prin-

of felf-government and

equality m.ay

extend themfelves over the whole earth, making

you thereby a

clofely

allied

part of the

great family of man, and v/ifliing you continual increafe in

knowledge, and your eternal

falvation,
I

fubfcrlbe myfelf

with much fatisfadion

your affeaionate fellow-cltizra


the

AuTiion.

D
OR,

M U
A

Cur nescire, pudens irave,

c^uam discerf.

malo?
v.

Hor: ArsPoet:

88.

ERHAPS

there

is

no fubjed of which
ignorant^ as the
:

the generality of

men

are fo

fabjedl of the following paper

indeed there

is

karcely one that ignorance affects fo


defpife
;

but,
it

much to though unexpanded minds may


a thought,

not

deem

worthy of

fome of the
it

greateft philofophers

have confidered

of fuch

importance as to claim their particular attention.


tife
OX),

The

learned Bi(hop Wilkins, in his trea-

a philofophical language,

informs us, that

befides the
far,

famous Emperors Caius Julius Ca:-

and Odavius Auguftus,


this fubjeft,

who

both wrote

upon

Varro, Apian, Quintilian and

Prifcian bellowed

much pains upon

the alphabet:

fmce

lo
fince
fius,

CAD

alfo Sir

M U
Bernardus

S.

them Erafmus, both the

ScallgerSj Lip-

Salmafius, Voffius, Jacobus Matthias,

A-

dolphus Metkerchus,

Malinchot,

&c.

ander Gill,

Thomas Smith, Bullokar, Alexand Dodor Wallist the laft of


;

whom Wilkins

thinks,

had confidered with

the greateft accuracy and fubtlety the philofo-

phy of articulate
tor

founds.

He alfo acknowledgDoc-

es his obligations to the private papers of

William Holder, and Mr. Lodov/ick.

We

find in the Bifliop's

work

a great difplay of in-

genuity and good reafon;


je6t

and on

this fub-

many

excellent obfervations.

Since

him

feveral

eminent authors have engaged in the

ftudy, and have favored the world with ufeful

remarks.

Among many who


particularly

have publifh-

ed

I will

mention Dr. Kenrick,

Thomas
reafons

Sheridan, DocSor Beattie, and

Dodor

Franklin, fome of whofe judicious and forcible

may

be feen in the diifertations of No-

ah Webfler.

An

attentive confideration

of

this

theme has

many and
I
1

important objcds.

We
am
forry that

my

remotenefs from any library prevents


1

my perufmg

mofl of thcfe authtrs, as

v-'ritc this

in Tortola,

my

native place. 1792.

CADMUS.

ir

We fee hundreds of nations whofe languages are not yet written. We fee millions of children born to labour for years to acquire imperfedly, what children of good capacity would
acquire perfectly in a few weeks.

We

fee

mountains of volumes printed, and


in the Englifh language,

no man can produce,

a fmgle fentence, often words, properly written, if in the received

mode of

fpelling.

To

reduce the languages of different nations


it

to writing,

would be neceffary

to invent

an

Univerjal alphabet^ the mode of conftru6ling and applying of which


I fhall

only here

give an idea of, as the bounds of this papei*


will not permit
Engliifi.

me to exemplify more than

the

An
fingle

Univerfal alphabet ought to contain


diflincl:

a,

mark

or character, as the re-

prefentative of each fimple found


poffible for
utter.

which

it is

the

human

voice and breath to

No

12

C A

M U

S.

No mark

(hould reprefent two or three dif-

tinft founds*;

nor fhould any fimple found

be reprefented by two or three different charadersf.

Language appears common to nature. Almoft


every beaft, and bird, and infedt conveys
feelings
its

by founds uttered

in different v^ays.

The language of man is however the moftextenfive


:

his ideas are

conveyed by words, formed


thefe founds

either

by fingle or conneded founds;

are produced
breath.

by modifications of the voice and


is

Every modification

called a

letter,

which, reprefented by a mark, and the marks

known by the
by the marks

eye to be the reprefentatives of


is

the founds, an idea


as

as intelligibly

conveyed

by

the founds.

How much

have the learned

to

lament the

imperfedi: ftate in
left

which human genius has yet


!

the alphabet

It

has

been the cuflom to

confider the redudion of language to the eye as

an

art

bordering fo

much on

divine, as almoft to

furpafs

human

invention.

If

we examine

the

ignorance
*

As a in
c,

ca//,

calm, tame,

t As

9,

^"^

CADMUS.
ignorance,
in
this

13

refpect,

of even the mofl

learned men, we
to the fubjed

may with fome propriety afcrlbe much difficulty, but, when the firft:

fources of error are conquered, every thing ap-

pears plain and fimple.

am

confident the

Hebrew language was

not

formed before that alphabet; [the alphabet was


probably the Ethiopic,] for the radicals of the

Hebrew

are

compofed each of three charafters,

and by permutation might form ten thoufand


words. Thefe
that
'uei^bs

have

fo

many

flexions,

they would form above

one hundred

thoufand words, which would be more comprehenfive than

human

genius.

It is

impoffible that a language fo mechanicalfo artificially


it

ly

and

formed, could be the efFed;

of chance,

muil have been formed upon the

alphabet, and

more

efpecially as

it is

formed by
dif-

three characters in

all cafes,

and not by three

tindt letters or founds; for the

beth^

3 g^^^h

^ and daleth^ without the point, have the pov/ers

of BT'^

GJ and dj;

capable of forming by

permutation
*
;i is

the Vccal of the

H.

Sec pronunciation of the Letters,

14

A D

l/

S.

permutation twenty nine words, but twenty


four without repeating the fame charader three

times in a word, each containing fix

letters,

and but three charaSiers


were primarily confidered

if thefe characters

as

only each the rereafon


is

prefentative of one letter, this


valid, but the next
difficulties

not

becomes ftronger, and the

increafe; for, to
letters in

form a language

of exactly three

every radical word,

pre-fuppofes a perfsdl acquaintance with a dif-

tind

fet

of founds, befide a general confent of

the perfons engaged in the compofition of the

language, and memories fufficient to retain one

compofed by permuting twenty two


three. It requires

letters
it

by

more genius

to efFedt

withit

out, than with characters:

by an alphabet

might be the compofition of one man, but


however the produdion of
a great
effort

is

of

genius, and approaches towards a philofophical

language.
All the world have to lament that not only
the circumnavigators of different nations, but

even of the fame nation, v/ho make vocabularies

of the langu*iger, they hear, are

fo little

acquainted

CADMUS.

15

acquainted with the phllofophy of fpeech, as

never to write them alike: indeed the fame


perfon cannot read in his fecond voyage, but

with difEcuhy, what he wrote in the preceding one, with a pronunciation intelligible to
a native
:

yet

mod people

are capable of repeat-

ing with tolerable corredinefs what they hear


others pronounce immediately before, even in

a different language, provided the fame founds

contained in the word be found in the lan-

guage of the imitator; otherwife new founds


muft be attempted: and every perfon
is

not fuf-

ficiently accurate in his obfervations, to perceive

the effort

made by
;

the fpeaker

when he

utters

fuch founds

as

we may

obferve daily in the

attem.pts of foreigners to fpeak the th

of the

Englifh [b e, &c.]

Shew

a fentence in the

Roman

alphabet to

an individual of each nation that makes ufe of


thefe charaders,

and two pcrfons cannot be


alike
:

found

to read

it

nor can a perfon


letters

who
one

underftands the powers of the

in

language, be capable of reading a fentence in

each language properly.

Mofl:

i6

CAD
or
lefs,

M U

S.

Moft of the nations of Europe have

receivedj
is

more

the

Roman alphabet,
it is

yet there

not one language to which

perfedly a-

dapted;

however, ahhough in the different


is

languages ef Europe, the fame found


reprefented in each

often

by two or

three charaders,

we

find in

moft of them fonie words which

contain the fame charafter to reprefent the fame

found; therefore the formation of an extenfive,


fixed alphabet, for the ufe of Europe, will not

befo
es
all

difficult as if we

could furnifh no inftanc-

from the

different languages, in v/hich they

concurred to give the fame found to the fame

character.

But

this will

only ferve while


characters,

we

attempt to preierve the

Roman

and

produce as
ting
:

little

innovation as poffible in printo

were we
dire^^,
is

go

as far as

would
bet,

and lay afide the

common fenfe Roman alphafimplicity


to

which

exceedingly complex, adopting


to fuch

one that might be reduced


as to require only

one fourth of the time

write the fame matter,

we muft

firft fix all

the

founds,

by making

for each language a corre-

fpondent table, in diftindt columns, then adapt


the fimplicity of the charafter, as

much

as poffible,

CADMUS.
fible,

17

to the

frequency of the found In the dif-

ferent languages.

The moft
is

certahi

mode of

fixing the founds,

by adopting

in each table

the fimplefl monofyllables in which they are

found, fuch as are commonly pronounced alike,

and are the moft frequently


letter or

ufed.

The fame

character fhould ftand at the head of

each correfponding perpendicular column, in


the feveral tables, and the fame alfo at the be-

ginning of each horizontal

line

thus repre-

fenting always the fame found, as far as thefe


feveral charadlers can be applied.

If the fame

found cannot always be found in one language


that a letter in another
reprefents, this letter
firft,

muft not be ufed


as
it

in the

on any account,
;

would produce confufion


only of an univerfal

for

it

makes
Such
ufe,

part

alphabet.

characters

might however foon come into


all

by adopting, with

future difcoveries, the


either
in arts

names given by the inventors,

or fciences, and in whatever language.

Any
would

fubfequent improvements in the

arts

be more eafily comprehended in writings, were


the

names and terms every where the fame.

If one nation only take this advantage, only

one

i8

CADMUS.
will enjoy this benefit
it,
:

one

but were

more
affi-

nations to do

languages would in time

milate as knowledge became

more

difFufed

by

intercourfe; the origin of the difcoveries

would

be more

eafily traced,
allied.

and

all

the world feem

more nearly

Nothing indeed can be


name^

more

ridiculous, than to alter a proper


to

merely

make its

termination more correfpon-

dent to the general laws of a language: iyet


in

how many

inftances have the French,

EnI

glifh,

Germans and

other nations done this

At

the fame time they urge

the neceility of

preferving an orthography vyhich has very few


traces left of the radicals,
affinity

and has

little

more

with the fpoken language than two

different languages

have with each other thus,


:

to read and write, and to fpeak the fame things,

are arts as different and difficult as to learn

two

diflind languages

for they

are in

gen-

eral written
it is

by miferable hieroglyphics; and,

as difficult for a perfon to

remember

that

a particular written word fignifies a certain


vocal one, as to

remember

that the

fame word
then

fignifies a particular objedt.

We 'cannot

but lament the

many

mifpent years of our


youth.

CADMUS.
which
is inflicted.;

19

youth, and the continual excrcife of cruelty


to

make them imbibe

the ig-

norance of their nnceftors, and for ever fhackle


their

minds with

f^lfe

and ablurd prejudices.

Voltaire, that gilder in literature,

who never
injured

wrote any thing

folid

upon any fubjed, but

what may be
obfcure Pere

attributed to the

much

and

Adam,

or the celebrated
iu favor

Durey de

Morfan, gave fome pieces


mation
in fpeiling,

of a refor-

but did not exceed a few

terminations of words, which he urged to the

French Academy; they however ar.medfor the


propriety of retaining the old mode,
left

they

Ihould not

know

the
as

derivatbns of words
folely

which

are, indeed,

the province of

antiquarians, as the derivations of cuftoms

and

things; but were they really requifite to Scholars,

they have only to turn to didtionaries, and

fag through a fev/ references.

Many urge the utility


to prevent obfcurity in

of the old orthography


writing, but
i

though

half a dozen words of different acceptation had


tb^e

fame orthography, where would be the


difficulty

CO
difficulty

CADMUS.
of obtaining the meaning
?

for

ia

fpe^king

we
and

find none,

and many words in

Englifh have the fame found; for inftance^^^r


to drink,
bier to carry the dead

upon

alfo

hear the verb to carry, bear the beaft, and bare

naked, are never miftaken in converfation, the


compofition of the fentences conveying per-

fedly the
ceived,

diftinftion.

If any obfcurity be per-

an alteration fhould be made in the

words themfelves, and the orthography regulated thereby:

inftances

may

be pointed out
to adhere, not

where

it

would be highly proper

only to particular diftindions in the prefent


orthography, but to conform to them in fpeak-

ing
ye

If you fpeak

like

moderns^

ivhywould

'write like ante-chrijiians ? pronounced, ant^

not ant/, otherwife there would be no difference between, before Chrift, and againji Chrift,

Several of the Englifh argue for the prefervation of derivatives, but


it is

the

laft

argu-

ment

that

ought to have been ufed, in delicacy


feelings
;

to their

own

for

none of their moll

learned grammarians or lexicographers, except,

perhaps

CADMUS.
perhaps, James Robertfon,^

21

knew the derivati'till

on of even the commoneft monofyllables,

John Korne Tooke


fcuritles,

cleared

away

all

the ob-

under which ignorance was veiled,


abfurdities of Harris,

and deteded the learned

johnfon, Lord Monboddo, and

James Robertfon,
(the
firft

in

his

many others.Hebrew grammar,


fifty

edition of

which was publiihed

years ago) gives hints which,

indeed, could

not efcape a perfon of


penetration than

much

lefs

learning and
;

John

Home

Tooke

but I

would by no means
confident, would

infer thence, that

any hints
I

have been borrowed, becaufe his name,

am

have been mentioned.

Some of
learning,

the moft learned

men

are

men
all

of the lead knowledge

take

away their fchoo!-

and they remain children.

As
they,
to

their confequence in life confifts in their ac-

quaintance

with dead languages,

no

doubt, would

condemn any attempt


'

leiTen

the dignity of fuch acquirements.

You muft

not alter the orthography of languages, becaufe

we cannot

afterv/ard derive

the words,

then
* ProfefTor of the Oriental larguages in the Univcrf:*:)? of Edlnb'..r^!-u


23
then
all

C A
the learning
will

D
be

M U
uielefs.'

S.

we have

taken fo

much
muft

pains to acqnu'e

We

thus preferve bad fpeiling to render

dead lan-

guages ufeful

in its

derivation,

and we muft

learn dead languages to derive bad fpeiling.


i

When

does the lady (v/ho fpeaks

the mofl:

elegant language) afk the pedant W'hence the

words

are derived

He

has fpent tvvo minutes


the

in tw^o languages to

know

meaning of the
in

word, and

ilie

has

fpent

two minutes
?

one

language; and nvhereis the difference


iBuft fpend

A child

many years in learning dead languages, that he may kno-v more perfectly his ow-n. Few acquire more than one language with its elegancies. I have known good latin

fcholars,

in

England,

incapable

of w^rltin^
rational

Englifh tolerably.

tlow much more

would

it

be, to fiudy the Engliih twice as long,


llu-dy

than to

another language to obtain the


is

Englifh! There

fcarcely

one

man

in

fiftya

even anaong the

learned, that writes


is,
7fiG/i

everV

word with what

erroneoujly^ called a

correft orthography, without a lexicon among

the unlearned none, and few


cated ladles,

among

well edu-

Thefe

dilncultics

depend greatly

upon

CADMUS.
upon
faife fpelling,

23
pronounce
;

becaufe they

all

much more
upon
a

alike

than they write

and that

falfe fpelling, in its origin,

depended as much
as

want of knowing the alphabet,


fake

upon

the chanire of language for the

of eu-

phony. People are more a(hamed of expofing


bad orthography than bad writing
difference,
calls
:

the only

however, between what the world


is,

bad fpelling and good,

that the

firft

contains the blunders of the writer only, the


latter

contains the blunders of

everybody
is

elfe.

Dr. Johnfon, in the

grammar which

prefays

fixed to his dictionary (under

letter Z,)

" For pronunciation the bejl rule is^ to conftder " thoje as the mojl elegantfpeakers iju ho deviate
^^

leaf,from
all

the

ijuritt en

Ivor ds,^'' If the

Dodor^

with
his

his learning,

had heard any page of

own works

read corredly, (according to

the orthography) he would with difficulty, if


at all,

have been able

to conftrue
at a lofs

it,

and would

have been even more


are

than foreigners
I

when

the Englifh fpeak Latin.

am

forry

that the

vague opinion of an

eftablifhed

cha-

rader can impofe upon the generality of men,

and

^4
and
I

CAD
lament

M U
fooner

S.
tiie

how much

errors

of

the great are embraced than the truths of the


little.

The Dodor immediately


is

after this al-

lows " our orthography

to be Jormed by chance^

" and

yet fufficiently

irregidar.^^

cannot

conceive by what rule the irregularity can be

determined, but by
fpeech,

its

non-conformity
his

to the

which would thus deny


^'

previ-

ous

alTertion.

Some
to

re former s'^^

he adds,

" have endeavoured

accommodate orthogra-

" phy
"

better to the pronunciation-^ ivithout con-

^^Jidering that this is to meafure by


to take
is

ajhadoiv^

that for a model orjlandard ivhich


itJ*^

"

changing ivhite they apply

If

language
change;

change, the orthography ought

alfo to

but

if

orthography were once properly accomto language,

modated
liable to

even

this

would not be
:

change, confequentiy that


all

and

it

would then be confidered, by


word,

butjohnfoni-

ans, as great an im.propriety to mijcall a written


as

now

to
^'

pronounce
lefs

it

properly,

"

Others^'* he fays

abfurdly indeed^

but
en--

" tvith equal unlikelihood offuccefs^ have


^'

deavoured

to

proportion the number of letters


C(

to

CADMUS.
^'

25

to
its

that ofjounds^ that every fciind ?nay

have

"
^^

ozvn charaBer^ and every character a finale


the orthography of a

found. Such zvoidd be

" nevu language to


" marians upon " can hope
^^

he formed by

afnodofGramBut nvho
chaw^e their

principles 0) fcience.
iiations to

to

prevail on

p)rG5iice^

and make

all their old books ifelefs ?

"

or ivhat advantage vuoiild a nevj orthography


to

" procure^ equivalent


^^

the conjifion and perIn anfvvering

plexity cfjuch an alteration?'''^


iirn afe

the above! will


1

the fimple queftioii


It is

what

is

ih'j iije

of writing?

to exhibit to

the eye
car:

tlie

fame words

that are

fpoken to the
this

and

it is

impofhble to do

without
:

giving a difiind mark for every diftind found


to deviate

from

this rule

is

to

run into error.

A
it

fynod of grammarians would not require a new language to accommodate true fpeliino- to,

may
men
in

be fo eafily accommodated to
vifited the

^'

all

lan;

guages
*

Tn a tour thro-igh Scotlan.i,

Hebrides, andrr.et witli

many

\7ho neither Ipolce a word of Englifli, nor could they read a any language; thefe men repeated many of the poems allribed to Offian, and oth-r ancient bards. One of thefe Poems I wrote with fuch orthography and charadlcrs, a? thought might anfwer to the fouucs which were rcp.-ated by an old man. I afterwards read it flow]y to a fenfible old
old

word

womin, who underftood


tranilation; this
fefli.ig alfo

v/ell enough to give me a any I have le n tranflared, pofr much genius, but (he often lamented the poverty of the Enghfn
it,

and the

Enolifii,
as

was

as regular a

poem

language,

svhich (he

fuid

was incapable of

cxpreffin-j

the fublin^-iry of

many

26
guages
;

G A
and
if

D
it is

M U

S.

falTe

orthography does not


very improbable that
alter,

change a language,
corred: orthography
ferve
to lix it;

would

but rather

and

to fuppofe the contrary is


all their old books vfe-

ablurd.
lefs^^"" I

As

to

" making

anfwer, that the

Dodor, though

he

reafons thus, could

read Chaucer and

other

ancient poets with fufficient facility.

All good

authors

whofe works are too voluminous or


too abftraded for

expenfive, or -would
ftill

new

editions,

afford

ample matter for the learned

and ingenious, and they would be read, with


as

much

eafe as the ancient

Enghih

or French.
ufe,

If they were books of

more general

and

worthy of new^ editions, they would no doubt be


republiflied;
if

not,

the

rifmg generation
their fupprelfion.

would be much
many
of the paflagcs.

benefited

by

Some
It

might befo, but


1

conceh'ed there was another,


exteniively acquainted with
I

and a more

lorcibit reafon, viz. licr being


i-ni^lifh.

more

the gatiic than the

will here digreisfo far as to declare, that

faw and hedrd uiore unpubJillitd poems, of this kind, than have been printed by James Macpherion, and John Clarke (Tranllator of the Caledonian Bards) and have heard aUo foiiiC of the poems which thefe Gentlemen traniiattd. '1 hough 1 wrote tolerably fait, 1 learnt by fome of my acquaintance,
that the venerable
halt

old
1

man

could repeat fuch a variety as to keep

me wntaig
which
'uie ot
liaci
1
;

a) ear.
poem,
the

will not attribute "the intelligible

manner

in

repe:iteu the

entirely to the orthography


1

lor

my

mtnior), as
that

read

it

foon after,

and charadlers made aided mxe much, and I


ftudy
1
:

not then
is

maae

lubjedl of this treatile


1

my

but at prefent
intelli-

there

no lan^^uage,

can pronounce, which

cannot write

gibly, and this

may

be learnt by any one in a very Ihort time.

CADMUS.
Some of"
graphyivould
I ft.

i.

^7

the advantages ivhich a nczv ortho^


prociire^'^'*

fhall

be cnumerai.d.
i

Travellers and voyagers [Page 14


to

r,]

would be enabled
ries

givefucb perfed vocabula-*

of the languages they hear, that


facilitate all

they

would greatly

future

iatercourfe.

2dly. Foreigners would, with the affi^ance

of books alone, be able


ia
t

to learn the

language

eir

clofets,

v^'hcn
;

they could not have

the benefit of mafters


to

and would

be able

converfe through the


at prefent are

medium of
fervice
;

books,

which

of no

whatever,
if this

in learning to fpeak a

language

and

were

to

be adopted

by the

Americans,
the
beft

AND

NOT BY THE ENGLISH,


to
it

Engiifh authors v;ou!d be reprinted in America,

and every firanger


Europe^

the language even

who

thinks

of more

confequence
to write

to fpeak the Engiifh correctly, than


it

with the prefent errors, w^ould


editions,

purchafe

American
fpell

and would be ajhamed to


could acquire the

incorredly,

when he
\

mode of fpelling well


tial

for he

would not be par-

to

difficulty,

and would examine the old and


aS

CADMUS,
make
the
teft

and new modes with more philofophy, than our


blind prejudice will allow us to

of reafon.
3d.

Dialeds

[page 38] would be utterly

deilroyed, both

among

foreigners and peafants.

4th. Every one

would write with a per-

feftly correct orthography [p. 38.]

5th. Children, as well as

all

the poorer claffes


in fo fhort a

of people, would learn to


time, and with fo
to
little

read

trouble,

having only

acquire the thirty letters,


to Jilence all

that this alons that can be

ought

the objeSiions

brought^ and, particularly with the foregoing


reaions, mufi: be

deemed more than " eguiva^

"
*'

lent to the confufion


alteration,^'*

and perplexity ofJuch an But, independent of what is

faid above, I

admit neither confufion nor perbe


the confequences

plexity

to
:

of fuch a
taught

change

thofe

who were
who now

never before

to read, could

have no idea of any other meread

thod, and thefe

would

find
is

no

more

difficulty in the

two modes, than

found

in reading

by any

fecret charader.

Even fhorthand

C A D
hand
in reading

M U

S;
find

29
no
dlfiiculty

writers, if in pradice,

words which do not contain a fingle


:

common vowel

fimple marks are ufed, and


ahfurd orthoeafy

they attend not to the prefent

graphy of any word

how much more

then to read words which contain the fymbols

of every found, and efpecially


the
thofe
ed,

when moft of
ufed
!

common
whofe

charaders
thirft after

are

befides,

knowled.^e

is

quenchthe
af-

may hereafter amufe themfelves with books now publifhed. I fhould have been
tonifhed at the Dodor's obfervations, if
I

had

not been acquainted with his prejudices.

He
of

gives fome fpecimens of the reformed

orthography, of Sir
ftate to

Thomas Smith,

fecretary
Gill,

Queen

Elizabeth;

of Dodor

the celebrated mailer of Saint Paul's fchool in

London;
Milton
ally,

of Charles

Butler;

and fliows that


finlaft

w^as inclined to

change the fpelling:

he mentions Bifhop Wilkins, as the

general reformer.

The
I

fpecimens however

which he

exhibits as a " guide to reformers^ or


am. afraid will anfvv^er

terror to iiinovators'*^

neither intention, being

tooimperfed

to ferve

the

;:

30

CADMUS.
attributes to the
;

the former, and too incorredl: to deter the latter

fome of the imperfedions he

want of proper types

yet

by

thefe inftances,

we

find, at fo early a time,

many

advantages

over the barbarous fpelling of the prefent age.

To examine

the

common-place obfervations,

of even the generality of profodial writers,

would be too tedious a

tafli

for the author, to

give any account of them, too tedious to the


reader,

who

{hall

therefore be fubjeded to as

few remarks

as poffible,

upon what

others have

written on the dodlrine of articulate founds

but as

Thomas

Sheridan

is

one of the

latefl

au-

thors on the fubjed, and his pronouncing dill-

onary, in which he has


generally

much

merit,

Is

more

known

than any other, a few obfer-

vations on different parts of his


indifpenfable.

work

will be
;

The
nanty

diftindion which he

-^

and other gramconfo-^

marians make, between a uoivel and a


is,

that the

firfl:

can be uttered or pro-

nounced by

itfelf

the latter cannot.

How
more

harmlefs foever this

may

appear,

it

has been

* Sec his diclionary.

CADMUS.
more
were
fatal to fcholars

31

than Sylla or Charybdis

to Mariners.

If a confonant cannot be pronounced


felf, it

by

it-

muftbepart of a compound; therefore

Mr. Sheridan fhould have made nineteen additional

compounds

to

thefj and^^
fays:j:

in his
'*

fcheme
are
;

of the alphabet yet, he


^'

there

tiventy

eight fimple founds in our tongue

Jix of ivfolch honjuever^ are i/iiites-y


is

h he

fays,
it

no

letter

think he might have clafied


at the idea

%vith his

mutes;

of fpeaking and

hearing of which, rcafon

revolts.

If

h be
a

re-

jected as a letter, merely becaufe

it

is

mark

of afpiration, the

/^,/>, t

and o ought

as well to

be omitted, becaufe they are only marks of afpiration


:

f,yi 0,

J"

are alfo afpirates, but

more

forcibly

made than

the former.

If a letter be

not neceiTary to m.ark the fimplefl: afpirate,


there
is

no difference between heating


it
;

a.

cake

and eating
to

but

if

even a dot be neceffary


every other inftance that
it

mark

it,

and

if in

dot have the fame fignification,

would be

as

much
t Pa^e
i

a letter as any other charader; for every

D
ifl

mark
v

of his Drofodial
Id.

grammar,

Page IX.

32

CADMUS.
is

markwhich is pronounced, diftinguifhing thereby one w'ord from another,


caufe,
it

really a letter, be-

fubjedls to the eye

what the

ear re-

quires of the voice.


fider accents,

do not however con-

of which the French and fome

other nations are fo Uberal, as letters, but as


notes
letters

by which the high found of

particular

may

be directed.

He

makes nine vowels

but there does not


and
his
firfl;

appear to be any difference between the found

of his fecond
bet-,

^, as in hate^
;

e as in

except in length
firft,

for, fubftitute the lafl for

the

and the word het will make by pro-

longation heet^ written at prefent hate.

His
i

third e as in beer^ appears to be precifely the


firfl: i

as in J?/, for
j^V/,

by lengthening the
(beer,

m fit
beet,

we make
/;?/>,)

vvrittenj^^^/;

^/V;

nor can

we make

it

otherwife.

He
vowel,

follows the Scotch

mode of naming

the

confonants,

by placing before each a common


of adopting the
7}iore

infl:ead

hratmial

plan of the Englifli,

who

fometimes put the


after the

vowel before, and fometimes

charader
to

CADMUS.
to give
error,
it

35
rock of
ftruck,

name

but here

is

the

upon which

all

grammarians have
to give a rational

who

have attempted

account

of the formation of language.

The Hebrews
which

and Greeks

led

Europe

into this miftake,

prejudice fincehas taken great care to preferve.

The

Phenicians, and after

them the Hebrews,


words which

not diftinguifliingfufEciently the fimple formation of the elem.ents, adopted

began with the founds, without confidering, in

fome

inftances,

any

relation

that

the found
the

has with the objedt.

Thus X begins

name

of the ox, which

is

alpha in the Phenician (and

aleph in the
alpha-,

Hebrew) hence the Greek


introduced letters
firfl:

name

when Cadmus

Into Greece.

The

being the

letter

of

the voice of

the fheep,

was repreiented ain

mong

the Egyptians,

by a Hieroglyphick

the form of a iheep.

The * names of

the

letters
* I have been alked how we fhall be able to fpell words to each other, without naming the letters- It would be thought ridiculous to aflc the names of the words that compofe a fcntence, but the queftions are exadly parallel, or of one form ; by this mode the mere pronouncing of the loord Jloivly is fvjfici"
ent^

and

there

is

no other fpelling

thus a child, that reads the letters, reads

words compcfed of them, as he reads fentences compofed of words. If I were to teach a child, not by afiBnity of found or reafon, but by mere repetition, to call the letter jy}w, the e ten^ and the x fi-^ to fpell the word than the /<->;, it would be deemed very irrational, but it is much kfi lo,

mode

34

C A

M U
\ve

S.

letters, inftead

of the

powers, have been


conceive

hi-

therto invariably ftudied;

them

therefore, not to be fimple founds, and hence

the

ridiculous

divifion

of the alphabet into

vowels; confonants; mutes, pure and impure;

femivowels and their numerous fubdivifions.

The
two

charadlers ought

all to

be divided into

claffes;

vowels and aspirates.


is

vowel

a letter
its

that

is

founded by the
afpirate
is

voice,f

whence

name.

An

a let-

ter that cannot be

founded but by the breath.

Of

the former there are twenty one in the

Enthir-

glifli

Language of the latter


;

nine,

making

ty letters.

The
for iiiftance, double-u

tnode by which mcll of the words in the Engliih language rre taught ayt/h aifce aytfi, are to be hammered, by name,
;

into a child's head to produce the

word

ivhlch !

Oh,
13.

cruelty, ignorance,

and

lofs

of time

(See

table of founds

hne

rendering ideas audible by the voice ; 'whifperlng is rendering and a perlon cannot therelore, with propriety, ; befaid to fpeak in a whifper. Voice is deiivcd from 'vox a found, but we have fixed the idea to a certain clafs of founds^ othervvife it would be as jjroper to call any fouud whatever, voice^ as to call by tliat r;ame the pa;v

f Speaking

is

them

audible by the breath

ticular

founds uttered by the

human organs

of fpeech.

CADMUS,
The Charale> s*

'iS

Commo

nafal

ftopt

fibilant

(hort

an lEIOU YZRLJVDW MNDGBDfFeS KPT OH


Vowels
Afpirates

snaeiou

yzrljv^wmnD gbd

ff^s

kpt

oh

The folloiving charaElers are


recommended.

particularly

anAEiouyzRLjVDuimnDGaDfresKPTOH
It

were much

to be wifhed that

one

fet

of

charadlers be ufed inftead of capitals and fmall


letters,

for they only increafe the difficulty of

finding a fufficient

number of

eafy forms, for

an univerfal, or even a copious alphabet.


fame
letters

The

made

larger at the beginning of an

emphatic word, or the whole made a larger


fize,

or in Italics,

would be

fufficiently charac-

leriftic.

The

printing letters, as in the third


line

3^
line

C A D

M U

S.

of charaders, above, neither afcending nor


line,

defcending out of the

would render books,

printed in this type, the moft beautiful that

ever yet appeared, and the lines would be


diftina.

more

The
fhall

written charafters

may

be accommo;

dated to the others by degrees

at prefent I

make

little

innovation in them.

^ Pronounced

3S

C A D

M U
diftlncl:
it is

S.

Rules'for pronouncing* thefe letters, f fliew-

ing the formation of each


Englifh language,
to

found, in the

which

thought ne-

cefTary to appropriate a character;

having a true

kno%vledgc of ivhich^

it

ivill be impojjible to
is

tvritc inoorredly ivhatever

heard
;

in

any Ian-

giiage-i eoiitaining only thefe letters

attd as

im-

pojjible to

read incorreSily any language <vritten


;

in thefe characters

for,

by

this

method, the

orthography

and

orthoepy

determine each

other; and, if the orthography of language


y/ere to

be correded, the pronunciation

of

the fcholar, would, by reading alone, be perfeffly

attained

by the peafant and the foreig-

ner
ner^

deftroying thus, in the moft effe^ual inan-'


all

vulgar and local

dialeds,

and

fitting

even
*

Though

it

isfald Pronunciation
cfiy

is

fuch qu^

'necfcriLitur^ uec p'tngitur^nec

Jiaurhe earn fas


j-

nifi 'vii'.2 -voce.

It will be obferved in the lire which I fo particularly recommend, that fome of the letters have been a little altered to render them more fmiplc, and that fome of the Charadlers are merely common letters reverfed. The middle line of the A of the E and F have .been omitted which will render them more eafy for the type-founder, and lefs liable to blot in printing. The V and f are the A and J inverted, the 'J is the L reverfed. The long S

([)
js

iliouldbe totally omitteil,


altered in the
altered in

it

has fo

much

the appearance of
:

f.

The

the fame as the Saxon, but rather


little

more

difhincSb

the

Q
is

of the Greeks

rdfo a

printin;^? letters.

The 0,

of the Goths,

fomewhat
ihe line

ti-rit'iTiy

for the fake of expedition.

U W iVI N are made

maybe
filling

like the fmall letters,

u being the inverfe only of n, and laofm, with great beauty, and avoiding difagreeable angles.

CADMUS.
even for oratory, every

39

man

of good capacity

and utterance.

The

reader

is

now
of

to reject all
letters,

prejudices
is

refpecting

Names

and

to ftudy

only their Powers, which

in all cafes ?nay be

prolonged^ except in the ftopt vocals and their


afpirates
jcifely
;

and a good mode of obtaining preis,

the true povv^er of each,

to tranfpofe

the letter to the end of any


letter begins,

word which

that

then,

by repeating the word


its
it

ra-

pidly, the letter will take

proper place, and


pofleffes the

the ear

vvill

determine

if

true

found.

Pronunciation of the Letters

Is

made by opening

the

mouth

a very little,

juft fufncient to
teeth,

fhew the edges of the upper

producing a 'vocal found low

down

in

the throat, and fuftcring the tongue and lips


to

remain

at

reft,

the

epiglottis

only being
raifed

40
raifed

C
by the
glottis

A D

M U

S.'

breath, v/hlch,

by a

contrafticrf

of the

by the lurrounding mufcleg,

occafions a tremulous motion and found called


voice, that can be felt

by applyi-ng the fingers

to the throat

but this tremulous motion can


vocals are founded, fo that

only be
thofe
fible

felt

when

who

are born deaf,

may

be

made

fen-

of the difference, by feeling

only, and
learning*

can thus difcover,

when they

are

the elements of fpeech, whi^ther or

not they

pronounce properly.
afpirate

The
:

Elnglifh

is

the

of

this vocal

it is

vowel much ufed


o

in that language,

taking the place of


but
it

very

often

when

friort,

was not

reprefented-

by a charader.
the
firfi:

Its

po^^er

may

be found in

perpendicular column of the facceeding


s:in;--r/^iT, r:if;

table, in, sz^n,

&c.

To
the

pronounce the fecond

common

vowel,

mouth muft be more open than

for J, but
:

the lower lip muft not dilcover the lower teeth the found
is

made
is

in the

threat, m.ore eafily

continued, and
ar,

fuller
is

than in pronouncing
the tip of
it

and the tongue

drawn back,

reftiner

41

CADMUS.
refting

on the bottom of the mouth.

It is alfo

a very

common vowel
n

in the Engllfh language,


it.

though there was no charader afiigned to

The power of
ya'wny yznN;

may

be found in the fecond

perpendicular column of the table of founds, in


zazv^ szz;
rai^j,

Rzn; 2cc.--

The
be
Rill

third

common

vowel: the mouth muft


for n
;

more open than


little

the lov/er lip de-

fcends a
teeth
;

below the

tips

of the under
Hat.
Its

and the tongue muft He

power

may

be found in the third perpendicular coin the

lumn,

words, yarn;

zag

satj

RAT &C,
e

The
little

fourth con: men vowel


fliut

The
tlie

mouth a
lower
lip tip

more

than for

n^

but

expofing

ftill

more the lower

teeth,

and the

of the tongue gently preffing the under teeth.


Its

power may be found

in the fourth

perpen-

dicular

column of the

table, in,

y^lh

yel

^^phyr,

ZEr3R;

CETj-RED,

&c.
Fifth


42

CADMUS,
i

Fifth

common vowel the mouth


^,

rather

more
fo

contracted than for


as to

but the under lip

low
;

fhew the

infertion

of the lower
a
little

teeth

the corners of the

mouth

exthe

tended; the tongue prefFmg gently upon

edges of the lower teeth.

Its

power may be
column,
in,

found in the
y^, Yi
;

fifth

perpendicular

zea\^

ziil;

siT;

rip ,&

Sixth

common vowel -the mouth

is

nearly

In a natural ftate, the lips brought rather clofer together

the tongue

drawn back
n,

little,

and the found refembles the

but the

o is

made more

in the

mouth than

in the throat.

The Greeks
though
other,

ufe

two charaders
is

for this found,

really

one

only longer than the

and the original intention was good,

becaufe the long found was denoted by the fame


character being

marked twice

(oo w],

and

it

ought not
ter,

to

have been admitted as a new

let-

as

it

indicates thereby, not a continuance,

but a difference, of found.

The ancient

Greeks,
as

CADMUS.
as mentioned

43
ir^

by

Plato,

made no

diftlndion
the great

the long and fhort


little

(called

now

and

0) nor in the long and fhort , as


the

may be

feen in

word ^stpatefon

written at

prefent

STPATiirnN. The power of o may be


column, in the

found

in the fixth perpendicular


yc^ke,

lK^ords,

yook;

Z(9ne,

zoon;

sot;

Seventh

common vowel

the

organs are

continued in the fame pofition as in pronounc-

ing

Oy

except that the lips are fo


as to leave

much

con-*

tracled
ture,

only a very narrow aperis

and are much protruded. z/

pronounced
Its

in the

fame manner

as the

Greek

power

may

be found in the feventh perpendicular cotable

lumn of the
ruut; &c.

of founds, in the words,

yezc;,
xooX.^

yuu; ze?/gma, zuugma;

f^z^p,

suup;

The eighth
fame manner
-*

vocal found,
as the fifth

is

pronounced
vocal

in the
/,

common

except

Farkhurft'sLcsicon of the

New

Teftament (H.)

44-

CADMUSy
requires a

cept that
voice,

more

forcible effort

of

and the back part of the tongue


to Intercept

rifes

little,

the
It

found,
is

which thus
vocal of the
Gaelic,
firft

becomes tremulous.

the

German

c|),

and of the
Its

gh

of the

Scotch, &c.

power

is

found

in the

horizontal line of the

table of founds, in the


^rarn^

word^,

j^^awn ,

:^nn^

yAi^i

-y^^

Ninth vocal
to fiiew part

The

lips are fufficiently

open
teeth,

of the

upper and under

which are nearly


dicular
:

fhut,

and the edges perpenis

the tip of the tongue

placed gently
infcr-

agalnft the roof of the

mouth, near the


;

tion of the upper teeth

the corners of the


a tremulous vois

mouth
cal

little

drawn up, and

found produced; the power of which

exhibited in the fecond horizontal line, in the

words, zag;

zephyr,

zefjr;

zeal,

ziilj

&c.

It is

the vocal of the afpirate S.

Tcntli

CADMUS.
r

45

Tenth vocal
tongue

the

mouth

a little

open

thd

raifed fo near to the roof

of the mouth,

that the voice cannot pafs

between themv;ith-

out occafioning a rapid vibration or tremor of


the tongue.

of a dog.

The found imitates The afpirate of r is

the fnarling

not

in the

EngliQi language, but in pronouncing gives


the fame tremulous motion to the tongue,
imitates the flight of the partridge

and

and fome
in
letter

other birds

this afpirate

is
it

however
has no

the

Ruffian language, though


chara(fter.

or

The power

of r

may

be found in

the fourth horizontal lineof the table of founds,


in the words, ruff, r:if
;

raw, Rnr ; rat

RED, &C.
1.

Eleventh vocal

the

m.outh a

little

open

the tip of the tongue touching the roof


the m.outh, and the found iffuing
It is
is

of

by

its fides.

very

fimple, requiring

little

effort,

and

fimliar to w, except

that the

found

of the

latter paflfes

by the

nofe.

The power

of /

may
be

46

C A

M U
&c.

S.

be found in the

fifth

horizontal line of the table

of founds, in the words, /ump, l^mp;


Lnn.;

/afs,

las:

let,
J

/aw,

Twelfth vocal
little

the middle of

the tongue a

raifed; the teeth

brought nearly together;

the ends of the under lip raifed, the aperture of

the

mouth becoming thereby more


is

circular.

This

the true French y*, and

is

the vocal

of

the afpirate )h
charafter,
er of
line

(page 52,) expreiTed by one


is

which

the jf inverted.
in the fixth
in the

The powhorizontal

j may be found

of the table of founds,

words,

ma-

jefty,

mADjaSTi; trea/ure, tre j jr; zei2:ure,

siijjr; &c.

Thirteenth vocal

The edges of

the upper

teeth, w^hich are difcernable,

are placed

upon

the lower lip

the tip

of the tongue nearly


is

touches the under teeth, and a vocal found

made, the power of which may be found in


the

eiehth
in

horizontal

line

of the table of

founds

the words, i^ery, JvJRi;

i;aunt
vnnnT;

GAD
cient
latin

M U

S.

47

VCunT;'VAST; 'L'ain, veen, &c. This is Some of the anthe vocal of the afpiratey!
monuments
*l',

lliew that

the h has

often been put for the

by confounding the

founds, and thereby confounding the fenfe of


the V7ord; as in acerZ'US for acer*z;us,

and

*z;e-

neficium for ^eneficium,

The

Iin?:lirh in

the

time of Chaucer, wrote


except the
in
\

foff-^

faaf^ for

fave or

and

in the reign

of Queen Elizabeth

/was

written for the %\ as

Spencer Jafe pro fa^ve.

may be ittn The Spaniards,

even now, in the moft polite companies, often confound them.

4^

CAD
fifth

M U
&c.

S,

be found in the

horizontal line of the table

of founds, in the words, /amp, LaMP;


Lnn.;

/afs,

Lx\s;

let,
J

/aw,

Twelfth vocal
little raifed;

the middle of

the tongue a

the teeth brought nearly together;

the ends of the under lip raifed, the aperture of the

mouth becoming thereby more


is

circular.

This

the true French j*, and

is

the vocal

of

the afpirate )h
eharafter,
er of
line

(page 52,) expreiTed by one


is

which

they inverted.

The pow-

J may be found in the fixth horizontal of the table of founds, in the words, ma-

/efty,

mADjaSTi; trea/ure, tre j jr; zei2:ure,


cV^-a^^^xlhou*^
.i<r-r-^c^CL:> "Z^-

JJ

yX-

*->.^C ^>-^^ /t*i-r

7^!U-r-ui

<^A*^r ^^;t5i,to

(^O-^^^^Stf

C^

_ /S^O'^^i^

CAD
cient
latin

M U

S.

47

VnnnT;'VAST; ^'ain, veen, &c. This is Some of the anthe vocal of the afpirate f.
monuments
l',

lliew that

the h has

often been put for the

by confounding the

founds, and thereby confounding the fenfe of


the word; as in acerZ>us for acerz;us,

and

*z;e-

neficium for ^eneficium,

The

Ln?:lifli in

the

time of Chaucer, wrote


except
\

fiff-^

Jaaf^ for

fave or

and

in the reign

of Queen Elizabeth

the

/was

written for the %\ as

in Spencer Jafe

pro fave.
mofl: polite

may be feen The Spaniards,


companies, of-

even now, in the

ten confound them.

Fourteenth
opened,

vocal-the

mouth

is

little

fo that the tip

of the tongue touches

the edges of the upper teeth, and fcarcely refts

upon

the

under

teeth.

Though fome

old
it

Engllfh authors give this as the vocal of e,


is

not thus ufed

among the Saxons

for ^orn

is

pronounced thorn with two


they pronounce

afpirates; thus alfo

dau
&c,
I

(dew)

Dun

(to
it

do)
as the

BEiL

(a

part),

however adopt

vocal


43

; :

GAD
//je,

M U
its

S.

vocal of e, and exhibit

power

in the tenth

horizontal line of the table of founds, in

the
;

words,

&c

dj;/^at, bat; /^em dem People who lifp make ufe of this found
of z.

in all cafes ioitead

w
Fifteenth vocal

The organs
z/,

the fame as in

pronouncing the
little
is

except that the lips are a


;

more protruded and contraded


forced into the

the air

alfo

mouth

with

more

ftrength,

and not being permitted


facility, a
if

to efcape
is

with fuch
duced; and
are a
little

hollower found
full,

pro-

pronounced very

the cheeks

expanded, and the voice becomes

fomewhat tremulous.
of the Gothic
afpirate

This

is

the true vocal


58.)

(p.

reprefent-

ed in modern Engiifh by uuh^ but more


perly in ancient Engiifh by hiv,

pro-

W
I

is fo

feldom

ufed in the Englifli language, that

had doubts
z/,

whether
as
it Is

fliould

admit

it,

or fubftitute the

only neceffary in cafes where the found


It is

of the u follows.
Sheridan fuppofed

not however v;hat

Th
Old

viz. the French '^ou as in

* Profod

Gram

xlv.

CADMUS.
oui h\u
'y

49
in hlue^

for ihefe
Its

make

the fimple

u as

power

will be

found

in the twelfth

horizontal line of the table of founds,

in the

words,
UIU'JLD.

^juo\f^

uiuLT ; ic'ool, uiul ; it'ould,

m
Sixteenth vocal

The
its
is

lips

are

fhut the
vowel

found confequently paffes through the nofe,

and

this is therefore called a nafal

by
;;?afs,

f)me
of

7migitus^

cattle.

from

refembling the lowing

Its

power

found

in

the four-

teenth horizontal line of the table of founds, ia

the v/ords,
m.'is;

;;raft,

inJF

;---wiaw,

mzn

&c.

n
Seventeenth vocal the momh is a little open the tip of the tongue railed to the roof
:

of the mouth, and

the

f)und paffes through

the nofe; this


Its

is

therefore another nafal vowel.


in the

power may be found

fifteenth

horizontal line of the table of founds, in the

words

;iut,

n^T j caught, nnur ; nAP; week,


Eighteenth

nLK

&c.

50

A D

M
the

S.

Eighteenth vocal
as in the laft
(72)

mouth remains open


is

the tip of the tongue

drawn

back,

the middle, being raifed to the back of


if-

the mouth, and preventing the found from

fuing but by the nofe


third nafal vowel.

This

is

therefore the
is

This found

very

com-

mon

in

the Englifh language, though there


character, but
it

was no appropriated
rally expreifed

was geneby
ji

by

tig as

in longings or

as

in lo;2ger.

Its true

power may be found

in the

fixteenth horizontalline of the table of founds,


in the words, to;/^ues, Taioz;-ha;2^,

had ;

laigih^

L3D0, &c.

Thq
as

nineteenth vocal

-the

mouth remains
is

in the

two

laft,

but the tip of the tongue


dilatation

little

raifed

by the

of the tongue
till

behind, v^hich flops the found entirely,*


the lungs have

made fuch

a vocal effort, as to
force

* When the voice, by pafling the Glotti=;, has filled the Cavity with oir between that and the part prelTcd by the mirldk of the tongue, the found ceafesor ftops, an J cannot be continued as in other vowels; thercfv)re I have called this a flopt vocal. Of fimilar formation are and V, therefore of the fame dcnominuticn. '1 hefe three vowels can alfo be pronounced inl>

telligibly,

although the mouth ai:d nofe flioukl both be

flopt.

jt

CADMUS.
part of the roof of the mouth, at

force the air between the tongue and the back

which time

the

ceafes, and,

by opening the paffage and


is

ftrongly afpirating, the k

heard.
for

The modern
firft

Greeks even put the


ancient Greeks wrote

laft

the

the

ArprnTOS,

the

modern

AKPrnxos.

The power of the^ maybe


line

found in the feventeenth horizontal


the table of founds, in the words, ^un,
^all,

of

GJnj

Gn UL

gap

get, &c.

Twentieth vocal

the

lips

muft be

fhut,

and a vocal found made, which muft not

pafs

through the nofe, but have a determination to


the lips
:

it is

there ftopt, but

when

the lips

open, the vocal ceafes, and an effort of breath


terminates in the
/?,

its

afpirate.j

The power

of

bi

may
B3T
;

be found In the nineteenth horizon-

tal line

of the table of founds, in the words,

^ut,

/'all,

BLZL

bat

bet, &c.

Twentyf The 6 is often put for the fi, and 'vice ver/a, by the Spani{h, the Germans, the Wslfh and other IModcrns, as well as formcTly by the Armeniax>6 and other Orientals and by the Romans fyr v.
;


52

CADMUS,
d

Twenty-firft vocal
ralfed
jittle

the tip of the tongue

is

to

open

the roof of the mouth, the found


is

which

is

alfo

ftopt,

and the

moment

it

ceafes as a vocal,

by opening the

palTage to the breath and afpiring ftrongly, the


/ is produced,

which

is its

afpirate.

The pow-

er of

^ may
D JL
;

be found in the twenty-firft hori-

zontal line of the table of founds, in the words,


Jull,
;

DET

&c.

<faub,

DnuB

dark:

r/ebt,

Twenty-fecond

letter,

and

firfl:

afpirate

This

is

formed exactly
it

in the

fame manner as
and j
in the
is its

the letter j^ only


vocal.
glifli

is

an

afpirate,

The found

is

very

common

En-

language, but there v;asno particular letit,

ter to exprefs

being reprefented in a ftrange-

ly inconfiftent manner, by^Z?, as inyZ?ell,

tel;
ch^ as

byy}, as in a^urance,

AfURAns;

byj-, as in A/za,

AfiA; by*//,
in pinr/7,

as in na//on,

nEEfJn; by
oran

rinrr

Pir jn

by
all

; by

f/, as

in fufpir/on sus;

ce^ as

in O^d'an,

and

its

vocal
*

Mod of the
feen in

may be

words that now terminate the writing of Chaucer,

in tlou

formerly ended

in cion^^s

CADMUS.
yocaly
is

Si
by
j,

alio abfurdly reprefented

as ia

treaj-ure;

z as in feizure;^ as inlod^e; (table

of loundsjy?, as in conclii/zon, perfua//on; and

where the j

is

written,

it is

always pronounc-

ed wrong, being ever preceded in pronunciation

by

J.

Erroneous applications of
Engliili in

this

found are

made by the
ral

many
letter f
is

inftances, in feve-

languages, not only in living ones, but even

in the latin.in the PvufTian,

The
and
ch;

is

thus

common made ^ The


very
:

French

fubftitute

the

Germans
i.

the Italians /<; before e and

/<;/?;

and

It is,

as well as

the three following, called a fibilant afpirate;

becaufe the breath, paffing forcibly,


hifTmg.

makes a

This

letter

is

the
;

Phcnicians and Hebrews


oijadd'u

J^ (fhin) of the and is the afpirate


of the Arabians.

It

is

alfo the sjin

The power
words,y7^ut,

of

may

be found in the feventh

horizontal line of the table of founds, in the

fax;-3/Z?awl, fnnLj^/Z^all, f al;


;

pjtWy

fEL

&c.

Twenty-third

letter,

and fecond

afpirate.

Let

54
manner

CAD
as in

M U
'Uj

S.

Let the organs be difpofed exactly in the fame

forming the vocal

and by

afpila-

ration only, thej^ will be


tins called this the

produced.
ceoliciim

The

digamma

on account

of

its

figure (r)

which now forms the (F);


Di5 ai,

and, being inverted in the time of Claudius to


fi^nify the
i;,

which
it

is its

vocal,

(as in

amplia^it)
a proper

appears that the Romans,


affinity,

though well acquainted with the

made

didindion between their

powers.
words,

The
&c.

true found of

y commences

yim, FJn;

^/all,

fddl;

fat;yame FEEm*
of the table

the

in the ninth horizontal line

of powers.

Twenty-fourth

letter,
is

and third afpirate


placed
againfl:

The

tip

of the tongue

the

points of the upper teeth, exactly in the fame

manner
is

as in

pronouncing

its

vocal d; but this


fibi-

only an afpirate, yet ftrong, and of the


or
hiffing kind, imitating

lant

exactly

the

hiffing of a goofe.

The

Englifli affert this to

be the found of the Greek theta^ but no nation


agrees

CADMUS.
iigrees

55

\7ith

them,

and but few individuals,


is

among whom however


general error, for
it

Erafmus. They may-

be condemned by fome for not adopting the


is

certainly an
;

error

to

give two founds to one charader

and though
Greek,

many grammarians

conceive

it,

in the

to be a ftrongly afpirated T^only, diftinguifhed

thereby from the more gently afpirated tau^

they will find

it

on examination

to

be th^ for

GEos written
produce
this

heojl

and pronounced rapidly will


lifp

theos,

People who
inftances
(fee b).

make
s

ufe of

found in

all

where the

ought to
of o

be pronounced

The power

may

be found in the eleventh horizontal


table of founds, in the words, th'ixi^
^/?aw,

line

of the

enn; /Z?ank, OxIDk;

ojrd;

//?ane,

eEn; &c*

Twenty-fifth

letter,

and fourth

afpirate

The tip

of the tongue muft be raifed to the roof


teeth,

of the mouth, near the infertion of the


as in pronouncing
its

vocal z, but

it

muft be

prefled harder, and a forcible afpiration produ-

cing a hiffing found will form the

the

power
of

S6
of which

CAD
may
;

M U
in

S.

be found in the third horizontal

line of the table

of founds,

the

\vords,yun^

SJn;-^W5 sun; s.^T

&c.

Twenty-fixth

letter,

and

fifth afpirate

The
againfi:

middle of the tongue muft be preiTed

the back part of the roof of the mouth, as in

forming
flight,

its

ftopt vocal g.

It

requires only a

but fudden effort of, breath, as the paf-

fage opens
the

from the ftoppage neceiTary


is

to

form

g\ and whenever^

pronounced, withletter,

out being joined

by another

the k

is

unavoidably formed as foon as the^ ceafes, and


the tongue leaves
its

pofition.---^

is

to be al-

ways

fubftituted for the q


it

now
/.',

in ufe, alfo the


(for
it

X when

has the found of

has often

the found of gz^) and for


rejeit entirely, for c
is

the hard c v;hich I


c,

taken from the Greek


p,

and

this is

from the Hebrew (Samech)


the

re-

verfed,

when

mode of writing from


to

the

right to the left


trary.

hand was changed

the con^
s as

The

c is therefore as
;

often ufed for

for

/:,

as in peare, piis

ranker,

kadkjr

bc-

fides

CADMUS.
fides

S7
in,'fpenaS
Ibr,.^,

having
It

the found of
iifcd

r, as

SPEf JL.

was aho

by the Latins
;

as in, necleda, for nei>

leda

and for q when

fhort, as,

rotldie for yuotidie, as


it

may

be {qqw
to

in

Terence: and
it

was thought proper not

admit

here,

ieft

cuftom might continue to


in

fupport error.

The power of k may he found

the eighteenth

horizontal line of the table of


;

founds, in the words, rome, icam


t

al

KA Am

rail,

kh^l;

c<x

in e,

keem

&c.

Tw^enty-feventh

letter,

and

fixlh

afpirate.
its

The

lips mufl:
b'i

be clofed as in pronouncing

flopt vocal

and by fimply breathing with a


afpirate

fmall effort, on opening the lips this


vv^ill

be produced.

It

has the fame affinity v/iih


is

Z>

that k has with ^5

and

alfo

formed
of

in the
L\

fame manner

after the termination

Its

power m.ay be found


tal line

in the twentieth

horizon-

of the table of founds, in the words,


;--/>ali,

/Lift,

par

p~il j ?An ; PG, &c.

Tv\''enty-

58

C A

D
t

M U

S,

Twenty-eighth

letter,
is

and feventh

afpirate.

The
in

tip of the

tongue

placed at the roof of

the mouth, near the infertion

of the teeth, as

pronouncing
is

its

vocal d,

flight effort

of breath only
rate,

requifite to

form

this
its

afpi-

which has the fame

affinity

with

vocal,

that the

two preceding have with theirs, and afof


J, will

ter the termination

always be formed

in like manner.
afpirates,

Thefe three are called fhort


impoffibility

on account of the

of

continuing them.

The

has not only been

frequently fubftituted for

d by the Germans
but by the

and fome other

nations,
fe^,

Romans

themfelves, as in,

for {td\

and apu^ for

apu^, which are common in Terence.

The power
ran;

of

may

be found in the twenty-fecond hori-

zontal line of the table of founds, in, /un,


ralk,

innK; tan; ten;

&c.

Twenty-ninth
This
is

letter,

and

eighth afpirate.

the afpirate of the nv^ the lips requirin the

ing only to be placed

fame pofition,

and

59
as if

CADMUS.
and a moderately ftrong breath given,
going
in
is

to

whiftle.

This
it

alpirate

is

common
It

the Englifli, though

had no'charader.

the biv of the Goths, and words written


/?7x;,

in

the old Saxon were with


glifli

which the En-

have erroneoufly and afFededly changed


Lc;A.

into

Its

power may be found

in the

thirteenth horizontal line of the table of founds,


in the words, ivhdii^

Ou

Wjile,

qail;

wAen, oEn;

Wjich,
letter,

oixr;

Thirtieth

and ninth

afpirate

The
any

mouth muft be

little

opened, without
a little
/?,

particular effort, and

by breathing

more

forcibly and fuddenly than


afpirate

common,

the the

of a will be produced. This


Its

is

the moft

fimple afpirate-

power may be found


H jt

in

the twenty third horizontal line of the table of

founds,
JiuuL
;

in

the

words,

^ut,

-6all,

HaT,

6-'^.

Affinitief

6o

CADMUS.
Affinities

of Letters,

3
z
J

Vowels

Afpiratcs

of the

CO

\ Germans* fXhe Ruf-^


j

fianshave
this

afpi-

w
G
B

rate

but

P
k

no appropriatedleltcr.

LD

To

render this alphabet ufeful,

It

will

be

proper for the teachers of Children to learn the


true Pronunciation of the letters,

by the pre-

ceding rules, which refer to the table of founds,


in

which the common vowels are placed


feven

at

the top of the

perpendicular

columns,

and the remaining vowels and


pofite

afpirates

op-

the

horizontal lines.

The charaQers
except

are

generally at

the beginning of the words,

fucceeded by the

common

vowels,

and
The
Scotch and
Irlih

have

alfo this found.

CADMUS.
The commoneft
the

6%

and D, which the common vowels precede.


monofyllables, and words of

mod

limple pronunciation that contain the

ib unds,

whether written or not, have been


illuftrate

fought for in compofing the table, to


the charaders,
is

and che true mode of fpelling


with a
prefent

placed under iuch as are not written


at

corred ortliography, or that do not

contam the written

letters.

When

the true
is

pronunciation of thefe feveral powers


it

learnt,

wdll be eafy to teach

them

to children,

of a

moderate capacity, in a few days, and in a few

weeks

a child

would be able

to read perfeftly,

provided the language


led.

were

corredly fpel-

The

6a

CADMUS.
The
following
table is intended to give a
letter,

true idea of the power of each


biting a

by exhi-

determinate found to each charaiter^

ia feverd of the mbft familiar examples*

Table

TABLE
Of J
all the di/Vnfl

I'lof^apn^e it.)

founds contained in the

EngUp

Language,

CADMUS.
As
all

6:i

future improvement in
a

orthography

depends upon
of every

perfed knowledge of the found


it

letter,

is

neceffary to obtain
fix

them

with great precifion, and to

them

in the

me-

mory

for on rememberings

and being capable of

repeating ivith propriety^ theje thirty founds^

depends the ivhole art of readings which confifts


in reading Utters^ not uuords^ for
letters,

we only
at a

fpeafc

and* never more than one

time;

but
eral

when

they are rapidly connected, the gen-

found of a word varies as much from ait

nother, though
letters, as

poffeffes feveral

of the fame

one word varies

in appearance

from

another in (hort hand.

If then

we fix

a certain

chara(5ter to each found, there will be


difficulty in writing

no more

with a corred orthography


let-

than in fpeaking with one, as Vvc fpeak


ters,

which form words,


I

that

make

fentences
in read-

and

muft repeat that thus ought we,

ing fentences, to read words, by reading letters;

and thus

will the

tongue and pen exprefs every

idea with perfed uniformity,

H
* See Dig raphs and diphthocgs fcq
:

Some

^4 Eome
more
as the

C
or

D
"f

M U
v\hile the

S.

letters are
lei's

formed by the

glottis

being
ferves

dilated

mouth

chamber of found, or body of the wind


;

inflrument

and

is

expanded or

contrcVted,

by

its

own

adxion or that of the tongue, produt:v^

ing tlrarper or graver tones, by a

ider or nar-

rower externa! aperture through either the teeth


or lips; others are produced

by permitting the

found to efcape only by the nofe, the paffage

through the mouth being


of the tongue, the
tip

ftopt
it

by the middle
;

of

or the lips

and

fnme are made by


to

fo forcible a vocal

found, as

produce tremor either

in the throat or

mouth.
as
ori-

Afpirates are formed in the fame


their vocals, with refpedl to pofulon

manner
of the

gans, but are produced only

by the

breath,
af-

whence
pirates

the derivation of their

name: fome
an
effort

depend upon

fo violent
is

of the

breath that a hiding noife

produced.

Prom what

has been already obferved,

it

may

perhaps appear

difficult, in ivkifper'ing^ to dif-

tinguiih between njo^a:d Utters ajpirate d ^ni,

real
f See the theory of language, by
I
cvf.cr Lt'cittic.
tr.y

wcrthy and very Irgenlous friend

CADMUS.
I

6s

rea! afpirats\ efpecially, as the only dlftlnOHoa

pointed out, was in their being vocal or a'pi-

rated;

but no difficuky
is

arifes

here; ior,

in

fpeaking, there

lels

eirorc

made by

the

breath to produce a real vocal fuund than an


afpirate;

and

in

whirpering there

is

no differaipii-:-ev,

ence between vowql ^tiers and their but that .the Hrll
afpirated," v.hile
*are

mote flowly and iamriy


rtniain
ur.-^

t^e. ^Ciie afpirates

c^iiininilhed in fb^e."**Tlie

fojiowing hne

liiCvvs

the truth of't^hele abfervai/ons.

1.

t"

vow^by G'd,
bai

that

Jenkin

is

a v/iz-

zard/'
2.

Ai V0U5
zard,

G-d. Dat Djenkin

iz a uiz-

3.

Ai fou, paiK-t, eat IrrDkin


ifl:

ifs a

uiiTart.

The
ner,

line
i^

Is v^^ri^ten

'v^

the

comrron manand the 3d

the 2d

^.vrinen

nroT^er'v,

with afpimtes.

If the 2d

and 3d he ^^h^/nered,
b? found betw. on
/;,

no difference wnate-er
them, except that the
irj

will

letters f,

k, /,

^,

/^

.:,

the third

line,

are

pronounced o'lch

rr^

e
r

fjrJibly than their correfpondent vocals in


Divcruons of

-^

fecoiui
\

rurlejr-

66
fecond
it is

CADMUS.
line,

wben

ofptrated or nvhifpered*^ artd

eafy to diftinguifh

which

line

is

repeated

in a whifper.

The

Welfli pronounce this line

with

afpirates inftead

of vowels, and produce a

ftrange effect in fpeech. The' lower clafs of the

faxons are
the

fo- inatientiv^ to the difference

of

p and

b^

the / ^ni4'i the /.and;y, &c. that


rarely f^ieak^'ithoUtimifplacfomje.gdftl/ferMji errorat;

in Englifli they
in;.;

them; bat

to al-

moft regularly put one for the other, and inftead of


.
*

'
.

Boy bring both Tails


(Properly)

to the

pond,

Bbi briD bo^ Peelz tu


Poi prliD poth Beels
tii

bj
d'j

pond,
Pont.

(would

lay,)

The

Irilli,

in fpeaking the Englifh language,

afpirate very frequently,

where there

are

no true
of the

afpirates;
Iriflx

and perhaps

in confequence
like

language abounding,

many

others, in

afpirates.

One

probable caufe too of the mifin fpeaking

takes they

commit

Englifh,

may

be derived from the fubftantive being placed in


the Irifn before the adjedive, not after^ as in

the more

artificial

language of the Englifh.

Much

CADMUS.
Much
learned

67
fages

has been written by

many

and

men

(fbncerning the origin of language,


attributed to divinity,

which has generally been

and the variety of tongues has been confidered


as the effed: of the confuilon at Babel.
I

will

not pretend, to ddcant en the fubjed, nor to de-

ny fuch

authority,

but

)\ill

humbly premife

few obfervations which

will be lufficient to

au-

thorize acorljedlure fefpeding the formation,

and
is

alfo the a! terafiohs,,

without the aid which

to be d^rbved
*

from the great lawgiver of the


that

Jews..
tries

know
at

men

in different

coun-

fpeak

different

languages.

d)ut

who
En-

does not know'


glifh

the fame time that the

language

-a

few. centuries ago,

would not

be undtvftood

nov\^^

and that

if a

fmall colony

of Englifh had been feparated from the nation


in general, they

would have been taken


the manufacturers of

for a

different people?

En-

gland,

who

never go two miles from the place,


underftood by a

for generations, cannot be

Cockney. Languages
years,

differ fo

much

in a

few

by the

particular circumftances of the


is

people, that there

no occafion

for miracles to

explain;

68

O A D
;

M U

S.
oiir

explain the varieties

and one half of

lanfci-^

guage
ences,

is

calculated to give ideas of arts and

which have been invented during the


of man.

memory

We

have

the invention of terms for


great South Sea
tik-'tik'bou
!

many inftances of new ohjeds in the

the Otaheiteans called ^ gun,

imitating thereby the cocking and

report of the objedl; and


a.r;e

we

nations,

many

things

among fimilar. The


find

fav-

Ian*

guages acquired by imitation are certainly the


moft natural and expreffive, and
I

am

confi-

dent that the language of man, was ori inally

formed by imitating the


the names ct

objedts of nature,

and

many

animals were given by


:

imitating the voice of the individual


this

jve find

even

at prefent in all lan-iiages,

But

par-*

tlcularly in

the

lefs

refined.

Man,

in a favto

age

ftate,

imitates

birds

and beafts

decoy
a

them, and by imitation alone he forms


extenfive fcale of founds.
co?777non

very

vowels, with

/,

?;/,

The founds of the 7z, D, we hear daily


;

among cattle and

domeftic beafls

the
;

r, z, j, *y,
f, f,

B, are like the buzzing of beetles


like the hilling of ferpents,

^, /,
s^

particularly the

%vhich might

Vv'ith

propriety have fignified the

Generic


Generic name,
appeliative>

CAD
till it

M U

S,

69

became part of another


letter.

and confequently a

In the

moil ancient alphabets the Phoenicians, Etrufcan?, Latins and Goihs, adopted the

form of

the ferpent for the charader of

i,

which would
Hieroglyphic.

have been a very cxprefRve

The

-a-

of the Greeks, as pronounced by the


is

Engli/h^

exadly
is

like the forcible biffing in

of

a goofe, and

found

very few languages:

the Eagliih contains fo

many of

thefe

buz-

zing and hiiTing founds, that fome Foreigners

have called

it

the language of fnakes.

r imitates the fnarling of dogs, and

we

find

nations where there are no dogs that have not


the letter r in their languages.

The

afpirate

of ^* imitates the flight of the partrid :e and

fome other
locufts:

birds, as well as the voice

of fome

Gutturals

imitate

the croaking of

frogs or toads:
pirates

the ftopt vocals and their af-

are

generally joined to fome of the


vels

common
^-^bou^

vo

by animals
kuii^

bee^

the fhcep
krook^

the

dog

the dove,

the

raven

kuaak-^

the

duck-/;///,

the buzzard
'

//?;

* See

Page 45.

7o
'^'^thi-it^

CADMUS.
the lapwing
;

kitk-ku^

the cuefeoo?

&c.

There

are alfo a great variety of founds

among
wants,
for

animals, which

man

has had no occahi?

fion to adopt, in
as

forming a language of
articulation
is

own

their

too difficult
are

common
we

ufe,

and there

already

more than
Indeed

fufficient for

every ufeful purpofe.

find

few

languages which do
ufelefg,

not contain feveral characters that are

and

to

which the fame founds

are appropriated-

The
y,

Engliih contains the following; c which


j,

has fometimes the power of

fometimes of
k-y

yj

which

havS

always the power of


ks^

and

;c,

the powers of

of gz^ or 2^.

Language does aot


of
letters

require half the

number
they

made

ufe of by
letters

any nation; becaufe,


well arranged,

were ten or twelve

would be capable of expreSing every

idea wjq

have
* Mr. Shfndan hath not only re}e<S:ed the r, 7, which he ought to have retained inilead of the
iwhich
is

&

w, but likewift thc;y>

ezh tal^en from WjJkins,

really not in the En^iifh


is

language;
1

but they, as pronounced by

the French,

a very

adopting it, as he never having ufed the j even in the words w.-cyo/z, okcejsn (occiizhltn She; ;) "adhefion^ adbnjiti (adhezhun) decifton^ explofon^ couJu/ioffFioiod gram :
:
',

common vowel, and am the more aironifiicd at hi^ not knew fo well the power ofy But hi^ error is uniform,

xlviii.

CADMUS.
have acquired, or fhould be able
Wachter,
to

JT
invent*

in his Nattirds et Scripture Concordiat


letters are fufficient

endeavours to fhow that ten

for a very comprehenfive language.

Tacquet

the mathematician calculates the various

com-

binations of the alphabet of twenty four letters


to be

no fewer than 620,448,401,733,239,Clavius however only

439,360,000.

makes

them 5,852,616,738,497,664,000: they are both wrong; but the human mind cannot form
an ideaof fuch apparent
infinity

of combinati-

ons, nor could the inventive faculties of

maa

exhauft them in language. Hence

it

does not

follow that the moft extenfive alphabet would

be required by the moft copious language.

We

find

among

fom.e favage nations fuch a

paucity of expreffion, that they cannot be laid


to have a
beafts
1

more extenfive language than fome

and upon which would philofophers

reafon,

on the formation of language?

on the

beautiful, artificial
preflTions

Hebrew,

or the confined ex-

of the moft ftupid of the

human

race

among whom a few fyllables compofe the whole


vocabulary, and exprefs
I
all

that their appetites

crave

72

C A D

^I

S.

crave. Shev^;' thefe people

new objeds, and they


form newv^rordo

will, as every traveller evinces,

to exprefs

them

and, if the formation of any


it is

language can be thus proved,


for another origin.
I

vain to look

am

alio
its

of opinion that
rife

alphabetical writing took


lables,

in

monofyl-

to

which hieroglyphicks could not be

applied,

and that thefe marks becoming the

fymbols of the founds, and not of the things,

were regularly put for the fame founds


compofition of other
taphyfical ideas,
ed,
till

in the

abftradt terms

and meincreaf-

the fcale of
to a

marks

and led gradually

mark

for each found.

Some

authors, whofe admiration of the inven-

tion bewilders

them too much

to permit

an ex-

amination of the principles, declare that the


difcovery
relatively
is
;

perfed, but they can only fpeak


for the alphabets of
fo

fome modern

languages are

much more

extenfive than

many ancient ones, that thefe are very imperfedt if we fpeak of a general alphabet for human
fpeech,

and not for particular languages.

If

a Chinefe

were

to ftudy the Englifh,

he would

be eafily perfuaded that the alphabetical mode

of

CADMUS.
;and that
it

73

of writing was an invention of the Englifh, was not yet perfeded, from the infaults, deficiencies, fuperfluities, ir-

numerable

regularities,

&c. of the written language.

It is
it is

fo fhamefully incorred, that,

when

read as

written, an

Englifhman cannot
it

tinderjiand it^y

and a foreigner reading

becomes the objed:

of his laughter, akhough, as a good fcholar,

he reads
graphy.
*

it

perfedlly,

according to the ortho'


?

have often heard the quefiion


r'

do

you fpeak French


fir,

with the anfwer


it.'

'

no
is

but

read and w^ite

The fame

faid

of the Englifh and fome other languages;


lamenting, that the

every ftranger to them

learned bodies of men, eftablifhed in fo

many

places for the benefit of mankind, fhould fo long

have negleded
nations,

to

facilitate

the intercourfe of

by rendering

the

mode of acquiring
travelling into the

every language eafy, which might be obtained as


V. ell

by books

as

by

different countries w^iere they are

fpokcn, if

tbofe books

were

correcx.

* rrpeciilly if the

common vowels

fhould be reiJ with their various


to

pewers

niifpliced, for there are

no marks

determine them.

74

CADMUS.
Syllables.
or fyllable in the Englifh language
afpi rates alone,

No word
is

formed by

but

many

fyl-

lables are

formed by what fome of the moft

m-

genious

call

confonants, and their arguments


becaufe built uponfalfe data,

upon them

fall,

Th
is
*'
*'

Sheridan fays "

The
notfo;

terminating ble

al

vays " accounted a fyllable though in


it

ftrid propriety

is

for,

to conftiiliould

tutea fyllable

it is

requifite that a

vowel

" be founded
*'

in

it,

which
is

is

not the cafe here;


to the

for

though there
end, yet
it

one prefented
only e
final

eye

"

at the

is

mute, and

' the
*'

bl are taken into the articulation of the


in pointing out the feat

former fyllable; but

" uf the accent I


*'

Ihall confideritin the ufual

way

as

forming a fyllable."*

If Mr. Sheridan had confidered the true


er of either b or
l;()th
/,

pow-

he would have found them


to>i;ether
/,

vo^els, and that

they form a
vly

perrecl fyllable,

as well as
^^h
!^i

z/,

mU nU gly
tn-,

dUft) Jl^ kU pi, tU


Pagexliv. Prorod:

2;z,

vuy dn-ifih

nd^

Gram:

(prefixed to his di<5tionary.)

CADMUS.
will be convinced of their being fuch,
ImpofTibility of reading

7^

nt^fnt: If a Line of Poetry be fcanned -A'hich


contains any of the above fyllables^ the reader

by the

them

othcrwife.

"

wild,

where weeds and flow'rs promif-

c'ous fhoot,

" Or garden tempting with forbidden


*'

fruit.

Together

let

us beat this ample

field,

" Try what the open, what the covert yield;


*'

The

latent

tradts,

the giddy heights ex*


*

plore.
*
*
*

line 7th.

Pope's EfTay on

Man

Properly ivritten thus.

Aualld, Geeruiidz and flourz promisk js fuut.

Or garJw TogeD Jr
Trai
GiZt

temtiio uie iorhiidn f ruut.


let

us

biit

dIs am^/fiild,

b\ 01pm ont
trakts

dj kovjrt

yiild;

Da leetant
It is to

dj giddi

baits eksploor,

&c.

be obferved that the word the changi

es

its

termination a or ^ into
J, n, a, e.o^
ti,

before words that

begin with

on account of the hiait

tus that mull otherwife be made, to prevent

from

76

CADMUS.
tlilscliangfi
It is

from flidlnginto the next found, but


is

not

made

in

any other

inftances.

omit^

ted totally in Poetry

when

the next word begins

with

/*

If only one letter divides two


els,

common vow^
:

the three letters form

two

fyllables

if

more
fylla-

than one divide them they


bles only, imlefs

alfo

form two

two other vowels

intervene, as

in ablcnefs, e-bl-iies.

Whenever two
rates

nafals, flopt vocals, or

afpi-

of the fame power follow any of the comor other vowels, and another of thefe

mon

vowels fucceeds, a divifion of the word takes


place between the double
letters.

The

great

diilinction
is,

between one

fyllable

and another,

that if the organs of fpeech be

in their progrefs to the pronunciation of a letter,

the voice

may

fucceflively in the

fame flex-

ion embrace one or two vowels, nafal, ftopt


vocals,

or afpirates,

provided thefe

letters arc

fuch as glide fmoothly, and one ccmm.ences

where another ends; and the

falling as vvcll as

rifing

CAD
fifing

M U
alfo

S.

77

of that flexion

may
effort

embrace one or

two more of
fyllable:

thefe letters,
if the

and form only one


be interrupted by

but

another

vowel, ivhich gives a different flexion

to the 'voice^ a divifion will take place,

and ano-

ther fyllable be formed.


toties

Quoties vox mutatur,

mutatur fyllaba.

In dividing words, the nafals, the ftopt founds

and
not

afpirates,

have fuch particular

affinities,

only

vv^ith

each other, but with fome of


it is

the other

letters, that

not diificult to

comonly

pofe fyllables
ters,

which contain

fix different let

joined by a fingle

common vowel

but, as foon as the voice has glided through a


certain unity of founds, every additional

change

becomes another

fyllable.
is

When

word, of

two or

three fyllables,

compofed of any of
they are

the ftopt founds and their afpirates,

pronounced
leave

in the

firft

fyllable as the

organs

the pofitions ufed in

producing thefe

founds, and in the fecond fyllable they form


the founds as they advance
fore
to,

and

jufl

be-

they arrive

at,

their true

pofitions; the

third fyllable takes another flexion,

and

is

like

the

78
the
this,
firft,

C
&c.
feveral

A D

M U

S,

as in gibbakkad'-dtipt.

By

hiatus are avoided, though the

fyllables dividethemfelves naturally,

and with-

out

effort.

There appear

to

be laws to govern the divi;

fion of words, if

we examine fome

for there

are few nations which have adopted a particular fet

of letters, that would not make the fame

divifions if certain

words were prefented; again,

there are words that

would not

v^^arrant

any

fuch conclufion
their

therefore

we muft

confider

divifion into fyllables, arbitrary in


;

many

inftances

and a multiplicity of rules would ra-

ther perplex and confound, than enlighten.

Accents
ought only
to be placed

where
quifite,

a ftrefs
to

of the voice

is

abfolutely

re-

denote a difference in the

letter or

fyllable,

and which w^ould

othervv^fe be

unin-

telligible, or

would give a dlfgufting tone; but


I

if

words be* properly written

think they
will

* Itisfaid.in an extract
letter

from a

Jcfuit at

from thejoiirnalsof the Royal Society, refpe cling a Pekin in China ( Phiiofophical Tranfadions, Vol. 59, page

CADMUS.
will not be

79

deemed neceffary upon many ocwhere the nouns and verbs are

cafions

for,

now perfectly fimilar in their orthography, we fhall generally find fuch imperfedion in fpelling, as, when correded, to reduce the
neceffity

of accents to a very few inftances; and


to be requifite, the exceptilit-

where they appear

ons will be foeafily acquired, ormakefuch


tle

difference in language, that they are fcarce:

ly worth attention

however, where no differ-

ence

is

obferved in the orthography of verbs


fyllables, the ftrefs
is

and nouns of two


rally

gene-

on the

firft

fyllable
;

of the noun, and on


to

the

lafl

of the verb

but attention
forcible

good
than

fpeakers will

make more

impreflions

that ** the Chinefe tongue counts but about 330 words. page 494) " From hence the Europeans conclude, that it is barren, monotone, and " hard to underftand. But they ought to know that the four accents * called /%, uni (even)^ chunr, eleve (raifed), kiu diminue (lejfened)^ *^ jou, rentrant, (returning J, multiply almost every ivord into four ^ by an indifficult to make an European compre*' flexion of voice which it is as *' hend, as it is for a Chinefe to comprehend the fix pronunciations of the " French E. Thefe accents do yet more, they give a certain harmony, * and pointed cadence, to the mofl ordinary phrafes: with regard to ** clearnefs, let fad decide. The Chinefe fpeak as faft as we do, fay more *' things in fewer words, and underftand one another." From what is quot-

word in four, but if word were niultiplied, there would be only 1320 which is but a fmall number to compound into fo copious a language and I am certain that apercd
find

we

that the

accents multiply almojl every

tvery

fymbols of fpeech perfedlly, would as eafily reduce the Chinefe language to regular charaders, as any other but the hieroglyphics of the language would bs as unintelligible ai
underftands
the
;

fon of good genius,

who

it is

at prefent to the generality of that nation.

8o

CAD
laid

M U
difference

S.
fcr-

than anv rules


reigner
thefe
to

down, and were a


in

make no

uttering

particular

words which grammarians

think require accent, and the differenee of which

orthography does not point out, the defed:

would

fcarcely ever be

noticed.

Tho:

Sheri-

dan gives many rules on accent, but they chiefly tend to point out the
firP:,

fecond or
in

third

power of

his vowels,

which

good

fpelling

would be rendered
inftances of

ufelefs.

He

gives us

many

nouns and verbs which receive


habit only,

accents

by

no difference being
I

marked

either

by

fpelling or otherwife.

will

give a few, which

may fnow

that the

fpelling

only of the words will be a


tion,

fufficient diftinc;

without any accents being marked


laying
it

and
lafl

the general rule of

upon

the

fyllableof the verb, or rather,

upon the comand


the

mon vowel of the lafl fy liable of the verb, the common vowel of the firfl fyllable of
noun may
ferve;

Nouns

C
Nouns
a or an Ac^ cent

A D

M U

S.

Si

Verbs
to accent'

correded
aksnt
aksent

Cem'ent
Con'
Con'
cert
test

cement'
concert'
contest''

semant siment
konscxri kans.irt

komest kjntest.

had written a great number of rules on


fhort and fimple
as I

polyfyllabic words, as

thought

it

poffible to
I

compofe them, but on

reading what

had written, thought them too

tedious, difficult, and liable to exception, there-

fore have omitted

them wholly, by which


a juftice to

think

have not only done

myrelf,

but alfo a kindnefs to the reader.

Many words
proper to

that grammarians

have thought

accent,

and

for

which they have


and complex

given long-laboured,
rules,

difficult,

with as

many

exceptions, require no acif

cent whatever; for,


w^ith all the

they are pronounced

monotony and even-nefs of which

the organs are capable, the very compofition of the words, if corredly written,
gives greater
it is

force to one part than to another, and

im-

poffible.

82
poffible,

CADMUS.
without afFedatlon, to pronounce them
the ideas of

improperly, even according to

grammarians.

Where the common vowels are long they ought to be written twice, as among
ancients,

the

who

wrote

amaabam-t feedesy
twice,

&c. The / inftead of being written


made
In Englifti the "^common or
firftclafs

was

twice as long, as in vivus, piso,

&c.

of vowels
long, but

are often doubled at prefent,

when

not univerfally

and in corred: writing, the

accent will alfo be laid, where the other vovv'els,


or the fecond clafs, and the afpirates, are double.

diaionary alone will contain the means


all

of correding

uncertainties w4th refpedt to


;

the accent, as well as orthography of words

and attention

to the fenfe

and

to

good fpeakers
con-

the only modes of correcting our ideas

cerning the emphatic words of fentences.

Emphasis
denotes the
firefs

of voice upon the important or

illuftrativc

words of a fentence, or upon


*

a fentence in a
difcourfe,

Of

the

New

Charaders page ^5.

G A D
jdlfcourfe,

M U

S.

83

but

is

no further conneded with

my

fubjed, than

by the diftindions which wc


recommend.

ought
are

to

adopt in writing, and the following


I

what

would

chiefly

Let

emphatic words and the name of either perfon


or place, begin with a large letter, words

of

greater import be in Italics, and the whole


occafionally be a fize larger than the
text;
if

word

common
comEmphatic

of great
ftill

importance
larger

let

this

mence with a
fentences

letter.

may

be diftinguiihed by

Italics or

larger type

In ivriting^ words and fentences


lines

may

have one, two or three

drawn under

them, or written in a larger hand, or both, according to the force of the intended expreflion.

The

cuftom of writing
to be difufed, as

all

nouns with
beji

capitals

ought

few of the
nouns,

grammarians underfland

that

verbs,

and abbreviatlves, compofe the whole of language.*

Much
men on

has been written by fome ingenious

Digraphs
*

ScetheZnEA IITEPOENTA

cf John

Home

Tcoke.

84

CADMUS.
DIGRAPHS AND DIPHTHONGS,
but, If they
as

had fpent half

much

time In correding writ-

ten language, as they have bellowed in form-

ing general rules, with fach a number of exceptions, to bring the errors of written

lan-

guage

into order,

it

would have much


really

faciliis

tated our learning; for

language

almoft as eafily learnt, as the rules by


it is

which
of

at prefent taught.

The

appropriation

a feparate character to every found, will utterly deftroy the idea of digraphs in corredt wtI:-

ing; and as for diphthongs they nenjer exijled


in

any language : they arefaid, by Tho: Sheri-

dan, to be " a coalition of two vowels to form


*'

one found

and triphthongs three" but the


to

fame organs that are employed

form one
at the

found cannot be engaged to form another

fame

inftant.

It

would be

as difficult to allow

this, as to

admit that two atom.s can occupy the

fame

fpace.

No

complex founds can be pro-

duced even on Inftrumcnts, any more than com-

plex

CADMUS.
plex ideas by the

85
feveral in-

mind.

When
it

ftruments play a note, the ear either hears one

found or more

if

only one

is

fimple

found, if more than one, they cannot be called


a found; fimple or complex, but diPdn(3: founds.
It is

impoffible for the


:

mind

to

form a com-

plex idea

there

may

be a rapid fucceflion of
ideas

ideas, but that feveral

can be

reduced
ac-

into one

is

an abfurdity.

The Mexicans,
or
fyllables

cording to Clavigero, compounded fometimes

one word of the


great

initials

firft

of a

number of

other words,v>^hich term bea

came very long, and comprehended


fentence
;

whole

but this ahhre^oiated fentence gives


idea^
it

no complex
ceflion

only gives a more rapid fuc-

of ideas

than a fentence compofed of

long words.

If a nev>r

found

interpofe

two

others in fpeech, a

made;

if

it

new charader ought to be do not, we ought to confider


it Is

whether or not

found rapidly fucceeding

another, and the two or uiree mifiaken for one

only: of this

clafs

many

are ro be found, par-

ticularly in very ancient languages,

and fomc

in the beft written

modern.

The

86

CADMUS.
celebrated

The

Euler, attempts very inge-

nioufly to prove, that a

mixed found may be


founds,

formed of two

different

by

ftriking

two

firings together,

and next
will

to each other,

of

different tone,

which
natural

prevent either
;

of

them from
:^i^

its

vibration

that a note

"will

be produced partaking of each, and that if


firings be flopt, the

one of the

vibrations

of

the other, will remain as a mixed found, for

fome moments,
recover
its

after

which

it

will gradually

natural vibrations,

and give

its

natural found.

But the truth

is,

that the agifirfl,

tation of the air occafioned

by the

w^ithin

the verge of the fecond, continues a few

moair

ments

to

mix with
this fecond,
:

the agitations of the

made by

and the mixed found dies

as the firflceafes

the

mixed vibrations occafion-

ed by the continuance of both firings, will be


as

much

compound found

as if

one of the

firings

were

to be flopt; but this found,

though
diftind:

different from the

two others, becomes a


as

and fimple found,

much
I

as purple,

produced
diftind:

by

mixture of blue and


If however

red,

becomes a

colour.

wave

all this

and admit
that

CADMUS.
that a

87

diphthong can be produced by tivo pertzvo difFcrent

fons founduig

vowels, at the
the

fame time,
literally

as

the
it

derivation of

word

imports,

does

not thence follow

that

I iliall

grant a diphthong can pojjibly be

made by

the fame perfon*

In Compoftng
either poetry or

profe, attention

is

paid to the facility of

utter-*

ing whatever
that the

is

written, but without

knowing

founds depend upon certain letters


each other;
for

which

glide fmoothly after

there are
cular

fome

that cannot be read after partidifficulty.

founds without

The

poet

1%

directed

by the

ear, for the

words are generally


that, if they

compofed of fuch clafhing materials, were read


as they appear, the
;

melody v/ould
rhym^e be exa-

be entirely defeated

and

if

mined,

we

ihall find,

provided the

words be

properly fpelled, exadtly as


in the

much refemblance

appearance as in the found.

Poetry requires a certain number of fyllables


or variety in the voice confonant with the time

required

8S
required in

CAD

M U

mufic, and not only feeks,

when

the iubjed: demands, the moft euphonical and

flowing words, but thofe whofe diviftons and

cmphafes correfpond with each other, and with


the general tenor of the fubjedt, whether quick

or flow, foft and captivating

chanting

Ibnorous and
when

flowry and enelevating or rough


alfo

and

terrific.

Such words ought

to

be

chofen, as,

repeated, neceiTarily produce

in the features

the paflions didated


fliould be led

by the

theme, and the hearer


its

along by

variety.

As

all

words are

not, in certain
fpecies

fituations, calculated for particular

of

poetry,

authors

have taken many

liberties,

and have changed, not only the meafure of the

word but fometimes


the emphafis, and

its

accent.

Poetry has

thus tended, in the opinion of fome, to correal


is

thought in

all

languages,

particularly the dead ones, to preferve a

know-

ledge of the true found of words.

It

is

by no means

my

intention to dwell
re-

upon

thefe fubjeds,

fome of which would

quire diftind treatifes, and the world hath al-

ready been favoured with feveral, by

many

in-

genious

CADMUS.
genious men, (Thomas Sheridan,
fter,

%
Web-*"
partiI

Noah

&c.) but

was obliged

to purfue

cular

ideas into thofe devious paths.

muft

now

fay a

few words on the Hieroglyph'icks of


cannot but rank what

fivritingy

among which I

are (improperly) called xkitjlops [and ought ra-

ther to be itxTucAfymbols of 'variation inf[>eech^\


as
w-ell

as

the

t Arabic numerals, chemical

dlaraders, and aftronomical figns, &c.

Stops.

Many

Chinefe

v\rords

have different meanings


;

according to their diiterent % tones

and fome
of

^* As letters denote the component pnrts cf words, the >sgopuasis or AoopiiONiKS denote the pitch or key and tone of the letter, vvcrd, or ftntence ; the fiexions, force, and various meanings vv hicli are to be derived from cadence snd are to the letters in reading v/hat the fiats, fnarps, rcpLS, &c. are to the notes in muac.
;

Edward Gibbon

oljferves (in his Iliitory of the decline

and

fall

of the

Empire, Vol. v. page 321.) that *' under the reign cf the Caliph " Waltd, the Greeic language and charailers were excluded from the ac*' counts of the public revenue, If this change Vi^as produdlive of the inven" tion or familiar ule of our prefcnt numerals, the Arabic charaders or *' cyphers, as they are commonly ftyled, a regulation of office haspromot' ed the moft important uifcovcries of arithms-tic, algebra, and the mathe-!.
l'

Roman

matical fciences."
*'

Villoifon (Ane^dota Gaoecr, torn

According to a new, though probable notion, maintained byM.de ii: pag. 15c:, 157.) our cyphers are not o Indian or Arabic invention. They were ufed by the Greek and Eatin
:

srithmeticians long before the age of Boethius. After the extincT;ion of ftiencc in the welt, they were adopted in the Arabic verfions f.oui the original

M.
\

S. S,

and

rejlored to

the Latins about the

XE

century."

See Note page ;8,

90

CADMUS.
corn--

of our flops, which feem calculated to

inand time, give a different tone to the voice;


the
notes

of interrogation and exclamation

are of fuch importance as to give a different

meaning to

the fentence; the Spaniards invert


w' ell

them

before, as

as place

them

after the

fentence in
rule

their
to

corred: editions,
in
all

and that
writings,

ought

be adopted

otherwife

it is

impoflTible to read
i

them proper-

ly the

firft

time

who

w^ould think of marking

a fentence in ^^r^/z/Zj^'^ with only one

mark of
and

a parenthefis? or a fentence

of expofition by
?

only one crotchet, or mark of a parathefis


it is

as neceffary to adopt the

Spanifli

mode

in writing theErotefisi ? and Ecphonefis!

its

mark of Irony

fliould be

invented, for

life

muft be acknowledged, by thofe


it

who

are

acquainted with language; and


all

fhould, like

the

reft,

be placed before and after the fen-

tence

(+) this

mark may

ferve.

charader

to fignify the depreffton of the ^oice in fentences fpoken afide,


as in plays,

dialogues,

&c.

ought

alfo to

be made to include the fentence;


at the

and not write the word (afide)

end as
is

"

' ) ?

CADMUS.
^3

gr

now

done.

At

prefent aperfon reads a long

fentence aloud, and flopping fhort at

the end
is

with

lurprife
[-

he

Vvhifpers

Hhis

cifide\

may be called a Kaluptophafis. Quotation may be reprefented, as at prefent, by two inverted commas
This mark
-j will anfvver,

and

"-

''

and the fpeech of any charader


'

in

an

author by one

which mark may be de^

nominated a Profepopeia.
Erotefis
tion,

Erootefu
-

Note of interroga5-

Ecphonefis, Ekfoonefts

note of admij

ration or exclamation,

Parenthefis

Pareneesis,

Crotchet
ra^efis,

Krctfpt or Parathesis P<3*'

Quotation Kuoteefjn,

[_]

Profepopeia adion of making a


fpeech for another,

~
-

<

Accent Ak/nt,

Hyphen ^jyO;z,
Synthefis Szw.a^fx

--*=:;
-

Comma Komma,
StmicdlonSemikolony

Colon

$2

CADMUS.
flop or

Colon /lu?/?//,
Period PiznW full

pundum,
elifion,
*

ApoHrophe'-Jpo/Irofe or mark of
Caret

wanting,
or
tie,

y\

Afterifks,

*
-

*
|

Hiatus,

Zugoma BRACE
Irony Aironiy
fpoken

{-

Kaluptophafis A'^/w^/o/j/zj- to be
afide,

i'^]

Emphafis, Emfa/is.

Exprefled in writing

by one
tence

or

two

lines,

under the word or fenitalics

in printing,

by

or large letters.

References

may be made by figures, different


marks of any
fort,

alphabets, or arbitrary

that

do not

interfere with thofe that

may

be adopted

in general, as agophonicks.

By
tures.

fome,

it

has been thought neceffary to

appropriate fymbols to the paffions and gef-

But the difference of charaders and

adions in men, would render fuch an attempt

lefs

CADMUS.
lefs ufeful

g^
;

than might

at

firfl:

be fuppofed

the

geftures that are natural in one cafe

would be
as dif-

buffoonery in another, and


ficult to reconcile

it

would be

opinions in this refpedt, as to

join a Harlequin to a Burgomafter.

On

94

On

teaching the

Surd,

or

Deaf

and

confc-

quently

Dumb,

to Speak.

H
furd,

difficulties

under which thole have


attempted
to teach

laboured,

who have

the

and confequently

dumb

to fpeak,

have

prevented

many from engaging

in

a labour
;

that can fcarcely b^ exceeded

in utility

for

fome of

thofe to

whom

nature has denied par-

ticular faculties

have in other relpeds been the


fp'ecies;

boaft of the

human

and whoever fup-

plies the defeats

of formation, and gives to


natural

man

the

means of furmounting

impedi-

ments, muft be confidered as

a benefador.

There have been many


divers
nations,

fuccefsful attempts, in
to the

to procure

deaf and

dumb

the

modes of acquiring and commuideas.

nicating

flow and imperfect.

The methods however The written and fpoken


are

languages are

fo different, that

they become to
It is

fuch pupils two diftinft ftudies.


that they acquire a

necefTary

knowledge of objeds, by
they
alfo

feeing their ufe,

that

become acquainted

On teaching the

deaf, &c.

95

quainted with the feveral words which


written become the reprefentativcs
objects,

when

'

of thefe

and befides the

dliEculties

which pre-

fent

themfelves in pronunciation, they are to


that the different

remember
written,
letters,

words which are

and fometimes with nearly the fame


are of different fignification
;

and in

fpeaking

require different
is

pronunciations of

the fame charadef- this

an obflacle that can-

not be poffibly avoided by the prefent


writing, and the languages
as Hieroglyphics.

mode of

become

as difficult

Some of the difficulties of acquiring a lan^ guage when deaf,- may be conceived by thofe
that are experienced in learning foreign tongues,

where they
aided

are not

commonly

fpoken, although

by

tranflations

and didlionaries; but the

man
his

that hears nothing, has not the advantage

of a child

by the conftant chat of parents and attendants, and who can obtain
learns

who

no pleafures but through the medium of fpeech he hears and is conftantly learning to

teach

him

is

the aroufement of every one; but

the deaf receives his ftated leffons, difficultly

and

g6

On teaching the

deai^

and feldom.
figures
priate

There
is

is

no book which by the

or

drawings of things have approthere a language

terms, nor

which
I

has appropriate characters.

The more
more

re-

volve In

my

mind

this fubjeti, the

am

aftonifhed that even the mofl improved nations

have negleded

fo

important a matter as that of


I

correding their language;

know of
to

none, not

even the * Italian, that


furdity
cility
;

is

not replete w^ith ab-

and

fhall

endeavour

fhew the fa-

with which the deaf might be taught to

fpeak, if proper attention were once paid to this

important point.

have attempted to fhew that

in the

Englifh

language there are thirty charaders, and muft


fuppofe a 'j'didionary according to this fcheme

of
*

" Ciafcheduno

fa,

che, come,

non

v' e cofa,

che piu djTpiaccia a Dio,

chel'ingratitudinc, ed incffervanza de' fuoi precetti ; cosi non v* e niente che cagioni maggiormente la defolazione deir univ^rfo, che la cecita, e

fuperbia degli uomini, lapazzia de' Gentlli, I'ignoranza, e i'ofdnazione

de*^

Giudei, e Scifmatici."
Correcfled.
Tfiajkeduno fa, he kome^

non

v' e cozay ie-pin difpiatfia a


:

DIo,

h I'iagratimad-

tudine ed inossurvanfsa 6^
jormennte la

ixxoi preetfetti

ccjfi

non

v' e niente he iadj'toni

defolatftnne dell'

univerfo, ke la

tfetfita,

e la fuperbia del*i emini, la

/>atjia de* Djentili, Viniorantfa, t

V cfiinatfione dc

Djtideei, e fizmatit^.

j-

Mr.

Sheridan's or Dr. Kenrick's

may give fome

aid,

till

a didlionary be

publiflied

upon

this plan.

* Re<}uires a

new charadcr

the afpiratc (f /)

AND DUMB TO SPEAK.


of the alphabet, upon which
the
I

97
build
conje--

mean to

Method

of teaching the

Surd and

quently

Dumb

to /peak.

It is

neceffary to examine

firft,

whether the

dumbnefs be occafioned by merely the want of


hearing, or by mal-conformationof the organs

of fpeech.

If the latter there

is

no occafion

to

proceed, but if the former be the caufe, the

method of attempting
pediment

to

remove fuch an im-

may

be purfued in the following

manner.

I ft,

They muit be

led, if young, to

attempt

to

pronounce, by imitating the motions of chilat


firft

dren in fpeaking, and, as every thing

would appear

to

them unmeaning,

a ch'ld

who
If

can fpeak mull: be told to pronounce the

letters,

which you

defire the

deaf child to learn.

you fucceed with

difficulty,

to prevent difcou-

raging the deaf, the child

who

fpeaks

mud

be

made

to

pronounce flowly, diftindly, and with


that

many

repetitions,

the deaf

may

fuppofe
bi:t if

the other to be in the fame predicament;

you have two deaf perfons

to teach at once, the


firft

98
firft

On teaching the deaf


leflbns

only need be given in this manners


firft

for the progrefs of both will be at

perhaps

much

alikCo

2dly.

The

pupil muft not only be fenfible


the proper found himfelf, but

when he makes
muft
alfq

be able to diftinguifti thefe founds


In teaching to pronounce, you muft
ftiew the fituation of your

in others.

open the rnouth, and


tongue
lips in
as nearly as

you

can, then difpofe your

fuch a manner as to give the found,


a

making apparently
than common.
it.

more

forcible exertion

He

will

The pupil will try to imitate make no doubt a found of fome

fort, either vocal or afpirate

If that found be

contained in the language you

mean

to teach

him, point immediately


find
is

to the letter
it

which you

the fymbol, and repeat


it,

fo often, that

he can neither forget


the

nor have any idea of

fymbol

without that found, nor of the

fymbol If the found be vocal let him feel at his own throat, and at yours, that he may be made fenfible by the
found without the
external touch that the founds are the fame, and

he

will

with more

facility

be enabled to give
the

AND DUMB TO SPEAK.


the afplrates by pronouncing

99

tbem without a
is

tremulous motion in the throat, which


fole external

the
dif-

mode of

learning

him

the

ference.
letter

When you

teach the afpirate of

any

by

a fimple breathing,

the organs being

fomewhat

fimilarly difpofed,

he perhaps
:

may
if fo,

ftumble upon another vocal or afpirate

fhew him the


as if

letter

he obtains by the error,


in

you had no

intention,

that inftance,

to teach the letter in affinity with the laft;


let

and

him

repeat the found, whether vocal or aftill

pirate,

he

is

perfedly acquainted with


character.

it,

and the appropriated

You muft
and
let

then turn to another, taking care, that while

he acquires, he does not


often repeat them.

forget,

him
in

When you
find that

have proceedletters

ed through the greateft part of the


this
els

manner, and
or
afpirates

either the
to

voweach
as
it

which correfpond

other are wanted,

you muft take fuch


to

would be proper
that

begin with, and


better than

I
;

think
j
f;

none would ferve

s;

in vv^hich, if the pupil be fenfible,

he will foon difcover a connexion, and will

be

too

On teaching the deaf


to fearch for the

be induced
the

fame

affinities in

other letters,

whether the language he

learns contains
fary,

them or not

It

will be necef-

according to the age and difpofition of

the pupil, to ufe different methods of difpof-

ing his organs; not only by letting him

feel,

how

your tongue

is

raifed

to the

roof of

your mouth, pufhed forward, depreffed, withdrawn, &c. but


fingers,
fent, to
alfo to difpofe his,

by your
pre-^

and have a looking

glafs

always

{hew him wherein he

errs in not juftly

imitating you; and alfo to

let

him
This

fee

when

he

is

right
is

in his

efforts.

will teach

him what

neceffary

3dly,

To know what others fay,^

when they converfe with, or aik him any queftion*


This
is

the moft difficult in teaching the furd


letters are

becaufe moft of the

formed

in the,

mouth and
alone

throat, out of fight;

and here vifion

obtains

the

meaning.

The
the

mirror^

however, will

facilitate

much

mode of

learning what others fay, by the deaf man's

converfmg

w^ith himfclf before

it,

but in prefence

AND DUMB TO SPEAK.


ience of his teacher,
to

lOl

prevent his

making
:

miftakes, in the formation of the true founds

and there are more guides in acquiring what

words arc fpoken by


neral imagine
;

others, than people in

ge-

for fo

many of the
upon

letters

which

make

a vifible effedt

the organs, in their

formation, enter into thecompofition of words,

which may indeed contain many

that

do not

make much

effed:, that if all the


it
;

former were

written down,

would give
is

to the eye, a

kind

of fliort-hand

and

almoft as eafily caught


attentive deaf,
is

by the watchful eye of the


fhort-hand without vowels
perienced ftenographer.

as

read

by the exarts

Both

require

long practice, but both are very attainable.

When he has learned

the true * founds of the

thirty letters, in the Englifh language,

he will

be capable of reading as well as of fpeaking,

and he ought

to

have a catalogue of

objedits,

defigned or reprefented, that he


per ideas to proper terms.

may affix proa child

Thus

may

be taught to read, to fpcak, to underftand


others,

* Sec the preceding diflertatioa

Page $s

ct

k<i;zKo the

table of found*.

io2

On teaching the deaf


of

others, to write, and obtain a knov/ledge

things at the fame time.

The
neral

greateft difficulty that the deaf


in

have to

furmount,

making

a quick progrefs, in ge--

converfation, has
or,
;

been the want of a


of a properly

proper didionary,
written language
letters well,

rather,

for if they
to join

pronounce the
them,
it

and attempt

fo as to

read words as they are

be uninrelligible.

now written, The didionaries

would
of Dr,

Kenrick

and

Mr, Sheridan,

would

very

much

affift at

prefent, for the deaf fhould

have
of

an opportunity of

acquiring the

founds

words, whenever they were difpofed to learn,

without being
others
:

obliged to

have recourfe to
defeds, as well
as^

but there are

many

miftakes, in

Mr. Sheridan's,
I

and though I

have not feen Dr. Kenrick's,


ner,

know

the

man-

and

it

mufl: alfo be

defedive, becaufe in

neither work,

have

letters

been invented for

the

founds

not before

reprefented.^

If the

dumb had

the advantage of learning a lanfpelled, every

guage properly

time they read


in

AND DUMB TO SPEAK.

I03

a book, the founds

would be impreffed upoa

the mind, and reading would offer an eternal Iburce of improvement, both in corred: fpeaking, and in
fon,

matter

and thus might a perletters,

who had

once learned his

be

ca-

pable of reading every thing correctly,

and

a child would not have to learn a langua^ e in

merely learning to read

thirty

founds only

would be

required,

and he would

have no

idea of the polTibility of fubftituting a


letter

wrong

in

writing,
;

for one

which he could would not

properly pronounce

thus, fpelling
I

be a ftudy

in writing.

fpeak now, not only

in favour of the deaf

and confequently dumb,


have not yet learned to

but of
read.

all

others,

who
is

Some of thefe
with

ideas 1

have often repeat-

ed, but repetition


fider

admiffihle, v/hen
difficulty

we conis

how much

truth

made

to

grow

in a foil

where prejudice has permitted

error to take deep root.

Many

of the

dumb learn

to

communicate by

their fingers,

forming an alphabet, by point-

ing at each finger, by fhutting them feparate-

ly.

104
ly,

^^ TEACHING THE DEAF


by laying various numbers of fingers upoti
firft

the other hand,


other,

on one

fide,

then on the

and by different
fcale

figns, ipafling

thron^h

the T^hole

of founds
motions,

and compofing
are

words by

vifible

which

agreed

upon by
the

a friend.

They
things,

alio write,

and learn
to

meaning of

by referring
inftead of the

the

reprefeniatives of

words

words

themfelves, and the meaning of things would

be as

eafilj

taught by this

mode

as

by the

ear,

provided there were as


cafe as in the other.

much

repetition in

one

It

is

neceffary, that
in

the

dumb have

each

a book,

which fhould be written under

proper heads, the names of familiar objedls,

and under them

thofe

things which

have a

connedion, beginning with genera, and defcending to fpecies.

It

AKD DUMB TO SPEAK

ro6

On
the

te.aching the deaf


will

As

pupil

be taught to read, tq

fpcak, to write and underftand things at on^e,

the teacher fhould force him to leave no

name

unpronounced, unwritten, or unread; and the


pupil lliould be,
at the

fame time,

taught to

obferve the motions

made by

the organs
to

of
ex-

fpeech

in

his preceptor,

and likewife

amine
jed:,

own in a glafs, and to draw the obwhich may be done in a book either arhis

ranged according to the ufe of the thing, or put


promifcuoufly

with

its

name

written

under;

and
it

if

the

word be

incorred:ly fpelled, to write

properly befides, or look in one of the cordidionaries.

rected

All thefe methods


that he
his

will

imprefs his mind

fo ftrongly,

will fel-

dom
by

have occafion

to refer to

book; and
to a great

this

method he

will

alfo

attain

proficiency in drawing.

The adions and


the pupil, and no

paffions fhould be

aded

to

movement made without


it

fhewing

its

meaning, and noting

down by

v,'riting, that

words may

increafe in

exad pro-

portion to the increafe of knowledge, and the


progrefs

AND DUMB TO SPE^K.


progrefs which a ftudent
v.ill

loy
this

make by

method

will in a ihort time be aftonifliing.

If a teacher were to undertake the inftrudii-

on of

feveral at once,
it

which would indeed be

mofi: advifeable,

would be exceedingly proor drawings of

per to procure as

many prints

common

objeds as could be had, and even of

the fame objeds in different poftures and


rtions, with

po-

the

name and adion


arranged

written bedifferent

neath,

and

thefe

under

heads according to their relation to each other.

The

walls of the

room might be covered with


alfo

them, fcreens, port-folios and books


tain others,
to

con-

which they might conftantly

have

accefs.

Colours ought alfo to be painted


their

in fquares, with

names

attached,

after

them

the fhades and the

various
bodies.

colours ob-

tained
alfo

by mixing fimple

They ought

to

go through various courfes of natural


and experimental philofophy,

hiftory, natural

including chemiftry, by which they will fee the

extenhve variety that even

artificial

mixtures
produce.

and combinations of

bodies

will

The

so8

On teaching the deaf


the proceflcs, and refiihs fhould be
loft.

The names,
fhould be
courfe
ble

written, that nothing be

Space and time


the parts of difas a fenfi-

meafured, and
familiar

all

made

by examples,

man would
utility

fee oecafion.

The

of attempting to teach the

dumb
which

to fpeak, has indeed

been difputed by many,


difficulties

not only on account of the

are judged infurmountable, the imperfe6t

man-

ner in which the pupils articulate,


difagreeable noife they

and the
to

make in endeavouring

pronounce, but

alfo

on account of the

difficulty

with which they underftand what others

fay,

and more

efpecially

when

they can be compre^


ufeful

hended

fo well

by writing, and made


by drawing.

members of
fed:

fociety
in

The imper-

manner

which they fpeak depends not

upon the

pupil, if of

upon the

teacher

common capacity, but and I am confident, from


is

fhort trials I have made, that the art

to

be

perfectly obtained

by the foregoing method.

The

difficulty

of underftanding what others


art.

fay I have already confidered (page loo

3d)

and though writing

is

a very neceffary qualification,

AND DUMB TO SPEAK.


cation, yet

lOg
at

pen and paper are not always


I

hand.

Drawing

approve

of, as ufeful to

every

one, and perhaps

more

particularly fo to a perfaculties

Ion whofe want of natural

deprives

him of many
fpeech
is fo

fources

of amufement.
occafion,

But
that

ufeful

upon every

to attain

it is

to facilitate the very

means of ex-

igence:

for if a deaf

man was even always

provided

whh

book and pencil he would

often meet with perfons

who

could not read,

and one fentence

if

only imperfedly fpoken,


all

would convey more meaning than


tures

the ^ef-

and figns which would be made.


deaf perfon not perfedly {killed in readlips,

ing words from the

or

who

fhould

afl?;

any thing
cure

in the dark,

would be able

to pro-

common information by
by

putting various

queftions, and
is

telling the perfon that, as

he

deaf, he requells anlwers


will

by

figns,

which
to cir-

he

diredt

him

to

change according
loft his

cumftances

If

he had

way,

if

he en-

quired for any one, if he wanted to purchafe

any thing, and

in all the

common

occurrences

of

lio

On teaching the
certainly
it;

deaf,
fo

&c*
it

of life, his fpeech would be

ufeful, that

would

more than repay the trouble


efpecially as
it

of obtaining

would be a

mode of

facilitating every other acquirement.

FINIS.

C;

*\
it
-

'.