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Switching

G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan


Department of Information Technology

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technology, Naned.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Outline
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Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Switched Network

Switching

Series of interlinked nodes is called switches. Switches create temporary connections. Some switches are connected to end systems others only do routing.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Switching: Methods

Switching

Packet switching combines datagram and virtual circuit networks.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Outline
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Circuit Switched Networks

Introduction

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Circuit Switched Networks

Circuit Switched Networks

Introduction

Consists of set of switches connected by physical links. Connection between two stations is a dedicated path of one or more links. Each link is divided into n channels by using FDM/TDM. End systems directly connected to switch..

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Circuit Switched Networks

Circuit Switched Networks

Introduction

Setup Phase: requesting communication. Channels are reserved, dedicated path is created then data transfer takes place. Properties of Circuit Switching: 1 Takes place in physical layer. 2 Resources of channels (time, buers, ports) are dedicated during data transfer until teardown phase. 3 Data ow is continuous and not in packets. 4 No addressing involved in data transfer. Data transfer takes place on occupied band/ time slot. In circuit switching, the resources need to be reserved during the setup phase; the resources remain dedicated for the entire duration of data transfer until the teardown phase.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Outline
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Circuit Switched Networks

Examples

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Example 1: Circuit Switching

Circuit Switched Networks

Examples

Let us use a circuit-switched network to connect eight telephones in a small area. Communication is through 4-kHz voice channels. We assume that each link uses FDM to connect a maximum of two voice channels. The bandwidth of each link is then 8 kHz. Figure shows the situation. Telephone 1 is connected to telephone 7; 2 to 5; 3 to 8; and 4 to 6. Of course the situation may change when new connections are made. The switch controls the connections.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Example 1: Circuit Switching

Circuit Switched Networks

Examples

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Example 2: Circuit Switching

Circuit Switched Networks

Examples

As another example, consider a circuit-switched network that connects computers in two remote oces of a private company. The oces are connected using a T-1 line leased from a communication service provider. There are two 4 8 (4 inputs and 8 outputs) switches in this network. For each switch, four output ports are folded into the input ports to allow communication between computers in the same oce. Four other output ports allow communication between the two oces. Figure shows the situation.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Example 2: Circuit Switching

Circuit Switched Networks

Examples

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

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Circuit Switched Networks

Phases

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Circuit Switching: Phases

Circuit Switched Networks

Phases

Setup Phase: Setup means creating dedicated channels between the switches. To make a connection, an acknowledgement from receiver needs to be sent in opposite direction to sender. Only after receiving acknowledgement connection is established. End to end addressing is required to create the connection. Data Transfer Phase: After establishment of dedicated circuit, two parties can transfer data. Teardown Phase: When one to the parties needs to disconnect, a signal is sent to each switch to release the resources.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Outline
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Circuit Switched Networks

Performance

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Circuit Switching

Circuit Switched Networks

Performance

Eciency: Not ecient as packet switching because resources needs to be allocated for entire duration of connection. When circuit switching used for computers, resources are wasted if no data transfer. Delay: Delay is minimal. Total delay is due to create connection, transfer data and disconnection of circuit.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

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Datagram Networks

Introduction

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Datagram Networks

Datagram Networks

Introduction

To send messages between systems, needs to be divided into packets of variable sizes. Packet is determined by network and governing protocol. Resources are allocated on demand. Lack of resource reservation creates delay at switches. (FIFO) Each packet treated independently of others. Packets are called datagrams. Switching is done at Network Layer. Switches in datagram are referred as Routers.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Datagram Networks

Datagram Networks

Introduction

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Outline
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Datagram Networks

Properties

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Routing Table

Datagram Networks

Properties

Each switch maintains a routing table based on destination address. Routing tables are dynamic and updated periodically.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Other Properties

Datagram Networks

Properties

Eciency: Better than circuit switched networks. Delay: Greater delay. Packets experience wait at each switch before forwarding. Delay is not uniform.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Outline
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Virtual Circuit Networks

Introduction

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Introduction

Virtual Circuit Networks

Introduction

1 Contains setup, data transfer and teardown phases. 2 Resources are allocated in set up phase or on demand. 3 Data is packetized and each packet carries an address in header.

Address has local juridiction only. 4 All packets follow the same path as in circuit switching. 5 Implemented in data link layer.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Addressing

Virtual Circuit Networks

Introduction

Global Addressing: Source/Destination needs to have global addresses. Global addresses are used to create virtual circuit identiers. Virtual Circuit Identiers (VCI): VCI is actually used for data transfer. VCI has only switch scope. Used by frame between two switches.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Outline
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Virtual Circuit Networks

Three Phases

Switching Circuit Switched Networks Introduction Examples Phases Performance Datagram Networks Introduction Properties Virtual Circuit Networks Introduction Three Phases Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Data Transfer Phase

Virtual Circuit Networks

Three Phases

All switches have table entry for virtual circuit. Table has four columns. Each switch changes VCI and routes the frame. Process creates a virtual circuit not a real circuit between source and destination.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Setup Phase

Virtual Circuit Networks

Three Phases

Setup Request: 1 Source sends setup frame to switch 1. 2 Switch 1 creates entry in table. Only three columns are lled. 3 Same happens for switch 2 and 3. 4 Destination assigns VCI to incoming frame to let know that it has come from source.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Setup Phase

Virtual Circuit Networks

Three Phases

Acknowledgement: Acknowledgement frame completes the entries in switching tables. 1 Destination sends acknowledgement to switch 3. ACK carries global source and destination addresses. 2 Switch 3 updates incoming VCI as outgoing VCI. 3 Switch 2 and 1 updates accordingly.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Teardown Phase

Virtual Circuit Networks

Three Phases

Teardown Phase Source after sending all frames to destination, sends a special frame called teardown request. Destination responds with teardown conrmation frame. All switches deletes corresponding entries from their tables.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Structure of Packet Switches


Components: Input Ports Output Ports Routing Processor Switching Fabric

Structure of Packet Switches

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Structure of Packet Switches

Structure of Packet Switches

Input Ports Performs physical and data link functions of packet switch. Signals converted to bits. Errors are detected and corrected. I/P Port has buers to hold packets.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Structure of Packet Switches


Output Ports: Same functions as input port but in reverse order.

Structure of Packet Switches

Routing Processor: Performs the functions of network layer. Destination address used to nd the next hop and port number.(Table lookup) Switching Fabric: Switching fabric moves the packet from input queue to output queue. Three types: Crossbar, banyan, batcher banyan

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34

Banyan Switch

Structure of Packet Switches

Multistage switch with microswitches at each stage. Output port represented as binary string. For n inputs and n outputs we have log2 n stages with n/2 microswitches at each stage.

SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technol G.K. Pakle Adopted From: Behrouz Forouzan (Department of Information Technology ) Switching / 34