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Distance Protection Performance Analysis Using Dynamic Modeling Method

Abdelsalam Omar Ahmed Omar GECOL Benghazi -Libya

Abstract: This paper presents simulation-based case

study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This paper present a study of the influence of multiple system faults on the performance of distance relay. Distance relay 7SA511 has been investigated. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized. Keywords: Distance protection, simulation, dynamic model of protection relays.

releases the corresponding measurement values for impedance calculation. The work presented herein is concerned with the impact of multiple faults on the performance of current classification method of impedance-based protection relay.

1.1 Dynamic Relay Modeling

An accurate dynamic model of the relay is essential for detailed study of distance protection response. The methodology involves creation of the model based on available documentation[1]-[5], followed by an extensive validation tests in which the performance of the model is compared against the data obtained from actual devices numerical distance relay 7SA511(20samples/cycle), relay model block diagram is shown in fig.1. Due to transient components as well as the time delay caused by filter, the impedances calculated by the relaying algorithm do not converge directly to the fault distance even after data window occupies post fault values. After a fault, resistance and reactance loci calculated by the method described in appendix A, progress from an initial point to the points corresponding to the fault distance. As can be seen from the algorithm in appendix A, three sequential samples of data are required for calculation. Thus, the evaluation of R and X cannot be made until the third sample after a fault condition has been detected. Since 3 samples are required to calculate R and X and 4 values (R and X) within the characteristic are required for tripping, there is a minimum of 6 samples for the trip time. A considerable saving in computation can be achieved by utilizing a first step which attempts to determine the fault type. The fault analysis algorithm determines the fault type so that the appropriate current and voltage are selected for fault calculation. The principle is illustrated in Appendix B and C.

1. Introduction
Traditional analysis of protection system performance involves comparing relevant phasors (currents, voltages, impedances, etc.) against theoretical characteristics of the relay. In the case of a distance protection, a complex R/X plane impedance characteristic is normally used for this purpose. This approach is fairly simple and requires only knowledge of magnitude and phase of the currents and voltages. In certain situations when fast-evolving faults or multiple faults occur, it is possible to have an effect on the performance of distance protection. Fault classification scheme based upon currents produce correct fault classification under most reasonable conditions but do mis-classify in significant number of cases, the current based classifiers tend to be confused when load currents are significant compared to fault current [1]. For calculation of the distance to fault, the currents and voltages of the faulty loop are decisive. The phase selective fault detector determines the faulted loop and


the remote relay at Sbus would not see a fault at the reach setting. However, the remote relay at Sbus will receive trip signal [Teleprotection] from distance relay at Qbus (b). After the circuit breakers on the faulted feeder (lineQS) have been tripped by their protection, the impedance seen by The relay at Pbus, jumps to new fault impedance, which now corresponds to the phase-A to earth fault, the impedances immediately jumps to the short-circuit impedances within Z1 reach at both sides (Pbus, Qbus (a)), figures (8, 9) shows the impedances seen by distance relays at Pbus and Qbus respectively.

Fig.1. Distance Relay model block diagram

1.2 Multiple Fault Simulation

The 220kv transmission system configuration studied is in fig.2, and it is power frequency is 50(Hz). A distance relay protect the 140(Km), transmission line and its trip zone covers 119(km) from Pbus and Polygon characteristic is used for trip, simulation tests were carried out for various distances and fault inception angles, as shown in table 1. Table 1 The Simulated Multiple fault condition Fault inception Fault Fault distances angle A-E 80% 90 B-E 120% 45 C-E 110% 45

Fig.2. the system configuration studied

1.3 Protection System Simulation Results

The simulated primary currents and voltages were subsequently converted into secondary values by means of the specially developed transducer models (i.e., CT and VT based on [6]) using ATPDraw program [7] and then processed by the relay model in Mathcad[8]. The investigation was carried out in order to establish the impedance setting at which the relay starts seeing the faults within the zone one reach. The following figures show the simulation results of Distance relay response, fig.3 shows the multiple fault currents after filtered by digital filter as seen at Pbus.The fault was classified as three phase fault according to appendixes (B, C), and phase to phase loop for impedance calculation has been selected, loop selection for impedance calculation is depending on selected setting parameter (appendix C). Fig.4 show the apparent impedances seen by distance relay at Pbus, from fig.4, ( ZAB , ZBC & ZAC) were not within Z1 reach, fig.5 show the impedances seen at Qbus(a) , from fig.5, the trip decision was reached within Z1 reach for loop impedance ZAC, loop impedances (ZAB, ZBC) were not within Z1 reach. However the trip decision is depending on selected setting parameter, fig.6 show the impedances seen at Qbus-(b), from fig.6 the trip decision was reached within zone1 reach for all loop impedances ( ZAB , ZBC & ZAC). The remote relay at Sbus was classified the fault as three phase fault too. The impedances were seen by remote distance relay as shown fig.7, the trip decision was reached within zone1 reach for loop impedance ZBC., if loop (AB) or loop (AC) selected

Fig.3. typical Multiple fault currents

Fig.4. Impedance seen by Distance Relay at Pbus

Fig.5. Impedance seen by Distance Relay at Qbus (a)

Fig.8. Impedance seen by Distance Relay at Pbus

Fig.6. Impedance seen by Distance Relay at Qbus (b)

Fig.9. Impedance seen by Distance Relay at Qbus (a)

2. Conclusions
The simulation study presented in this paper demonstrate the important of and requirement for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relays. The impedances trajectory after a fault were depends on fault inception angle, digital filter type and relay algorithm, case study has been presented in order to illustrate how the multiple faults impact the distance relay performance. For the particular system studied it was found that the first-zone protection would not see a fault at the reach setting, if the fault classified as three phase fault. This limit will vary with the system configuration and multiple system fault location. It is clearly shown from results of the case study that the current based classifiers tend to be confused when multiple faults occur. It is essential to research new algorithms dedicated to solve mis-classification of multiple system faults.

Fig.7. Impedance seen by Distance Relay at Sbus

4 Appendix A
Trapezoidal Approximation of the Differential Equation Algorithm [1] The differential equation algorithms are based on a model of the system rather than on a model of the signal [1].However if we take the single-phase model of the faulted line and write the differential equation relating the voltage and current seen by the relay. Resistance and inductance are calculated from voltages and currents at the relaying point using The three samples of current and voltage are sufficient to compute estimates of R and X as

The differential equation was converted into an integral equation before deriving the numerical algorithm

These are equations which were programmed to determine R and X from the sampled values of current and voltage.

Appendix B
Fault Analysis Algorithm [1] The algorithm is derived by making use of the Clarke components. As with symmetrical components, these quantities can be used to extract classification features for different types of faults. Thus if the A phase (of three phases A, B, C) is taken as reference phase, there are the following relationships. A phase-to-ground fault B-C-to-ground fault B phase- C phase fault 3-phase fault With the definition of Clarke component current, these expressions will reduce to the following. Then (2) and (3) can be written for samples at k, k+1 and k+2 as

The integrals in (2) and (3) must be approximated from the sample values .If the samples are equally spaced at an interval ( ) and the trapezoidal rule is used for the integrals as in (4).

By taking B and then C as reference phases, similar expressions for the other fault types can be derived. If none of the equalities is satisfied for a phase fault, it is assumed that the fault is a three phase fault.

5 Appendix C
Distance Relay 7SA511 Fault Classification Method [4] Loop determination for solidly earthed system: table 2 show the measurement quantities which will be selected for distance measurement in earthed networks according to selected setting parameter. Table 2 Selected Fault detection Selected setting Phase loops loop parameter L1 , L2 , E L2 , L3 , E L1 , L3 , E L1 , L2 , E L2 , L3 , E L1 , L3 , E L1 , L2 , E L2 , L3 , E L1 , L3 , E L1 , L2 , L3 L1 , L2 , L3, E L1 , L2 , L3 L1 , L2 , L3, E L1 , L2 , L3 L1 , L2 , L3, E L1-L2 L2-L3 L1-L3 L1-E L2-E L3-E L2-E L3-E L1-E L3-L1 L3-E L3-L1 L3-L1 L3-E L3-E Phase -phase only Leading phase-E Lagging phase-E E/F Control Phase Phase only Phase-Earth only [7] ATPDraw for windows Version2.3 Copyright 19982000 users Manual Sintef Energy Research, Norway [8] Mathcad 2000 Professional Copyright 1986-1999 MathSoft, In

[1] Arum G. Phadke, James S. Thorp Computer relaying for power systems, RSP.Ltd August 1994, pp.118-131 [2] Chul-Hwan Kim,Mymy-Hee Lee, Raj K. Aggarwal, Allan T.Johns Educational use of EMTP models For study of a distance relaying algorithm for protecting transmission lines, IEEETrans vol.15 No1, April 2000, pp.10. [3] W.D.Breingan, M.M.Chen, T.F.Gallen the Laboratory investigation of a digital system for the Protection of transmission lines, Protective Relaying for Power Systems, Stanley H.Horowitz IEEE PRESS, copyright 1980 [4] Gerhard Ziegler Numerical Distance Protection principles and applicationJuly 1999 pp. 80 [5] E.O.Schweitzer, Daqing Hou Filtering For Protective Relays, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratory.Inc.Pullmann, Washington, Protective Relaying Conference Atalanta, Georgia, 1993 [6] Ralph Folkers Determine Current Transformer Suitability Using EMTP Models Schweitzer Engineering Laboratory.Inc. Pullman, WA USA, Copyright SEL 1999