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Transition Metal Chemistry Experiment #8 Chem.

120H Eric Nelson, Sarah Madden, Matt Grandbois Purpose:

To focus on the chemistry of the transition metals chromium, manganese, iron, and cobalt. To observe reactions involving transition metals oxidation states.

First we focused on reactions involving chromium. We mixed CrCl3 with NaOH. The NaOH was added dropwise and the solution was stirred after each drop was added. We observed and recorded our findings. Then we added NaOH to Cr(NO3)3 in the same way as before. When we were finished adding NaOH, we added H2O2 to the solution. We then made another solution involving K2CrO4 mixed with H2SO4 and we added H2O2 to that solution. We then focused on reactions involving manganese. We added KMnO4 to three separate test tubes. To one test tube we added H2SO4 and then added Na2SO3 dropwise to the solution. To the second test tube, we added H2O and then mixed in Na2SO3 by adding it dropwise and stirring. To the third test tube we added NaOH and once again mixed in Na2SO3 to the solution by adding it dropwise and stirring. Our third group of reactions involved iron. We placed Fe(NO3)3 to each of three test tubes. To the first we added NaOH dropwise. To the second we added HCl. We added KSCN to the third test tube. Our final reactions involved cobalt. First, we placed CoCl2 in each of three test tubes. To the first test tube we added NH3 dropwise and stirred the solution after each addition. Concentrated HCl was added to the second test tube, and the solution was placed in an ice bath. After we observed the solution we heated it in a gently boiling water bath, and again observed it. We added KSCN to the third test tube and stirred until it dissolved. After the KSCN was dissolved we added butanol and shook the tube until we observed color in two separate layers of the solution.

Observations: Reactions involving chromium

1.) CrCl3 + NaOH -The solution was initially blue, and then turned a green color with green precipitate. At 18 drops the solution thinned from thick and milky to a smoother solution. Its ending color was a greenish blue. 2.) Cr(NO3)3 + NaOH + H2O -When NaOH was added to the Cr(NO3)3, the solution turned thick with a green color and a precipitate. When all of the Cr(NO3)3 was done being added, the solution was olive green and not as thick as it originally was. When we added H2O we observed a brownish green solution with bubbles and a precipitate. 3.) K2CrO4 + H2SO4 + H2O2 -The solution started out a yellow color and turned orange with the addition of H2SO4. When we added H2O2 the solution bubbled around the green top layer only.

Reactions involving manganese

4.) KMnO4 + H2SO4 + Na2SO3 -The solution started out pink, but became clear after the addition of two drops of Na2SO3.

5.) KMnO4 + Na2SO3 -The solution started out with a brownish precipitate, but became clear as the experiment continued. 6.) KMnO4 + NaOH + Na2SO3 -The solution turned greener and became thicker with each addition of Na2SO3. After nine drops of Na2SO3, the solution turned gold with a tiny brown precipitate.

Reactions involving iron

7.) Fe(NO3)3 + NaOH -The solution formed a precipitate instantly and had an orangish color. The solution became thicker and turned a red-brown color in the end. 8.) Fe(NO3)3 + HCl -The solution became bright yellow with a little precipitate. 9.) Fe(NO3)3 + KSCN -The solution instantly became a blood red color.

Reactions involving cobalt

10.) CoCl2 + NH3 -The solution began a purple color and ended a dark blue color with precipitate. 11.) CoCl2 + HCl -The solution was pink in color. When placed in an ice bath, it was a very transparent pink. When it was heated in the boiling water bath, it was a purple color. 12.) CoCl2 + KSCN + butanol -When KSCN was added the solution became a dark pink/purple color. When butanol was added to the solution and shaken, there was a light purple color in top layer, and a darker purple color in the bottom layer.

Calculations: Reactions involving chromium

1.) When we combined the NaOH to the CrCl3, there was no visible effect until 18 drops. At 18 drops we noted a color change to gray-green. We know that Cr(OH)3 is a gray-green. Therefore, we concluded that CrCl3 + 3NaOH > Cr(OH)3 + 3Na+ + 3Cl-. After 18 drops the solution turned a green color. We know that Cr(OH)4 is a green color. Therefore, we concluded that Cr(OH)3 + NaOH > Cr(OH)4 + Na+. 2.) When we added NaOH to Cr(NO3)3, we noted a color change to gray-green. This would show a change into Cr(OH)3. Therefore, we concluded that Cr(NO3)3 + 4NaOH > Cr(OH)4 + 4Na+ + 3NO3. When the solution turned to a green color we noted that Cr(OH)4 was green in appearance. Therefore, we concluded that Cr(NO3)3 + 4NaOH > Cr(OH)4 + 4Na+ + 3NO3. When we added H2O2 to the solution we noticed an exothermic reaction, and a color change to yellow. Therefore, we concluded that Cr(OH)4 + 2H2O2 > CrO4 + 4H2O. 3.) When we were looking at the K2CrO4, we noticed an exothermic reaction and a color change to yellow. We know that CrO4 is yellow. Therefore, we concluded that K2CrO4 > CrO4 + 2K+. Then the solution turned orange in color, and indicated another chemical change. We know that Cr2O7 is orange, so we concluded that 2CrO4 + H2SO4 > Cr2O7 + H2O + SO4. We noticed that the water was above the solution. The water was green however. We know that Cr3+ is green. Therefore, we concluded that 2Cr2O7 + 7H2O2 > 4Cr3+.

Reactions involving manganese

4.) When we added the sodium nitrate we did not see any effect of a chemical change. Therefore, we concluded that sodium nitrate was soluble, and thus, KMnO4 (aq) + 4H2SO4 > Mn2+ + K+ + 4SO4 + 4H2O. 5.) When we were looking at KMnO4, while adding 2Na2SO3, we noticed a color change to brown. We know that MnO2 is brown, and we concluded that KMnO4 + 2Na2SO3 > MnO2 + K+ + 4Na+ + 2SO4. As we continued to add more Na2SO3, the solution

became colorless. We know that Mn2+ is colorless. Therefore, we concluded that MnO2 + 2Na2SO3 > Mn2+ + 4Na+ + 2SO4. 6.) When we were looking at KMnO4 mixing with NaOH, we noticed a color change to green. We know that MnO4 is green, and therefore, we concluded that KMnO4 + NaOH > MnO4 + K+ + Na+ + OH-. With the addition of Na2SO3, we noticed a color change to tan. We know that Mn(OH)2 is tan. Therefore, we concluded that 4Na2SO3 + MnO4- + 2OH- > Mn(OH)2 + 8Na+ + 4(SO4). As we continued adding Na2SO3, the solution developed a brown precipitate. Therefore, we concluded that Mn(OH)2 + OH- > MnO(OH) + H2O + e-.

Reactions involving iron

7.) Our solution had a orange/yellow color, and we know that Fe3+ has this color. Therefore, we concluded that Fe(NO3)3 > Fe3+ + 3(NO3)-. When we added NaOH, we noticed an orange precipitate form. We know that Fe(OH)3 is orange. Therefore, we concluded that Fe3+ + 3NaOH > Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3Na+. 8.) When we added HCl to Fe(NO3)3, we noticed a color change to yellow. We know that Fe3+ is yellow. Therefore, we concluded that Fe(NO3)3 + HCl > Fe3+ + 3(NO3)- + H+ + Cl-. 9.) When we added KSCN to Fe(NO3)3, we noticed a blood-red color form. Since we know that FeSCN is blood-red in color, we concluded that Fe(NO3)3 + KSCN > FeSCN2+ + K+ + 3(NO3)-.

Reactions involving cobalt

10.) When we added NH3 to CoCl2, we noticed a change to a red purple color. We know that Co(NH3)5Cl2+ is a purple-red. Therefore, we concluded that CoCl2 + 5(NH3) > Co(NH3)5Cl2+ + Cl-. 11.) We added HCl to CoCl2, and then placed the solution in an ice bath. We noticed a pink color appear. We know that Co2+ is pink. Therefore, we concluded that CoCl2 + HCl > Co2+ + 3Cl- + H+. We then proceeded to put the solution in boiling water. When heat was added, the color changed to a blue-purple. We know that CoCl4 is blue-purple, so we concluded that Co2+ + 4Cl > CoCl4. 12.) We added KSCN to CoCl2, stirred, and added butanol. By adding the butanol we created two layers. The top layer was pink. We know that Co2+ is pink, so we concluded that, in the upper layer, the reaction was CoCl2 + KSCN > Co2+ + K+ + 2Cl- + SCN-.

By creating and observing these reactions, we were able to learn more about the chemistry of these four transition metals. We were also able to observe the four transition metals oxidation states by creating the reactions.