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Physics and Measurement


CHAPTER OUTLINE
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time Matter and Model-Building Dimensional Analysis Conversion of Units Estimates and Order-ofMagnitude Calculations Signicant Figures

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
* An asterisk indicates an item new to this edition. Q1.1 Density varies with temperature and pressure. It would be necessary to measure both mass and volume very accurately in order to use the density of water as a standard. (a) 0.3 millimeters (b) 50 microseconds (c) 7.2 kilograms The answer is yes for (a), (c), and (f ). You cannot add or subtract a number of apples and a number of jokes. The answer is no for (b), (d), and (e). Consider the gauge of a sausage, 4 kg 2 m, or the volume of a cube, (2 m)3. Thus we have (a) yes (b) no (c) yes (d) no (e) no (f ) yes

Q1.2

*Q1.3

Q1.4

No: A dimensionally correct equation need not be true. Example: 1 chimpanzee = 2 chimpanzee is dimensionally correct. Yes: If an equation is not dimensionally correct, it cannot be correct. The meterstick measurement, (a), and (b) can all be 4.31 cm. The meterstick measurement and (c) can both be 4.24 cm. Only (d) does not overlap. Thus (a) (b) and (c) all agree with the meterstick measurement. 41 41 (1 L 1.3 )(1 qt 1 L)(1 gal 4 qt) (10 1.3) gal 8 gallons, answer (c)

*Q1.5

*Q1.6

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
Section 1.1 P1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time

3 4 4 Modeling the Earth as a sphere, we nd its volume as r 3 = ( 6.37 10 6 m ) = 1.08 10 21 m 3. 3 3 m 5.98 10 24 kg Its density is then = = = 5.52 10 3 kg m 3 . This value is intermediate V 1.08 10 21 m 3 between the tabulated densities of aluminum and iron. Typical rocks have densities around 2 000 to 3 000 kg m3. The average density of the Earth is signicantly higher, so higher-density material must be down below the surface.

Chapter 1

P1.2

With V = ( base area ) ( height ) V = ( r 2 ) h and =

m , we have V

10 9 mm 3 m 1 kg = r 2 h (19.5 mm )2 ( 39.0 mm ) 1 m 3

= 2.15 10 4 kg m 3 .
P1.3 Let V represent the volume of the model, the same in = and gold = mgold V . Next, mgold gold and mgold = iron 9.35 kg m for both. Then iron = 9.35 kg V V 19.3 10 3 kg/m 3 = 23.0 kg . = 9.35 kg 7.86 10 3 kg/m 3

*P1.4

= m / V and V = (4 / 3) r 3 = (4 / 3) (d / 2)3 = d 3 / 6 where d is the diameter.


Then = 6 m / d 3 = 6(1.67 10 27 kg) = 2.3 1017 kg/m 3 (2.4 10 15 m)3

2.3 1017 kg/m 3 /(11.3 10 3 kg/m 3 ) = it is 20 1012 times the density of lead . P1.5 4 4 3 r and the mass is m = V = r 3. We divide 3 3 this equation for the larger sphere by the same equation for the smaller: For either sphere the volume is V = m 4 r 3 3 r 3 = = = 5. ms 4 rs3 3 rs3 Then r = rs 3 5 = 4.50 cm (1.71) = 7.69 cm .

Section 1.2 P1.6

Matter and Model-Building

From the gure, we may see that the spacing between diagonal planes is half the distance between diagonally adjacent atoms on a at plane. This diagonal distance may be obtained from the Pythagorean theorem, Ldiag = L2 + L2 . Thus, since the atoms are separated by a distance 1 2 L = 0.200 nm, the diagonal planes are separated by L + L2 = 0.141 nm . 2

Section 1.3 P1.7 (a) (b) P1.8 (a) (b) (c)

Dimensional Analysis This is incorrect since the units of [ ax ] are m 2 s 2 , while the units of [ v ] are m s .
1 This is correct since the units of [ y ] are m, and cos ( kx ) is dimensionless if [ k ] is in m .

Circumference has dimensions of L. Volume has dimensions of L3 . Area has dimensions of L2 . Expression (i) has dimension L ( L2 )
1/ 2

= L2 , so this must be area (c).

Expression (ii) has dimension L, so it is (a). Expression (iii) has dimension L ( L2 ) = L3, so it is (b). Thus, (a) = ii; (b) = iii; (c) = i .

Physics and Measurement

P1.9

Inserting the proper units for everything except G, kg m = G [ kg ] . s2 [ m ]2


2

Multiply both sides by [ m ]2 and divide by [ kg ] ; the units of G are


2

m3 . kg s 2

Section 1.4 P1.10

Conversion of Units

Apply the following conversion factors: 1 in = 2.54 cm, 1 d = 86 400 s, 100 cm = 1 m, and 10 9 nm = 1 m
2 9 1 in day ( 2.54 cm in ) (10 m cm ) (10 nm m ) = 9.19 nm s . 32 86 400 s day This means the proteins are assembled at a rate of many layers of atoms each second!

P1.11

Conceptualize: We must calculate the area and convert units. Since a meter is about 3 feet, we should expect the area to be about A 30 m 50 m = 1500 m 2 .

)(

Categorize: We model the lot as a perfect rectangle to use Area = Length Width. Use the conversion:1 m = 3.281 ft. 1m 1m Analyze: A = LW = (100 ft ) = 1 390 m 2 = 1.39 10 3 m 2 . (150 ft ) 3.281 ft 3.281 ft Finalize: Our calculated result agrees reasonably well with our initial estimate and has the proper units of m 2. Unit conversion is a common technique that is applied to many problems. P1.12 (a) V = ( 40.0 m ) ( 20.0 m ) (12.0 m ) = 9.60 10 3 m 3 V = 9.60 10 3 m 3 ( 3.28 ft 1 m ) = 3.39 10 5 ft 3
3

(b)

The mass of the air is m = airV = (1.20 kg m 3 ) ( 9.60 10 3 m 3 ) = 1.15 10 4 kg. The student must look up weight in the index to nd Fg = mg = (1.15 10 4 kg ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 1.13 10 5 N . Converting to pounds, Fg = (1.13 10 5 N ) (1 lb 4.45 N ) = 2.54 10 4 lb .

*P1.13

The area of the four walls is (3.6 + 3.8 + 3.6 + 3.8)m (2.5 m) = 37 m2. Each sheet in the book has area (0.21 m) (0.28 m) = 0.059 m2. The number of sheets required for wallpaper is 37 m2 0.059 m2 = 629 sheets = 629 sheets(2 pages 1 sheet) = 1260 pages. The pages from volume one are inadequate, but the full version has enough pages.

Chapter 1

P1.14

(a)

Seven minutes is 420 seconds, so the rate is r= 30.0 gal = 7.14 10 2 gal s . 420 s

(b)

Converting gallons rst to liters, then to m 3, 3.786 L 10 3 m 3 r = ( 7.14 10 2 gal s ) 1 gal 1 L r = 2.70 10 4 m 3 s .

(c)

At that rate, to ll a 1-m 3 tank would take 1 m3 1h = 1.03 h . t= 2.70 10 4 m 3 s 3 600

P1.15

From Table 14.1, the density of lead is 1.13 10 4 kg m 3 , so we should expect our calculated value to be close to this number. This density value tells us that lead is about 11 times denser than water, which agrees with our experience that lead sinks. Density is dened as mass per volume, in =
3

m . We must convert to SI units in the calculation. V

23.94 g 1 kg 100 cm 23.94 g 1 kg 1 000 000 cm 3 3 4 = = = 1.14 10 kg m 2.10 cm 3 1000 g 1 m 2.10 cm 3 1000 g 1 m3 At one step in the calculation, we note that one million cubic centimeters make one cubic meter. Our result is indeed close to the expected value. Since the last reported signicant digit is not certain, the difference in the two values is probably due to measurement uncertainty and should not be a concern. One important common-sense check on density values is that objects which sink in water must have a density greater than 1 g cm 3, and objects that oat must be less dense than water. P1.16 P1.17 The weight ow rate is 1 200 (a) (b) ton 2 000 lb 1 h 1 min = 667 lb s . h ton 60 min 60 s

8 1012 $ 1 h 1 day 1 yr 1 000 $ s 3 600 s 24 h 365 days = 250 years The circumference of the Earth at the equator is 2 ( 6.378 10 3 m ) = 4.01 10 7 m. The length of one dollar bill is 0.155 m so that the length of 8 trillion bills is 1.24 1012 m. Thus, the 8 trillion dollars would encircle the Earth 1.24 1012 m = 3.09 10 4 times . 4.01 10 7 m

P1.18

V=

(13.0 acres ) ( 43 560 ft 2 acre ) 1 ( 481 ft ) Bh = 3 3 = 9.08 10 7 ft 3 ,

or 2.83 10 2 m 3 V = ( 9.08 10 7 ft 3 ) 1 ft 3 = 2.57 10 6 m 3

*
FIG. P1.18

Physics and Measurement

P1.19 P1.20

Fg = ( 2.50 tons block ) ( 2.00 10 6 blocks ) ( 2 000 lb ton ) = 1.00 1010 lbs (a) d 300 ft = 6.79 10 3 ft , or dnucleus, scale = dnucleus, real atom, scale = ( 2.40 10 15 m ) 1.06 10 10 m datom, real dnucleus, scale = ( 6.79 10 3 ft ) ( 304.8 mm 1 ft ) = 2.07 mm (b)
3 d 1.06 10 10 m Vatom 4 ratom / 3 ratom = atom = = = 3 2.40 10 15 m Vnucleus 4 rnucleus / 3 rnucleus dnucleus 3 3 3

= 8.62 1013 times as large P1.21 P1.22 V = At so t = (a) V 3.78 10 3 m 3 = = 1.51 10 4 m ( or 151 m ) 25.0 m 2 A
2 2

2 ( 6.37 10 6 m ) (100 cm m ) AEarth 4 rEarth rEarth = = = = 13.4 2 1.74 108 cm AMoon 4 rMoon rMoon 3 ( 6.37 10 6 m ) (100 cm m ) VEarth 4 rEarth / 3 rEarth = = = = 49.1 3 1.74 108 cm VMoon 4 rMoon / 3 rMoon 3 3

(b) P1.23

To balance, mFe = mAl or FeVFe = AlVAl 4 4 Fe rFe 3 = Al rAl 3 3 3 rAl = rFe Fe Al


1/ 3

7.86 = ( 2.00 cm ) 2.70

1/ 3

= 2.86 cm .

P1.24

The mass of each sphere is mAl = AlVAl = and mFe = FeVFe = Setting these masses equal, 4 Al rAl 3 4 Fe rFe 3 and r = r 3 Fe . = Al Fe Al 3 3 The resulting expression shows that the radius of the aluminum sphere is directly proportional to the radius of the balancing iron sphere. The sphere of lower density has larger radius. The fraction Fe is the factor of change between the densities, a number greater than 1. Its cube root Al is a number much closer to 1. The relatively small change in radius implies a change in volume sufcient to compensate for the change in density. 4 Fe rFe 3 . 3 4 Al rAl 3 3

Chapter 1

Section 1.5 P1.25

Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations

Model the room as a rectangular solid with dimensions 4 m by 4 m by 3 m, and each ping-pong ball as a sphere of diameter 0.038 m. The volume of the room is 4 4 3 = 48 m 3, while the volume of one ball is 4 0.038 m = 2.87 10 5 m 3. 3 2 48 Therefore, one can t about ~ 10 6 ping-pong balls in the room. 2.87 10 5 As an aside, the actual number is smaller than this because there will be a lot of space in the room that cannot be covered by balls. In fact, even in the best arrangement, the so-called best packing fraction is 1 2 = 0.74 so that at least 26% of the space will be empty. Therefore, the 6 above estimate reduces to 1.67 10 6 0.740 ~ 10 6 .
3

P1.26 P1.27

A reasonable guess for the diameter of a tire might be 2.5 ft, with a circumference of about 8 ft. Thus, the tire would make 50 000 mi 5 280 ft mi 1 rev 8 ft = 3 10 7 rev ~ 10 7 rev .

)(

)(

Assume the tub measures 1.3 m by 0.5 m by 0.3 m. One-half of its volume is then V = ( 0.5) (1.3 m ) ( 0.5 m ) ( 0.3 m ) = 0.10 m 3. The mass of this volume of water is mwater = waterV = (1 000 kg m 3 ) ( 0.10 m 3 ) = 100 kg ~ 10 2 kg . Pennies are now mostly zinc, but consider copper pennies lling 50% of the volume of the tub. The mass of copper required is mcopper = copperV = (8 920 kg m 3 ) ( 0.10 m 3 ) = 892 kg ~ 10 3 kg .

*P1.28

The time required for the task is 1 bad yr 1 s 1 h 1 working day = 58 yr 10 9 $ 300 working days 1 $ 3600 s 16 h Since you are already around 20 years old, you would have a miserable life and likely die before accomplishing the task. You have better things to do. Say no.

P1.29

Assume: Total population = 10 7; one out of every 100 people has a piano; one tuner can serve about 1 000 pianos (about 4 per day for 250 weekdays, assuming each piano is tuned once per year). Therefore, 1 tuner 1 piano (10 7 people ) = 100 tuners . # tuners ~ 1 000 pianos 100 people

Section 1.6 P1.30

Signicant Figures

METHOD ONE We treat the best value with its uncertainty as a binomial ( 21.3 0.2 ) cm ( 9.8 0.1) cm, A = [ 21.3 ( 9.8 ) 21.3 ( 0.1) 0.2 ( 9.8 ) ( 0.2 ) ( 0.1)] cm 2 . The rst term gives the best value of the area. The cross terms add together to give the uncertainty and the fourth term is negligible. A = 209 cm 2 4 cm 2 . METHOD TWO We add the fractional uncertainties in the data. 0.2 0.1 A = ( 21.3 cm ) ( 9.8 cm ) + = 209 cm 2 2% = 209 cm 2 4 cm 2 21.3 9.8

Physics and Measurement

P1.31 P1.32

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

r = ( 6.50 0.20 ) cm = ( 6.50 0.20 ) 10 2 m m = (1.85 0.02 ) kg

( 4 ) r3 3

also, = m + 3 r . m r In other words, the percentages of uncertainty are cumulative. Therefore,

0.02 3 ( 0.20 ) = + = 0.103, 1.85 6.50 =


and

( ) ( 6.5 10 2 m )
4 3

1.85

= 1.61 10 3 kg m 3

= (1.61 0.17 ) 10 3 kg m 3 = (1.6 0.2 ) 10 3 kg m 3.


P1.33 (a) 756.?? 37.2? 0.83 + 2.5? 796. / 5 / 3 = 797 0.003 2 ( 2 s.f.) 356.3 ( 4 s.f.) = 1.140 16 = ( 2 s.f.) 1.1 5.620 ( 4 s.f.) ( >4 s.f.) = 17.656= ( 4 s.f.) 17.66

(b) (c) P1.34

We work to nine signicant digits: 365.242 199 d 24 h 60 min 60 s 1 yr = 1 yr 1 d 1 h 1 min = 31 556 926.0 s . 1 yr

*P1.35

Let s represent the number of sparrows and m the number of more interesting birds. We have s m = 2.25 and s + m = 91. We eliminate m by substitution: m = s 2.25 s + s 2.25 = 91 1.444s = 91 s = 91 1.444 = 63 .

Chapter 1

*P1.36

For those who are not familiar with solving equations numerically, we provide a detailed solution. It goes beyond proving that the suggested answer works. The equation 2 x 4 3 x 3 + 5 x 70 = 0 is quartic, so we do not attempt to solve it with algebra. To nd how many real solutions the equation has and to estimate them, we graph the expression: x y = 2 x 4 3 x 3 + 5 x 70 3 158 2 24 1 70 0 70 1 66 2 52 3 26
y

4 270

We see that the equation y = 0 has two roots, one around x = 2.2 and the other near x = +2.7. To home in on the rst of these solutions we compute in sequence: When x = 2.2, y = 2.20. The root must be between x = 2.2 and x = 3. When x = 2.3, y = 11.0 . The root is between x = 2.2 and x = 2.3. When x = 2.23, y = 1.58 . The root is between x = 2.20 and x = 2.23. When x = 2.22, y = 0.301. The root is between x = 2.20 and 2.22. When x = 2.215, y = 0.331. The root is between x = 2.215 and 2.22. We could next try x = 2.218, but we already know to three-digit precision that the root is x = 2.22. *P1.37 tan We require sin = 3 cos , or sin = 3 , or tan = 3. cos For tan 1 ( 3) = arc tan ( 3) , your calculator may return 71.6, but this angle is not between 0 and 360 as the problem 0 requires. The tangent function is negative in the second quadrant (between 90 and 180) and in the fourth quadrant (from 270 to 360). The solutions to the equation are then 360 71.6 = 288 and 180 71.6 = 108 .

FIG. P1.36

360

FIG. P1.37

*P1.38

We draw the radius to the initial point and the radius to the nal point. The angle between these two radii has its sides perpendicular, right side to right side and left side to left side, to the 35 angle between the original and nal tangential directions of travel. A most useful theorem from R geometry then identies these angles as equal: = 35. The whole circumference of a 360 circle of the same radius is 2 R. By proportion, then 2 R = 840 m . 360 35 360 840 m 840 m R= = = 1.38 10 3 m 2 35 0.611 We could equally well say that the measure of the angle in radians is 2 radians 840 m = 35 = 35 = 0.611 rad = . 360 R Solving yields R = 1.38 km.

i 35.0 f E S
FIG. P1.38

N W

Physics and Measurement

*P1.39

Mass is proportional to cube of length: m = k Length changes by 15.8%:


f

m mi = (

)3.

+ 0.158

= 1.158 i .

Mass increase: mf = mi + 17.3 kg. mf = 1.1583 = 1.553 Eliminate by substitution: m f 17.3 kg mf = 1.553 mf 26.9 kg *P1.40 26.9 kg = 0.553 mf mf = 26.9 kg 0.553 = 48. 6 kg .

We use substitution, as the most generally applicable method for solving simultaneous equations. We substitute p = 3q into each of the other two equations to eliminate p: 3qr = qs 1 2 1 2. 1 2 2 3qr + 2 qs = 2 qt
2 3r = s 3r 2 + ( 3r ) = t 2 These simplify to 2 2 2 . We substitute to eliminate s: . We solve for the 3r + s = t 12r 2 = t 2 combination t : r t2 = 12 . r2

t = either 3.46 or 3.46 r

Additional Problems P1.41 The scale factor used in the dinner plate model is S= 0.25 m = 2.5 10 6 m lightyears. e 1.0 10 5 lightyears

The distance to Andromeda in the scale model will be


6 Dscale = Dactual S = ( 2.0 10 6 lightyears ) ( 2.5 10 6 m lightyears ) = 5.0 m .

P1.42

It is desired to nd the distance x such that x 1 000 m = 100 m x (i.e., such that x is the same multiple of 100 m as the multiple that 1 000 m is of x). Thus, it is seen that x 2 = (100 m ) (1 000 m ) = 1.00 10 5 m 2 and therefore x = 1.00 10 5 m 2 = 316 m .

10

Chapter 1

P1.43

One month is 1 mo = ( 30 day ) ( 24 h day ) ( 3 600 s h ) = 2.592 10 6 s . Applying units to the equation, V = (1.50 Mft 3 mo ) t + ( 0.008 00 Mft 3 mo2 ) t 2 . Since 1 Mft 3 = 10 6 ft 3 , V = (1.50 10 6 ft 3 mo ) t + ( 0.008 00 10 6 ft 3 mo2 ) t 2. Converting months to seconds, V= 1.50 10 6 ft 3 mo 0.008 00 10 6 ft 3 mo2 2 t+ t . 2.592 10 6 s mo ( 2.592 106 s mo)2

Thus, V [ft 3 ] = ( 0.579 ft 3 s ) t + (1.19 10 9 ft 3 s 2 ) t 2 . *P1.44

(deg)
15.0 20.0 30.0 33.0 31.0 31.1

(rad)
0.262 0.349 0.524 0.576 0.541 0.543

tan ( ) 0.268 0.364 0.577 0.649 0.601 0.603

sin ( ) 0.259 0.342 0.500 0.545 0.515 0.516

difference between and tan 2.30% 4.09% 9.32% 11.3% 9.95% 10.02%

P1.45

We see that in radians, tan( ) and sin( ) start out together from zero and diverge only slightly in value for small angles. Thus 31.0 is the largest angle for which tan < 0.1. tan 2 r = 15.0 m r = 2.39 m h = tan 55.0 r h = ( 2.39 m ) tan (55.0 ) = 3.41 m
h

P1.46

Let d represent the diameter of the coin and h its thickness. The mass of the gold is 2 d m = V = At = + dh t 4
2

55 r

where t is the thickness of the plating. ( 2.41)2 m = 19.3 2 + ( 2.41) ( 0.178 ) ( 0.18 10 4 ) 4 = 0.003 64 grams cost = 0.003 64 grams $10 gram = $0.036 4 = 3.64 cents r This is negligible compared to $4.98.

FIG. P1.45

Physics and Measurement

11

P1.47

The actual number of seconds in a year is

(86 400

s day ) ( 365.25 day yr ) = 31 557 600 s yr .

The percent error in the approximation is

( 10
P1.48

s yr ) ( 31 557 600 s yr ) 31 557 600 s yr

100% = 0.449% .

furlongs 220 yd 0.914 4 m 1 fortnight 1 day 1 hr = 8.32 10 4 m s v = 5.00 fortnight 1 furlong 1 yd 14 days 24 hrs 3 600 s g This speed is almost 1 mm s; so we might guess the creature was a snail, or perhaps a sloth.

P1.49

(a)

The speed of rise may be found from v=

( Vol rate of flow )


(Area: D / 4)
2

16.5 cm 3 s = 0.529 cm s . ( 6.30 cm )2 / 4

(b)

Likewise, at a 1.35 cm diameter, v= 16.5 cm 3 s = 11.5 cm s . (1.35 cm )2 / 4 m m 4m . = = 2 V r h D2h g The tabulated value 2.70 is 2% smaller. cm 3 g The tabulated value 8.92 3 is 5% smaller. cm

P1.50

The density of each material is = Al: = Cu: =

4 ( 51.5 g ) g = 2.75 3 2 cm ( 2.52 cm ) ( 3.75 cm ) 4 ( 56.3 g ) g = 9.36 3 cm (1.23 cm )2 ( 5.06 cm ) 4 ( 94.4 g ) g = 8.91 3 2 cm (1.54 cm ) ( 5.69 cm )

Brass: = Sn: = Fe: =

4 ( 69.1 g ) g = 7.68 3 2 cm (1.75 cm ) ( 3.74 cm ) g The tabulated value 7.86 3 is 0.3% smaller. cm

4 ( 216.1 g ) g = 7.88 3 cm (1.89 cm )2 ( 9.77 cm )

P1.51

V20 mpg = V25 mpg =

(108 cars)(10 4 mi yr ) = 5.0 1010 gal yr 20 mi gal (108 cars)(10 4 mi yr ) = 4.0 1010 gal yr 25 mi gal

Fuel saved = V25 mpg V20 mpg = 1.0 1010 gal yr

12

Chapter 1

P1.52

The volume of the galaxy is

r 2t = (10 21 m ) (1019 m ) ~ 10 61 m 3.
2

If the distance between stars is 4 1016 m, then there is one star in a volume on the order of

( 4 10
The number of stars is about

16

m ) ~ 10 50 m 3 .
3

10 61 m 3 ~ 1011 stars . 10 50 m 3 star

ANSWERS TO EVEN-NUMBERED PROBLEMS


P1.2 P1.4 P1.6 P1.8 P1.10 P1.12 P1.14 P1.16 P1.18 P1.20 P1.22 2.15 104 kg m3 2.3 1017 kg m3 is twenty trillion times larger than the density of lead. 0.141 nm (a) ii (b) iii (c) i

9.19 nm s (a) 3.39 105 ft3 (a) 0.071 4 gal s 667 lb s 2.57 10 6 m 3 (a) 2.07 mm (b) 8.57 1013 times as large (b) 2.54 104 lb (b) 2.70 104 m3 s (c) 1.03 h

(a) 13.4; (b) 49.1 rAl = rFe Fe Al ~10 7 rev No. There is a strong possibility that you would die before nishing the task, and you have much more productive things to do.
13

P1.24 P1.26 P1.28

P1.30 P1.32 P1.34 P1.36 P1.38

( 209 4 ) cm 2
(1.61 0.17) 103 kg m3 31 556 926.0 s see the solution 1.38 km

Physics and Measurement

13

P1.40 P1.42 P1.44 P1.46 P1.48 P1.50 P1.52

either 3.46 or 3.46 316 m 0.542 rad 3.64 cents; no 8.32 10 4 m s; a snail see the solution ~1011 stars