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The Ancient Science- Part 1

before we proceed to the details description of Chakras we need to know the basic and structure of the human body. YOGA NADIS: Nadis are the astral tubes made up of astral matter that carry psychic currents. The Sanskrit term Nadi comes from the root Nad which means motion. It is through these Nadis (Sukshma, subtle passages), that the vital force or Pranic current moves or flows. Since they are made up of subtle matter they cannot be seen by the naked physical eyes and you cannot make any test-tube experiments in the physical plane. These Yoga Nadis are not the ordinary nerves, arteries and veins that are known to the Vaidya Shastra (Anatomy and Physiology). Yoga Nadis are quite different from these. The body is filled with innumerable Nadis that cannot be counted. Different authors state the number of Nadis in different ways, i.e., from 72,000 to 3,50,000. When you turn your attention to the internal structure of the body, you are struck with awe and wonder. Because the architect is the Divine Lord Himself who is assisted by skilled engineers and masonsMaya, Prakriti, Visva , Karma, etc. Nadis play a vital part in Kundalini Yoga. Kundalini when awakened will pass through Sushumna Nadi

and this is possible only when the Nadis are pure. Therefore, the first step in Kundalini Yoga is the purification of Nadis. A detailed knowledge of the Nadis and Chakras, is absolutely essential. Their location, functions, nature, etc., should be thoroughly studied. The subtle lines, Yoga Nadis, have influence in the physical body. All the subtle (Sukshma) Prana, Nadis and Chakras have gross manifestation and operation in the physical body. The gross nerves and plexuses have close relationship with the subtle ones. You should understand this point well. Since the physical centers have close relationship with the astral centers, the vibrations that are produced in the physical centers by prescribed methods, have the desired effects in the astral centers. Whenever there is an interlacing of several nerves, arteries and veins, that center is called Plexus. The physical material plexuses that are known to the Vaidya Shastra are: Pampiniform, Cervical, Brachial, Coccygeal, Lumbar, Sacral, Cardiac, Esophageal, Hepatic Pharyngeal, Pulmonary, Ligual Prostatic Plexus, etc. Similarly there are plexuses or centres of vital forces in the Sukshma Nadis. They are known as Padma (lotus) or Chakras. Detailed instructions on all these centres are given elsewhere. All the Nadis spring from the Kanda. It is in the junction where the Sushumna Nadi is connected with the Muladhara Chakra. Some say, that this Kanda is 12 inches above the anus. Out of the innumerable Nadis 14 are said to be important. They are:

1. Sushumna 2. Ida 3. Pingala 4. Gandhari 5. Hastajihva 6. Kuhu 7. Saraswati 8. Pusha 9. Sankhini 10. Payasvini 11. Varuni 12. Alambusha 13. Vishvodhara 14. Yasasvini Again Ida, Pingala and Sushumna are the most important of the above 14 Nadis, and Sushumna is the chief. It is the highest and most sought by the Yogins. Other Nadis are subordinate to this. Detailed instructions on each Nadi and its functions and the method of awakening the Kundalini and passing it from Chakra to Chakra will be given in the following post

The concept of Brahman?

The word 'brahman' is a noun in Sanskrit, in the neuter gender, not to be confused with the masculine noun 'brahmA' which is the name of the first of the triad of personal Gods: brahmA, viShNu and shiva. Nor to be confused with bhrama, meaning complexity, error or mistake. 'brahman' originates from the root verb 'bRRih' to grow or enlarge. In the 'Taittariya Upanishad' II.1, Brahman is described in the following manner: "satyam jnanam anantam brahma", "Brahman is of the nature of truth, knowledge and infinity." Infinite positive qualities and states have their existence secured solely by virtue of Brahman's very reality. Brahman is a necessary reality, eternal (i.e., beyond the purview of temporality), fully independent, non-contingent, and the source and ground of all things. Brahman is both immanently present in the realm of materiality, interpenetrating the whole of

reality as the sustaining essence that gives it structure, meaning and existential being, yet Brahman is simultaneously the transcendent origin of all things (thus, panentheistic). Several great sayings, indicate what the principle of Brahman is: prajnnam brahma "Brahman is knowledge"- Aitareya Upanishad 3.3 ayam tm brahma "The Self (or the Soul) is Brahman" - Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.5, aham brahmsmi "I am Brahman"- Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 tat tvam asi "You are that"- Chhndogya Upanishad 6.8.7 sarvam khalv idam brahma "All this that we see in the world is Brahman"- Madhavacarya, Mayavada sata dushani, text 6 sachchidnanda brahma "Brahman is existence, consciousness, and happiness" -Chhndogya Upanishad 3.14.1 The description of Brahman from Mandukya Upanishad:

sarvam hyetad brahmyamtm brahma soyamtm chatushpt All indeed is this Brahman; He is Atman; He has four steps/quarters. - Verse-2 Thus, Brahman is conceived of as the very essence of existence and knowledge, which pervades the entire universe, including every living being. The goal of Hinduism is to somehow "wake up," and realize one's own connection to the divine reality that may be called Brahman or God. All our knowledge of brahman comes from the scriptures and so is indirect (Sanskrit: 'parokSha'). It is however known, as direct (Sanskrit: 'aparokSha') knowledge by realisation and insight, once everything that is transient is transcended. It is not known otherwise; it is that which makes known what is known. By itself it is not an object of knowledge to be known. It is the very Consciousness (Sanskrit: 'cit', also 'caitanyaM') that cognises knowledge. There is no higher Reality outside that. Knowledge of absence of Consciousness implies the existence of Consciousness. While everything is presented to Consciousness, the nature of Consciousness is to be its own light. A lighted lamp needs no other light to illumine it. Imagine a person who is blind from birth and has not seen anything. Is it possible for us to explain to him the meaning of the colour red? Is any amount of thinking or reasoning on his part ever going to make him understand the sensation of the colour red? In a similar fashion the idea of Brahman cannot be explained or understood through material reasoning or any form of human communication. Brahman is like the colour red; those who can sense it cannot explain or argue with those who have never sensed it.

The concept of 33 koti devata:

The Vedas refer to not 33 crore Devatas but 33 types (Koti in Sanskrit) of Devatas. They are explained in Shatpath Brahman and many other scriptures very clearly. "Yasya Trayastrinshad Devaa Ange Sarve Samaahitaa, Skamma Tam Bruhi Katamah Swideva Sah. ~(Atharva Veda 10-7-13) Which means: with Gods influence, these thirty-three (supporting devta) sustain the world. In Brhadaranyaka Upanishad while discussing Brahman, Yajnavalkya is asked how many gods are there. He says that there are three hundred and three and three thousand and three gods. When the question is repeated? He says, thirty three. When the question is again repeated he says, six. Finally, after several repetitions he says ONE. (Chapter I, hymn 9, verse 1) The number 33 comes from the number of Vedic gods explained by Yajnavalkya in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the twelve Adityas, Indra and Prajapati. (Chapter I, hymn 9, verse 2) They are: 8-Vasu, 11-Rudra, and 12-Aaditya, 1-Indra and 1-Prajaapati. 8. Vasus are: Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether, Moon, Sun, and Star. They are called Vasus, because they are abode of all that lives, moves or exists. (also mentioned in Mahabharat, 1/66/18) 11. Rudras: The ten Pranas (Praana, Apaana, Vyaana, Samaana, Udaana, Naag, Kurma, Krikal, Devadutta and Dhananjaya) i.e. nervauric forces which live in the human body. The eleventh is the human soul. These are called Rudras because when they desert the body, it becomes dead and the relations of the deceased, consequently, begin to weep. Rudra means one who makes a person to weep. { also mentioned in Harivansha 13/51-52}) 12. Adityaas ---the twelve months of a year called Adityaas, they cause the lapse of the term of existence of each object or being. { also mentioned in Mahabharat 1/65/15-16}) 1. Indra which is also known as the (all-pervading) electricity, as it is productive of great force. 1. Prajaapati , also called the Yajna because it benefits mankind by the purification of air, water, rain and vegetables and because it aids the development of various arts, and in it the honor is accorded to the learned and the wise. The master of these 33 Devatas is the Mahadeva or Ishwar who alone is to be worshipped as per 14th Kanda of Shatpath Brahman

-- Agni -In Vedas Agni is mentioned in everywhere. People may think that the English translation of Agni is fire and the Vedas are telling about fire or worshiping fire. The modern translator makes Vedas more difficult to understand and people often misquote it. Yes one meaning of Agni is fire but to understand or realize the essence of Veda and why Agni is so important in Vedas we have to look deep inside it. The Agni comes from the root word Aag (Dhatu), The meaning of this Aag dhatu (root) is light or enticing light, means the energy which brings the light of knowledge, or enlighten the mind is called Agni. Another meaning of Aag dhatu is supreme or main. The consciousness, the energy which is the supreme of the universe, the energy which is from the source of divine is called Agni. Again the Aag dhatu means movement or flow. The divine energy which is the cause of this universal climax, which streams the universe, is called Agni. These excellences of Agni are described through 100s of hymens in veda. This Agni is the ancient, the divine, source of every energy, element of every devas, dharmas, the guardian of Truth. This Agni is the cosmic energy of the Supreme being

Jnana Yoga (

) - The Yoga of Knowledge or Wisdom

This is the most difficult path, requiring tremendous strength of will and intellect. Taking the philosophy of Vedanta the Jnana Yogi uses his mind to inquire into its own nature. We perceive the space inside and outside a glass as different, just as we see ourselves as separate from God. Jnana Yoga leads the devotee to experience his unity with God directly by breaking the glass, dissolving the veils of ignorance. Before practicing Jnana Yoga, the aspirant needs to have integrated the lessons of the other yogic paths - for without selflessness and love of God, strength of body and mind, the search for self-realization can become mere idle speculation. Vedanta Vedanta is that philosophy which comes from the sacred scriptures called The Upanishads. The Upanishads are the final part of the ancient texts known as the Vedas. Veda means knowledge and Anta means end. Therefore Vedanta is said to be the philosophy which leads to the end of knowledge and too from the ending part of the Vedas. Three Types of Vedanta Three main schools of Vedanta emerged: Dvaita - the dualistic approach, Advaita - the non-dualistic approach and

Kevala Advaita - the pure non-dualistic school. The main exponent of Vedanta was the great sage Adi Sankara who was an adept of the Kevala Advaita Vedanta path. Adi Sankara and Kevala Advaita Vedanta Sri Sankaracharya summarized the essence of Vedantic teachings into three concise sentences. These are: "Brahma Satyam. Jagat Mithya. Jivo Brahmaiva Na Parah." These can be translated in English as follows: God only is real. The world is unreal. The individual is none other than God. Vedanta and Jnana Yoga The beauty of Vedanta is that it transcends dry philosophy and mere intellectual concept. Vedanta is an actual life experience, a philosophy in practice. This practice includes the many techniques of Jnana Yoga (The Yoga of will and intellect). Jyna yoga teaches that there are four means to salvation: 1. Viveka - Discrimination: The ability to differentiate between what is real/eternal (Brahman) and what is unreal/temporal (everything else in the universe.) This was an important concept in texts older even than the Bhagavad Gita, and often invoked the image of a Swan, which was said to be able to separate milk (or Soma) from water, whilst drinking. 2. Vairagya - Dispassion: After practice one should be able to "detach" her/himself from everything that is "temporary." 3. Shad-sampat - The 6 Virtues: Sama-Tranquility (control of the mind), Dama (control of the senses),

Uparati (renunciation of activities that are not duties), Titiksha (endurance), Shraddha (faith), Samadhana (perfect concentration). 4. Mumukshutva - Intense longing for liberation from temporal legal traits. In Bhagavad Gita (13.35) Sri Krishna says "Those who see with eyes of knowledge the difference between the body and the knower of the body, and can also understand the process of liberation from bondage in material nature, attain to the supreme goal."

Bhakti Yoga - The Path of Devotion or Divine Love

This path appeals particularly to those of an emotional nature. The Bhakti Yogi is motivated chiefly by the power of love and sees God as the embodiment of love. Through prayer, worship and ritual he surrenders himself to God, channeling and transmuting his emotions into unconditional love or devotion. Chanting or singing the praises of God form a substantial part of Bhakti Yoga. The Bhagavata Purana teaches nine primary forms of bhakti, as explained by Prahlada: 1. ravaa ("listening" to the scriptural stories of Ka and his companions), 2. krtana ("praising," usually refers to ecstatic group singing), 3. smaraa ("remembering" or fixing the mind on Viu), 4. pda-sevana (rendering service), 5. arcana (worshiping an image), 6. vandana (paying homage), 7. dsya (servitude), 8. skhya (friendship), and 9. tma-nivedana (complete surrender of the self). (from Bhagata Purana, 7.5.23-24) The Bhagavad Gita introduces bhakti yoga in combination with karma yoga and jnana yoga. In the ninth chapter, Lord Sri Krishna says, "Fill thy mind with Me, be My devotee, sacrifice unto Me, bow down to Me; thus having made thy heart steadfast in Me, taking Me as the Supreme Goal, thou shalt come to Me". (B-Gita 9.34)

Raja Yoga - The Science of Physical and Mental Control:

There are four main paths of Yoga - Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Raja Yoga and Jnana Yoga. Each is suited to a different temperament or approach to life. All the paths lead ultimately to the same destination - to union with Brahman or God - and the lessons of each of them need to be integrated if true wisdom is to be attained. Raja Yoga Often called the "royal road" it offers a comprehensive method for controlling the waves of thought by turning our mental and physical energy into spiritual energy. Raja Yoga is also called Ahtanga Yoga referring to the eight limbs leading to absolute mental control. The chief practice of Raja Yoga is meditation. It also includes all other methods which helps one to control body, energy, senses and mind. Ashtanga - The Eight Limbs of Raja Yoga Compiled by the Sage Patanjali Maharishi in the Yoga Sutras, the Eight Limbs are a progressive series of steps or disciplines which purify the body and mind, ultimately leading the yogi to enlightenment. These 8 limbs are: 1. Yamas - The Yamas or restraints (Don'ts) are divided into five moral injunctions, aimed at destroying the lower nature. They should all be practiced and developed by the letter but also more importantly in the spirit. They should all be practiced in word, thought and deed. Ahimsa or non-violence: Satyam or truthfulness Brahmacharya or moderation in all things (control of all senses). Also refers to celibacy Asteya or non-stealing Aparigraha or non-covetousness 2. Niyamas - The Niyamas or observances (Do's) are also divided into five and complete the ethical precepts started with the Yama.. These qualities are: Saucha or purity - this internal and external cleanliness. Santosha or contentment Tapas or austerity Swadhyaya or study of the sacred texts Ishwara Pranidhana which is constantly living with an awareness of the divine Presence (surrender to God's Will) 3. Asanas - Postures 4. Pranayama - regulation or control of the breath. Asanas and Pranayama form the sub-division of Raja Yoga known as Hatha-Yoga 5.Pratyahara - withdrawal of the senses in order to still the mind. 6.Dharana - concentration. The last 3 steps constitute the internal practice of Raja Yoga. When Dharana is achieved, it leads to the next step: 7. Dhyana - meditation is that state of pure thought and absorption in the object of meditation. There is still duality in Dhyana. When mastered Dhyana leads to the last step:

8. Samadhi - the superconscious state. In Samadhi non-duality or oneness is experienced. This is the deepest and highest state of consciousness where body and mind have been transcended and the Yogi is one with the Self or God.

Vedic Cosmology
The Day-Night and the season change in vedic cosmology: (Geocentric model) The pole star is situated vertically above the earths nort h pole As the sun goes around the earth we experience day and night. The stationary earth slightly tilted towards the pole stars. During summer in the northern hemisphere the North Pole experience 6 months of day light and vice versa. This called uttarayana and dakshinayana. Uttaryaa, is the six-month period between Makar Sankranti (around January 14) and Karka Sankranti (around July 14), when the sun travels towards the north on the celestial sphere. The name Uttarayana comes from joining two different Sanskrit words "Uttara" (North) and "ayana" (movement towards). The period from July 14 to January 14 is known is Dakshinyana . The start of Uttarayana is celebrated as Makara Sankranti and Dakshinayana as Karka Sankranti throughout India. Due to this movement of Sun the Earth experiences the Seasonal Change