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Sai Prem Kumar Ayyagari, Rajiv Singh, Prabir Purkayastha, Peter Deeskow {sk.ayyagari, r.singh, p.purkay}@evonik-es.in, peter.deeskow@evonik.com

AbstractThis paper studies the application of soft sensing (state estimation) in estimating the soot depositions in the boiler super heater sections of coal red power plant. In purpose to nd an appropriate dynamic indication for soot blowing in the super heater sections even in the unsteady state conditions, a mathematical model of the super heater section is congured. The model is extended and solved to get a response to match the process behavior. We take an approach of kalman ltering to estimate the soot depositions. This estimation model is applied to two different super heater sections of a boiler and shown to produce, good results when tested with the plant measurement data. It also demonstrated how actually the soot blowing affects the efciency of heat transfer. Finally the possibility of a better control of main steam temperature is being discussed. Index TermsSoot deposition, state estimation, Extended Kalman Filter

Figure 1.

I NTRODUCTION To achieve optimum boiler performance and efciency, control of soot deposition is necessary. Soot blowing is a process to resolve this problem in a coal red power plant. Usually soot deposition occurs in two levels, namely slagging at the down comer and riser (water Walls) where the radiation is the primary heat transfer medium, and fouling at the super heater sections. Typical indication for the furnace slagging appears indirectly to operator incase of an increase in spray ow at super heater sections. Slagging leads to reduction in heat absorption at water walls resulting in high ue gas and steam temperatures, leading to an increase in attemprator ow. But, for fouling there is no such indication for the operator. The soot blowing for super heater sections is done randomly based on operators experience. In order to feed to an optimizing soot blower sequencer, with an indication of soot deposition in the super heater sections, an observer is designed. The other main benet of fouling monitoring is in reducing the soot blowing medium i.e., blow down steam. In practice, heat ux meters and strain-gauges are used in power plants as an indirect measurement for soot accumulation. One of the short coming in using these sensors is the cost. It is also observed that, if two sensors are placed at same place they indicate different readings due to the randomness of fouling [1]. There are some distributed models [2], [3] for indicating the spatial distribution in fouling or slagging. But the main idea of these models is to nd the amount of accumulation on the steel pipes. Physically the heat transfer efciency is not only based on the amount of fouling but also on the physical properties of fouling [4]. For steady load demand, there are some indirect methods to

calculate the overall dirtiness based on the exit gas temperature and boiler efciency[5]. As more nuclear units comes into operation indicate the necessity for the dynamic indication of soot depositions. In the paper, we follow another indirect method of calculating soot deposition by means of calculating the overall heat transfer coefcient of super heater section using a lumped heat exchanger model. In the process of soot deposition, the actual physical parameter that is being changed is the amount of heat transfer which is dictated by the heat transfer coefcient of heat exchanger[6]. If we are able to estimate the heat transfer coefcient between ue gases to metal then we are able to have a track of soot accumulation in the heat exchanger section. We are considering only the heat transfer coefcient between gas to metal because it is much smaller compared to the heat transfer coefcient from metal to steam. so, the overall heat transfer coefcient will be closer to heat transfer coefcient from gas to metal. A non-linear lumped model is modeled for heat exchanger section. An extended Kalman Filter is designed for state estimation using the model and applied to different sections of the boiler. The results obtained are useful in quantitative assessment of convective heat surface cleaning modules and also for the steam temperature control. M ATHEMATICAL MODELING A mathematical model of heat exchanger (g.1) will be presented, which takes consideration of ash deposits on the heat exchanger surface. The metal properties are going to change as a result of soot deposition. The parameter that actually represents this change is the heat transfer coefcient on the outer side. The temperature of outlet steam and metal is obtained from the energy conservation law as follows [7]:

Vs s1 cs1

dTs1 dt

dTm = A1 gm (Tg Tm ) Ams (Tm Ts1 ) (2) dt based on the ash deposits, gm is going to change but it is assumed to be constant for a sampling time (5 minutes). This can be represented as: M m cm dgm =0 (3) dt The equation 1 indicates the change in outlet steam temperature which is equal to the difference in the amount of energy taken away by the steam from the amount of energy in the metal. this indicates the energy balance on steam side. Equation 2 indicates the energy balance on ue gas side. The following are the assumptions in the model Outer tube surfaces are covered with ash deposits of uniform thickness leading to a lumped model. The ue gas temperature is assumed to be the average of inlet and exit ue gas temperature. The heat transfer coefcient between metal and steam is not affected by the soot deposition because the amount of heat transfer is mainly based on the amount of heat stored in the metal mass. surface of the pipes were considered smooth. Thus the above ODEs form a non-linear system. State-Space formulation: Considering Ts1 , Tm , gm as state variables and Fs , Tg , Ts as manipulated variables, a state-space model is formulated as follows dX = f (X, U ) (4) dt The jacobians are calculated and coverted from continious to descrete form as X(k + 1) = X(k) + HU (k) (5)

as an effect of spray control loop. This indicates the rst order non-linearity of the process. So, from literature it is always suggested to opt for an Extended Kalman Filter for estimation for lower order non-linear process. Even though there are many observers like UKF, Sliding mode observer which may not produce much deviation from the EKF results. Extended Kalman Filter The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used as a state and parameter estimator. The kalman lter is an optimal state estimator under noisy environments used to estimate the states of a linear dynamic system. In this algorithm each new state is estimated from previous state estimate and current measurement. The Extended Kalman Filter is an extension of the Kalman Filter for nonlinear dynamical systems. In this a Kalman Filter is formulated based on linearising the system matrices around previous estimate.EKF is used for estimating the above parameters for detecting the parameter variations and helps in identifying the faults. The nonlinear discrete state space model is given as below X(k + 1) = f (X(k), U (k)) + W (k) Z(k) = h(X(k)) + V (k) (6) (7)

Here f (X(k), U (k)) and h(X(k) are nonlinear functions of state and measurement functions respectively. The lineraised equations of EKF is as given below X(k + 1) = (k)X(k) + U1 (k) + W (k) Z(k) = H(k)X(k) + V (k) Here (k) = f (X(k), U (k)) |X (k) X(k) h(X(k)) |X (k) X(k) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

H(k) =

U1 (k) = f (X (K), U (k)) (k)X(k) The kalman lter equations are given as follows[8] K(k) = P (k + 1)H T HP (K)H T + R(k)

1

Where :Transition matrix, exponential of jacobian of f with respect to states. H: Input matrix. exponential jacobian of f with respect to inputs. The input data required are inlet steam temperature, steam ow, average ue gas temperature and Outlet steam temperature. To run this simulation, data were taken from Ramagundam thermal power palnt. Another advantage of this model is that, it also acts as a soft sensor for metal temperature control which is the main cause for the steam leakages in super heater sections. In order to have a good estimate of the process parameters and states the observer is used. The model considered is a non-linear model for the fact the output steam temperature is always constant for any change in the considered inputs,

X(k) = X (k) + K(k) Z(k) H X (k) P (k) = [I K(k)H] P (k) X (k + 1) = X(k) + GU (k) P (k + 1) = P (k)T + Q(k)

Here, (13) is kalman gain matrix, (14)is unrened state error covariance matrix, (15) is unrened state estimate, (16)

Figure 4.

Figure 2.

done. The model was validated by comparing with the actual plant data for soot blowing. The other observation made is that, at some point of time, there is an increase in the value of heat transfer coefcient. This maybe because, fouling also considers the phenomenon of soot coming out of the surface [9], which we are unable to predict exactly at this point of time. The g. 3,4 indicate more than 20 percent increase in heat transfer coefcient due to soot blowing. Due to this, there will be an overall efciency improvement of about 1-2 percent based on the boiler section which was soot blown. C ONCLUSION A mathematical model is used to analyze the fouling in different super heater sections of a coal red boiler. From the results it is observed that the kalman lter prediction is showing a good indication of soot blowing. These results can be provided to an intelligent soot blowing module. The advantage of using the model comes from the dynamic behavior which enables the model to do these predictions irrespective of load demand. At the same time a better estimate of steam temperature is quite useful in controlling the same. N OMENICLATURE

Figure 3.

is updated state estimate using measurement update, (17) is updated state error covariance matrix. Predicted state using system dynamics and is the predicted error covariance. The mathematical model is formulated to be compatible with the Kalman Filter and applied with steam temperature as a measurement feed back to Kalman Filter. S IMULATION To study the impact of super heater fouling on the heat transfer coefcient, two super heater sections are considered. MATLAB is used to simulate the model. In order to estimate by using non linear model, Runge-Kutta algorithm is used to solve the ODE numerically. A 5 minute time step was considered, as the data was available for the same interval. R ESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Now the input data required for this simulation were steam inlet and outlet temperatures, steam mass ow and average ue gas temperature of that particular super heater section. The same model is applied to both the super heater sections of the boiler namely Re-Heater (REH) and main super heater (MSH). The results are showing that there was a subtle variation in the heat transfer coefcient when the soot blowing was

V volume Specic weight of steam c Specic heat H enthalpy F ow A area Heat transfer coefcient T Temperature M mass s steam m metal ms metal to steam gm gas to metal 1 outlet side g ue gas t time

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to acknowledge the support and suggestions given by Mr. Sujeet kumar for the successful implementation and testing of models. The research has been supported by the Evonik Energy Services (India) Pvt Ltd through the R&D department. This support is greatly acknowledged. We would also like to thank Ms. Neha Verma for helping in collecting data. R EFERENCES

[1] C.Cortes, O. Bella, Ash fouling monitoring and soot blowing optimisation in a pulvarized coal red utility boiler, 10th annual international Pittsburgh coal conference, sep, 2004. [2] Jan Taler, Marcin Trojan, Assesment of ash fouling and slagging in coal red utility boilers, Proceedings of international conference on heat exchanger fouling and cleaning, june,2009. [3] Investigations on fouling rate in convective bundles of coal-red boilers in relation to optimization of soot blower operation. [4] M.S. Abd-Elhady, S. Abd-Elhady, Removal of gas-side particulate fouling layers by foreign particles as a function of ow direction, Applied Thermal Engineering , 2009. [5] J. Taler, D. Taler, Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers, proceedings of 7th international conference on heat exchangers fouling and cleaning, July,2007 [6] G.J. Nakoneczny, K.L. Noel, Boiler performance improvement due to intelligent sootblowing utilizing real time boiler, International conference on power generation, Nov-Dec,2004. [7] Y. Sato, M. Nomura, Steam temperature prediction control for thermal power plant, IEEE Transacions on power apparatus and systems, vol.103, No.9, Sep,2004. [8] Z. Lendeka, R. Babuskaa, B. De Schutter, Distributed Kalman ltering for cascaded systems, Engineering Applications of Articial Intelligence 21, (2008), pp. 457469. [9] W.J. Marner, J.W. Suitor, A Survey of Gas-Side Fouling in Industrial Heat-Transfer Equipment, NASA recuperation study, Final Report.

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