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3GPP LTE Technologies

JianHua Wu Application Engineer


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LTE context and timeline


What is LTE? - LTE is a 3GPP project name for the evolution of UMTS - It is now linked with the development of a new air interface - Existed together the evolution of UMTS via HSDPA and HSUPA Other names of LTE: - Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) / Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) - Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access - Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

Related names: - 3.9G,Super 3G,HSOPA(Evolution of HSDPA/HSUPA with OFDM) - These terms are not standard, and may fade out soon.
LTE Core Network name: - It is called SAE (System Architecture Evolution). - It refers to the evolved core network.

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3GPP standards evolution (RAN & GERAN)


Release Commercial Main feature of Release introduction

99

Rel-99 Rel-4 Rel-5

2003 Trials 2006

Basic 3.84 Mcps W-CDMA (FDD & TDD) 1.28 Mcps TDD (aka TD-SCDMA) (LCR) HSDPA

Rel-6
Rel-7

2007
2008+

HSUPA (E-DCH)
HSPA+ (64QAM DL, MIMO, 16QAM UL). Many smaller features plus LTE & SAE Study items LTE Work item OFDMA air interface SAE Work item New IP core network Edge Evolution, more HSPA+ LTE Evolved MBMS, IMT-Advanced (4G)

Rel-8

HSPA+ 2009 LTE 2010+ 2011 2014

09
Rel-9

Page 3

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Wireless evolution 1990 - 2010


2G
IS-95A cdma IS-95B cdma

GSM

IS-136 TDMA

PDC

802.11b 802.11a

Increasing efficiency, bandwidth and data rates

2.5G

HSCSD

GPRS

iMode

802.11g 802.11h 802.11n 802.16d Fixed WiMAXTM

3G

cdma2000

E-GPRS EDGE 1xEV-DO Release A

W-CDMA FDD

W-CDMA TDD HSDPA FDD & TDD

TD-SCDMA LCR-TDD HSUPA FDD & TDD

3.5G

1xEV-DO Release 0

1xEV-DO Release B Edge Evolution

3.9G

UMB

LTE Rel-8 LTEAdvanced Rel-9/10

HSPA+

802.16e Mobile WiMAXTM

WiBRO

4G

802.16m ?

Page 4

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LTE in context
5 major new 3.9G wireless technologies
3GPP LTE 3GPP HSPA+ 3GPP Edge Evolution 3GPP2 UMB (similar to 802.20) IEEE WiMAX (802.16e / WiBRO) EDGE Evolution UMB cf 802.20 LTE E-UTRA HSPA+

3.9G Goals

Mobile WiMAXTM

802.16e

Spectral efficiency Highest single user data rates Less robust higher order modulation schemes and multi-antenna technology ranging from basic Tx and Rx diversity through to full MIMO

3.9G Techniques:
HSPA+ and EDGE Evolution are natural extensions to existing technologies LTE, UMB and WiMAX are new OFDM systems with no technical precedent other than the early implementation of WiBRO which is now a WiMAX profile.

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LTE timeline for 3GPP, GCF & LSTI


Rel-7 Study Phase Rel-8 Work Phase Test Specs
Core specs 1st Test drafted Specs drafted

GCF certification

Commercial release?

Proof of concept Interoperability Field trials

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Page 6

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LTE at a glance

Page 7

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UE categories
UE Category 1 2 3 4 5 Max downlink data rate 10 Mbps 50 Mbps 100 Mbps 150 Mbps 300 Mbps Number of DL Modulation of Max uplink data Modulation transmit data DL rate of UL streams 1 2 2 2 4 QPSK 16QAM 64QAM 5 Mbps 25 Mbps 50 Mbps 50 Mbps 75 Mbps QPSK 16QAM 64QAM QPSK 16QAM 20M RF Bandwidth

Page 8

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Operating Band

DOCOMO

(Europe Bands) TeliaSonera Metro PCS , Verizon

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TX/RX Spacing

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Flexible Channel Bandwidth

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EARFCN
Channel Raster : 100k Hz

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LTE Network Architecture


E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)

3GPP TS 36.300

MME = Mobile Management entity

SAE = System Architecture Evolution

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Logical high level architecture for evolved system


Evolved IP packet core with multi-RAT integration
GERAN
Gb Iu

HSS - Home subscriber server SGSN GPRS Core


S7 S3 S5a S4

PCRF
Rx+

UTRAN

IMS - IP multimedia subsystem Inter AS anchor Inter access system anchor MME - Mobility management entity Op. IP Serv. Operator IP service PCRF - Policy and charging rule control function UPE - User plane entity

HSS
S5b
3GPP Anchor
IASA

S6
SAE Anchor

Evolved RAN

S1

MME UPE

SGi

Evolved Packet Core

Op. IP Serv. (IMS, PSS, etc)

WiMAX could connect here

S2

S2

non 3GPP IP Access

WLAN 3GPP IP Access

3GPP 23.882 Figure 4.2-1

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Why OFDM for the downlink?


OFDM already widely used in non-cellular technologies and was considered by ETSI for
UMTS in 1998 CDMA was favoured since OFDM requires large amounts of baseband processing which was not commercially viable ten years ago

OFDM advantages
Wide channels are more resistant to fading and OFDM equalizers are much simpler to implement than CDMA Almost completely resistant to multi-path due to very long symbols Ideally suited to MIMO due to easy matching of transmit signals to the uncorrelated RF channels

OFDM disadvantages
Sensitive to frequency errors and phase noise due to close subcarrier spacing Sensitive to Doppler shift which creates interference between subcarriers Pure OFDM creates high PAR which is why SC-FDMA is used on UL More complex than CDMA for handling inter-cell interference at cell edge

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CDMA vs. OFDM


CDMA
All transmissions at full system bandwidth Symbol period is short inverse of system bandwidth Users separated by orthogonal spreading codes

OFDM
Transmission variable up to system bandwidth Symbol period is long defined by subcarrier spacing and independent of system bandwidth Users separated by FDMA & TDMA on the subcarriers

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LTE Air Interface


OFDM: Orthogonal Carriers

Next sub-carrier

Closely spaced carriers overlap Nulls in each carriers spectrum land at the center of all other carriers for Zero Inter-Carrier Interference

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LTE Air Interface


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
f

Tu=66.7us f=1/Tu=15kHz

Closely spaced carriers overlap Nulls in each carriers spectrum land at the center of all other carriers for Zero Inter-Carrier Interference
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Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

3GPP 25.892 Figure 1: Frequency-Time Representation of an OFDM Signal

OFDM is a digital multi-carrier modulation scheme,


which uses a large number of closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers. Each sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM) at a low symbol rate similar to conventional single-carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth.

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OFDM vs. OFDMA


OFDM
User 1 User 2 Subcarriers

User 3

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

OFDMA = OFDM + TDMA


Subcarriers User 1 Symbols (Time) User 2 User 3

LTE uses OFDMA a variation of basic OFDM


OFDMAs dynamic allocation enables better use of the channel for multiple low-rate users and for the avoidance of narrowband fading & interference.

Symbols (Time)

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Why Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)?


SC-FDMA is a new hybrid modulation technique combining the low PAR single carrier methods of current systems with the frequency allocation flexibility and long symbol time of OFDM SC-FDMA is sometimes referred to as Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM = DFT-SOFDM

LTE uses SC-FDMA in the uplink


Time domain
Coded symbol rate= R

Frequency domain

Time domain

DFT
N TX symbols

Sub - carrier Mapping

IFFT

CP insertion

Size - N TX

Size - N FFT

TR 25.814 Figure 9.1.1-1 Transmitter structure for SC-FDMA.

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OFDM modulation
QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers
Each of N subcarriers is encoded with one QPSK symbol
-1,1 Q 1,1

N subcarriers can transmit N QPSK symbols in parallel

-1,-1

1,-1

The amplitude of the combined 4 carrier signal varies widely depending on the symbol data being transmitted
With many subcarriers the waveform becomes Gaussian not sinusoidal Null created by transmitting 1,1 -1,-1 -1,1 1,-1

One symbol period

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SC-FDMA modulation
QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers
To transmit the sequence:
V(I)

1, 1 -1,-1 -1, 1

1,-1

-1,1

V(Q)

1,1
I

+1

+1

using SC-FDMA first create a time domain representation of the IQ baseband sequence Perform a DFT of length N and sample rate N/(symbol period) to create N FFT bins spaced by 15 kHz

-1

-1,-1
V,

1,-1

-1 One SC-FDMA symbol period One SC-FDMA symbol period


V,

Frequency

Shift the N subcarriers to the desired allocation within the system bandwidth
-1,1 1,1

Frequency

Perform IFFT to create time domain signal of the frequency shifted original

Insert cyclic prefix between SC-FDMA symbols and transmit

Important Note:

-1,-1

1,-1

PAR is same as the original QPSK modulation

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Comparing OFDM and SC-FDMA


QPSK example using N=4 subcarriers

CP

CP

fc

Frequency 15 kHz

fc

60 kHz

Frequency

OFDMA
Data symbols occupy 15 kHz for one OFDMA symbol period

SC-FDMA
Data symbols occupy N*15 kHz for 1/N SC-FDMA symbol periods

These graphs show how this sequence of QPSK symbols is represented in frequency and time 1, 1 -1,-1 -1, 1 1, -1 1, 1 -1,-1 -1, 1 1, -1

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Physical Layer definitions TS36.211 Frame Structure


Frame Structure type 1 (FDD)
One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms
One slot, Tslot = 15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms

#0

#1

#2

#3

#18

#19

One subframe Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 9

FDD: Uplink and downlink are transmitted separately Ts = 1 / (15000x2048)=32.552nsec Ts: Time clock unit for definitions

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Physical Layer definitions TS36.211 Frame Structure- type 2 (TDD)


5 ms switch-point periodicity
One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms One half-frame, 153600Ts = 5 ms

One slot, Tslot=15360Ts

30720Ts

Subframe #0 One subframe, 30720Ts DwPTS GP

Subframe #2

Subframe #3

Subframe #4

Subframe #5

Subframe #7

Subframe #8

Subframe #9

UpPTS

DwPTS

GP

UpPTS

Uplink and downlink configurations TDD: Subframe 0 and 5 for downlink, others are either downlink or uplink
Uplink-downlink configuration 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Downlink-to-Uplink Switch-point periodicity 5 ms 5 ms 5 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 5 ms 0 D D D D D D D 1 S S S S S S S Subframe number 2 U U U U U U U 3 U U D U U D U 4 U D D U D D U 5 D D D D D D D 6 S S S D D D S 7 U U U D D D U 8 U U D D D D U 9 U D D D D D D

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LTE downlink subframe and slot structure

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How OFDM Deals With MultiPath?

Problem: If transmitted symbol interval = receiver capture time the system even a little delay spread causes problem.
Solution: extend the symbol interval time..

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Cyclic Prefix Each and every symbol has a guard time at the beginning of the symbol
which allows the receiver to collect multipath from the previous symbol Tb = useful symbol time. Contains all the information of the burst and is created from the 256 Inverse-FFT

Tu

The complete symbol is created in the time domain by duplicating the back portion of the useful symbol and transmitting this first. By duplicating this portion of the time record, this portion of the waveform is effectively transmitted twice. Ts=Tu + Tcp this is a ready to transmit symbol

CP Tcp
Ts Tu

The cyclic-prefix length Tcp should cover the maximum length of the timedispersion expected to be experienced.

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How OFDM Deals With MultiPath?

1,Cyclic-prefix insertion makes an OFDM signal insensitive to time dispersion as long as the span of the time dispersion. 2,More power loss in demodulation since only a fraction Tu/(Tu + Tcp) of receiver power is actually utilized by OFDM demodulator.
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Frame Structure Type generic view


#19 #18 #17 #16

#5 #4 #3 #2 #1 #0 Power

The minimum allocation of resources is one Resource Block = 12 adjacent subcarriers for one 0.5ms slot
NBWRB subcarriers (=12)

Frequency NBWDL subcarriers

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Downlink Resource Block

Channel bandwidth [MHz]

1.4 6

3 15

5 25

10 50

15 75

20 100

Number of resource blocks

3GPP TS 36.101

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Channel Bandwidth Vs Transmission Bandwidth

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Downlink RS and Signal Structure


The mobile terminal used Reference Symbols to make the channel estimation of downlink for schedule optimization. Downlink reference symbols are inserted within the first and third last OFDM symbols of each slot and with a frequency-domain spacing of six subcarriers. Within each resource block, consisting of 12 subcarriers during one slot, there are thus four reference symbols. The RS is always transmitted across the entire operation bandwidth, even if the downlink channel is not fully allocated

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Downlink Feature (Review)


-Physical channelDownlink Physical Layer Reference Signal P-Sync S-Sync P-BCH PDCCH PCFICH PHICH PDSCH PMCH Capability
Cell-specific reference carries Cell-id UE-specific reference, MBSFN reference Carries physical layer id (0~2) Zadoff-Chu sequence Carries cell-identity group (0~167) Broadcast Channel (1920bits@N_CP by 40ms) SFN control Carries DL Control Information (HARQ process#, MCS, TPC,MIMO precoding info etc.) Carries Control Format Information ((Num of OFDM symbols of PDCCH in a subframe; 1~4) Carries HARQ Indicator (ACK/NACK) Carries data with QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM Localized/Distributed (VRB) allocation is possible Multicast Channel

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Uplink Feature
-Physical channelUplink Physical Layer PUSCH Demodulation reference signal for PUSCH PUCCH Demodulation reference signal for PUCCH PRACH Capability
Carries data with QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM Localized/Distributed (Hopping) is possible qth Zadoff-Chu sequence Group (u) /Sequence (v) Hopping, Cyclic shift change by DCI, Broadcast value and PRS Carries ACK/NACK, CQI with BPSK, QPSK or BPSK+QPSK by Format 1,1a,1b,2,2a,2b qth Zadoff-Chu sequence Group (u) /Sequence (v) Hopping Cyclic shift change at every slot and symbol uth Zadoff-Chu sequence 1.25kHz subcarrier spacing Format 0 ~ 3 (FDD), Format 4 (TDD) Used for UL timing adjustment Allocated at first or last symbol Cyclic shift change by higher layer

Sounding reference signal

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Downlink FDD Resource Mapping

NsymbDL OFDM symbols (=7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP)


160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048

1slot = 15360 Ts 144 2048 (x Ts)

Cyclic Prefix
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0

1 2 3 4 5 1 6

2 3 4 5 6

P-SCH S-SCH PBCH

PCFICH/PHICH/PDCCH

Subframe 0

Subframe 1

Reference Signal (Pilot) No Transmission

1 frame

Agilent Confidential Page 37 Agilent T&M

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13 Aug 2007

LTE uplink subframe and slot structure

CP configuration for uplink

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Frame Structure Type (UL) Slot / Subframe / Frame- PUSCH


NsymbDL OFDM symbols (=7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP)
160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048

1slot = 15360
144 2048 (x Ts)

1 slot
Cyclic Prefix
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

PUSCH- Physical uplink shared channel

1 sub-frame
=2 slots =1 ms

Reference Signal (Demodulation)

#0

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#12

#13

#14

#15

#16

#17

#18

#19

1 frame
=10 sub-frames =10 ms
Agilent Confidential

Page 39 Group/Prese

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13 Aug 2007

Uplink Frame Structure Type (FDD)


PUCCH Mapping (Formats 1, 1a, 1b )

[Syms 0,1,5,6 | Every Slot]

[Syms 2-4 | Every Slot]

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Frame Structure Type (UL) - Physical Mapping

OOK, BPSK Rotated QPSK

Unlike DL, UL DM-RS


Is confined only to User

Note 1: When no PUCCH or PUSCH is scheduled in the uplink, the eNB can request transmission of the Sounding Reference Signal (SRS), which allows the eNB to estimate the uplink channel characteristics
Note 2: PRACH and SRS not shown for clarity

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LTE / SAE Network Identifiers


PLMN ID (MCC + MNC)
eUTRAN+EPC+Ter minals=EPS(Evolve d Packet System)
RNTIUE RNTI UE C-RNTICell S-RNTIRNCURNTIPLMN

3GPP TS 23.401 / TR25.813


The TAI is replacing the URA ID, LAI and RAI

The S-TMSI (SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) is replacing TMSI & P-TMSI in 2G & 3G networks

RA-RNTI (Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identifier) - is used during the some transient states.
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Page 42

Basic channel access modes


Transmit Antennas

The Radio Channel

Receive Antennas

Transmit Antennas

The Radio Channel

Receive Antennas

SISO
Single Input Single Output

SIMO

Single Input Multiple Output (Receive diversity)

MISO

MIMO

Multiple Input Single Output (Transmit diversity)

Multiple Input Multiple Output (Multiple data streams)


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MIMO principles
Transmitting multiple data streams in the same space and time used to be called interference! So how does MIMO work?
1. 2. 3. MIMO capacity gains come from taking advantage of spatial diversity in the radio channel Depending on channel conditions and noise levels, the rank (number of simultaneous streams) can be varied The performance can be optimized using precoding

These three MIMO principles can seem complex to understand particularly abstract mathematical descriptions But we intuitively already know these MIMO principles in the way they apply to our perception of audio
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Understanding MIMO spatial diversity through Audio Single Stream (Mono)


M M

SISO

SIMO

MISO

SIMO + MISO MIMO

Note, the combination of SIMO and MISO further improves robustness but does not provide any MIMO capacity gain since there is only one stream of data
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Understanding MIMO spatial diversity through Audio Dual Stream (Stereo)

Interference!

Interference!

Interference!

MIMO!

For MIMO to work:


Must have at least as many receivers as transmitted streams Must have spatial separation at both transmit and receive antennas More transmitters enables beamforming in addition to MIMO
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Understanding MIMO precoding through Audio


MIMO Precoding is a pre-emphasis technique used to improve the separation of the streams at the receiver due to unhelpful coupling in the channel In audio systems precoding is similar to stereo balance If the receiver is not positioned directly between the speakers the received streams will be at different levels Adjusting the balance at the transmitter can mitigate the problem Balancing requires feedback from the receiver to the transmitter

Not enough Right


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Understanding MIMO precoding through Audio


The receiver could just amplify the right channel but in the presence of noise the corrected signal would degrade: Precoding the transmission as L, 5R optimizes signal recovery

Solution!

L + NL, 0.2 R + NR L + NL, R + 5*NR


Page 48

L + NL, R + NR Problem!
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Understanding MIMO Rank adaptation through Audio


In good radio conditions an FM stereo receiver will attempt to decode both the left and right signals (streams) When the noise gets too high the receiver switches to mono and the quality improves although stereo is lost This is the audio equivalent of rank adaptation where the number of streams is reduced under poor conditions Transmit matrix encoded FM stereo as L + R, L R Receive (L + R) + N1, (L R) + N2 Since N1 and N2 are largely correlated, adding the two streams (maximum ratio combining) cancels most of the noise

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The role of channel correlation and noise in system performance


In a ideal 2x2 system the potential capacity gain is 2x The actual gain depends on how easily the receiver can descramble the simultaneous transmissions this depends on the amount of unwanted correlation and noise
In audio systems channel correlation and noise also affects perceived stereo performance
Spaced living room speakers - lots of correlation degrades stereo, susceptible to external noise Open headphones zero correlation, good stereo but still susceptible to noise Closed headphones zero correlation, minimal noise

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So what makes a good channel for MIMO?


A perfect MIMO channel is like the closed headphones: channels 2 and 3 dont exist
ch1

Channel H R0 1 0

T0
T1

ch4

R1

By simple observation it follows that R0 = T0 and R1 = T1 This is one case that creates double the capacity But suppose we create a simple static channel like this: How do we know if it will provide capacity gain? This requires deeper analysis

Channel H

0.8 0.2
0.3 -0.9

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The MIMO challenge: Recovering the signal


If all four channels are the same the original signal cannot be recovered since R0 = R1 R0 = T0 + T1 and R1 = T0 + T1
Channel H 1 1
ch1

T0
T1

Channel H R0

1
1

1
1

ch4

R1

But put in a phase inversion e.g. on ch3 we get:

R0 = T0 - T1 and R1 = T1 + T0 -1 1 thus T0 = (R0 + R1)/2 and T1 = -(R0 - R1)/2 The original signal is completely recovered even though the apparently unwanted ch2 and ch3 exist

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The MIMO challenge: Recovering the signal


So is the earlier example good or bad for MIMO?

R0 = 0.8 T0 + 0.3 T1 R1 = 0.2 T0 - 0.9 T1 Giving: T0 = 1.15 R0 + 0.39 R1 T1 = 0.26 R0 - 1.03 R1

Channel H 0.8 0.2 0.3 -0.9

We can recover the original signal In fact any H matrix other than the unity matrix can be resolved PROVIDED there is no external or internal noise! So what kinds of channels are robust to noise?

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The MIMO challenge: Recovering the signal


The receiver can untangle the two signals because it knows the coupling coefficients, based on the reference signals

The RS transmits a known amplitude and phase at different subcarriers and times for each MIMO antenna from which the receiver can calculate the complex channel matrix H

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The MIMO challenge: Recovering the signal


But RS estimation is susceptible to noise If the H estimate is wrong the recovered signal is impaired Consider these equations for T0 from different channels:

T0 = 1.15 (R0 + N0) + 0.39 (R1 + N1) T0 = 27.3 (R0 + N0) + 16.5 (R1 + N1)
Errors in T0 recovery happen due to estimation errors in the coefficients or large coefficients amplifying noise N0 and N1 It is possible to analyze the channel matrix H to determine the sensitivity to noise for signal recovery

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Condition Number: Measures the short term MIMO channel performance

R0 = 0.8 T0 + 0.3 T1

R1 = -0.9 T1 + 0.2 T0

= Condition number 0.957 / 0.815 = 1.17

The condition number is the ratio of the singular values of HHT


Channel H Channel HT 0.8 0.3 0.2 -0.9 Channel HTH 0.73 -0.11 -0.11 0.85 Eigenvalues 0.914 0.666 Singular values 0.957 0.815

0.8 0.2
0.3 -0.9

The dB value of approximates the increase in SNR required to recover the signal
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MIMO needs better SNR than SISO High increases SNR requirements further
The extra SNR required to achieve the same recovered signal quality as SISO rises as the condition number rises

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Ped. A Channel Condition Number vs. Freq.


Condition number and channel response across 10 MHz, 10 ms

0 dB

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Diagram of the various UE states


GSM_Connected CELL_DCH Handover E-UTRA RRC_CONNECTED Handover GPRS Packet transfer mode CCO, Reselection Connection establishment/release

CELL_FACH CCO with optional NACC Reselection Connection establishment/release

CELL_PCH URA_PCH Connection establishment/release UTRA_Idle

Reselection

E-UTRA RRC_IDLE

Reselection CCO, Reselection

GSM_Idle/GPRS Packet_Idle

Idle Mode Cell selection System Information From 3GPP 36.331

Call/data setup Paging RACH

Connected Call/data control Data flow

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LTE eHRPD Handovers Cell reselection and Handover Types


Handover 2
Non-optimized Handover (eNodeB decision)
eNB

Optimized Handover (eNodeB decision)

CONNECTED
Connection Establish/ release

eHRPD
2

3
Connection Establish/ release

LTE

IDLE

eHRPD

LTE 2G

Cell Re-selection

Cell Re-selection 1 (UE decision)

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LTE Cell Re-Selection


UE
Broadcast neighbour cell info Attach with Serving eNB

Serving eNB

eHRPD AN

RRC release with no re-direction

Initiate cell reselection Establish eHRPD session with target AN

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LRE eHRPD Handover Architecture

S2a provides a data plane tunnel for forwarding IP data traffic S101 provides a control plane tunnel for establishing an eHRPD session
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LTE CDMA non-Optimized Handover


UE
Broadcast neighbour cell info Attach with Serving eNB

Serving eNB

eHRPD AN

Configure measurement reports Send measurement reports

Initiate handover

S2a data plane tunnel


RRC release with re-direction to target eNB

Establish data plane tunnel

Establish eHRPD session with target AN

S2a data plane tunnel

Forward IP Data traffic

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LTE CDMA Optimized Handover


UE Serving eNB
Broadcast neighbour cell info Attach with Serving eNB

eHRPD AN

Configure measurement reports Send measurement reports

S101 control plane tunnel

Created eHRPD session with AN Initiate handover

S101 control plane tunnel

Agree handover parameters with target cell

S2a data plane tunnel


E-UTRA Handover (rrc_conn_reconfig)

Establish data plane tunnel

S2a data plane tunnel

Forward IP data traffic

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Verizon InterRAT Compliance Test Plan


LTE-CDMA_InterRAT_Performance_Test_Plan.doc

Agilent E6621A PXT, 8960 & IFT software

Agilent is working in collaboration with Verizon to implement the LTE CDMA (eHRPD) Compliance (Performance) Test Plan
The plan is being implemented with Agilent IFT and operates with the E6621A PXT and 8960 The automated test package will enable Verizon to qualify LTE UE for use on their network Agilent will make the test scripts available to UE makers to pre-qualify UE before submission to Verizon During the development phase, Agilent is collaborating with UE vendors with leading InterRAT UE capability.

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Verizon InterRAT Compliance Test Plan

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 4.1 4.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 6 6.1 6.2 7 7.1 7.2 8 8.1 9 10 10.1

CELL SELECTION DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE CELL SELECTION DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 AVAILABLE CELL SELECTION DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 NOT AVAILABLE CELL SELECTION DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT CELL SELECTION DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 AVAILABLE CELL SELECTION DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 NOT AVAILABLE CELL SELECTION DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST WITH NO PREVIOUS SESSION ON EHRPD CELL RESELECTION WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE CELL SELECTION WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 AVAILABLE CELL RESELECTION WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 NOT AVAILABLE CELL RESELECTION WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT CELL RESELECTION WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 AVAILABLE CELL RESELECTION WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 NOT AVAILABLE CELL RESELECTION WITH NO PREVIOUS SESSION ON EHRPD CELL SELECTION TO 1XRTT DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST CELL SELECTION TO 1XRTT/HRPD DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION AND MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION AND MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION AND MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 NOT AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION AND MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION AND MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION AND MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 NOT AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION AND MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH NO PREVIOUS SESSION ON EHRPD RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION NO MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION NO MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION NO MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD AND PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT AVAILABLE A13 NOT AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION NO MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON TARGET EHRPD AND NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION NO MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION NO MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH PREVIOUS SESSION ON SOURCE EHRPD WITH NO SAVED PARTIAL HSGW CONTEXT A13 NOT AVAILABLE RRC RELEASE WITH REDIRECTION NO MEASUREMENT GAPS SCHEDULED WITH NO PREVIOUS SESSION ON EHRPD LTE ACTIVE TO 1XRTT/HRPD IDLE CELL SELECTION TO 1XRTT DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST CELL SELECTION TO 1XRTT/HRPD DUE TO LTE SYSTEM LOST EHRPD DORMANT TO LTE IDLE MORE PREFERRED SYSTEM RESELECTION CELL RESELECTION HRPD/1XRTT DORMANT TO LTE IDLE MORE PREFERRED SYSTEM RESELECTION LTE DATA THROUGHPUT PERFORMANCE WITH INTERRAT OPERATIONS - FUTURE LTE SUPPLEMENTARY SIGNALING CONFORMANCE FOR LTE-CDMA INTERRAT CAPABLE DEVICES RRC UE FEATURE GROUP SUPPORT

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

LTE - eHRPD handover demo

CLIENT DUT control IFT - test case script(s)

8960 eHRPD cell

Single DRB SERVER(s) SMS MMS SIP v6 HTTP FTP

LAN

Proprietary i/f

RF

USB

UE under test

SISO 10MHz channel


PXT LTE cell

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

LTE - eHRPD handover demo

CLIENT DUT control IFT - test case script(s)

8960 eHRPD cell

SERVER(s) SMS MMS SIP v6 HTTP FTP

LAN

Proprietary i/f

RF

USB

UE under test

PXT LTE cell

Step 1: setup of an LTE end to end IP connection


You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

LTE - eHRPD handover demo

CLIENT DUT control IFT - test case script(s)

8960 eHRPD cell

SERVER(s) SMS MMS SIP v6 HTTP FTP

LAN

Proprietary i/f

RF

USB

UE under test

PXT LTE cell

Step 2: verification of LTE end to end IP connection


You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

LTE - eHRPD handover demo

CLIENT DUT control IFT - test case script(s)

8960 eHRPD cell

SERVER(s) SMS MMS SIP v6 HTTP FTP

LAN

Proprietary i/f

RF

USB

UE under test

PXT LTE cell

Step 3: handover to eHRPD serving cell


You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

LTE - eHRPD handover demo

CLIENT DUT control IFT - test case script(s)

8960 eHRPD cell

SERVER(s) SMS MMS SIP v6 HTTP FTP

LAN

Proprietary i/f

RF

USB

UE under test

PXT LTE cell

Step 4: verification of e2e IP in eHRPD serving cell


You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Verizon Wireless LTE-eHRPD Inter-RAT Compliance Testing with IFT

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

What is LTE voice ?

Through LTE network? Through legacy 2G/3G?

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Support for Voice


3GPPs long term solution for voice is to use VoIP and an IMS based core

network It will take time for all networks to support this For networks which do not support IMS several technologies are being considered, namely:-

CSFB (Circuit Switched Fall Back) SVLTE (Simultaneous Voice and Data LTE) VoLGA (Voice over LTE Generic Access) VoLGA involves sending the CS data over an LTE PS bearer- this is not discussed further in this paper

SRVCC will be natural in 3GPP through IMS ,also named as Voice over LTE , VoLTE strongly supported by GSMA

SRVCC : Single Radio Voice Call Continuity


You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Circuit switched Fallback to 1xRTT


1xCSFB UE 1xRTT CS Access A1 A1 1xRT T MSC

1xCS WS
cdma Network LTE Network

S102

MME
1xCSFB UE S1-MME S102 E-UTRAN S1-U

S11 Serving/PD N GW

SGi

*CS Fallback to 1xRTT and IMS-Based services shall be able to co-exist in the same operators network You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Tunneled 1xRTT messages

SVLTE
CDMA Voice CDMA BTS BSC/ MSC
CS Core Network

LTE Data

EUTRAN

MME

IP

Supports simultaneous voice and data

UE has 2 complete radios


Voice provided through CDMA Data provided via LTE link No interworking required

SVLTE may be the preferred choice for CS voice on CDMA/LTE networks

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

CSFB (Requires S102 control plane tunnel)


Requires 2 baseband ICs (LTE + CDMA) Some opportunity to share RF resources Significant additional protocol complexity Control plane tunnel required for establishing pre-registration with the CDMA cell (via LTE signaling) More complex than 2G/3G CSFB due to the lack of interworking at the core network level CSFB may be the preferred choice for CS voice on 2G/3G/LTE networks
RRC release with re-direction to CDMA BTS

UE
Broadcast neighbour cell info

Serving eNB

CDMA BTS

Attach with Serving eNB

Configure measurement reports

Send measurement reports

S102 control plane tunnel

register UE with 1x cdma2000 base station


Page UE

S102control plane tunnel

Tunnel paging info from CDMA BTS to LTE enB

Establish voice call between UE and CDMA cell

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Circuit switched Fallback to GERAN/UTRAN


Uu

UTRAN

Lu-PS Gb

SGSN Gs
Lu-CS A S 3 MSC server

LTE/UMT S UE
Um
UMTS Network
LTE Network

GERAN

LTE/UMT S UE

LTE-Uu

EUTRAN

S1-MME MME

SGs

*CS Fallback and IMS-Based services shall be able to co-exist in the same operators network You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Single radio voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)


The continuity of voice when a customer moves from LTE to where LTE coverage is not available In 2009 ,the consortium includes AT&T,Orange, Verizon,Vodafone,AlcatelLucent,Ericsson ,and other key players announced One Voice initiative GSMA VoLTE initiative was formally announced at MWC in 2010 It is voice over IMS network SR-VCC is in 3GPP TS 23.216 in R9

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Single radio voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)


LTE/UMT S UE
Uu/Um

GERAN/ UTRAN

Lu-CS/A

MSC server
Sv

Gb/Lu-PS

SGSN

S3

S6a

IM S HSS

MME
S1-MME

LTE/UMT S UE

LTE-Uu

EUTRAN

S1-U

S11 Serving / PDN GW

SGi

Bearer path before HO Bearer path after HO SIP Signaling path before HO
You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way

Thanks!

Page 81

You take LTE forward. Agilent leads the way