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Geometri c tolerances A

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INTRODUCTIOI\
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GEOMETRICTOLIRANCING SYMBOLS
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This guido is intended for.uss in Productlon 'It illusLraLe: and snd 0uality areasToloraneing Geometric lnterprets the Symbols used on drawings. More detailed instn:ctionr for designersara given in 5l-l-5 'Geomoiric Tolarancingr' RELATED STANDARDS 5l-l-l 5I-]-4 51-J-5 5l-l-6 Gloesaryof Drawing Practice Torms EngineeringDrawing Practice Geomatris Tolerancing Oaturns

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rlEGAROLESS T TEATURE SIZE O
MAXIMJM r.rr If,RIAL COnJOlTlOl.l

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ROUNDNESS
EXAMPLE

CYLINDRICITY
EXAMPLE

EXAHPTE

INTERPRETATION

INTERPRETA TION
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The entire periphery at the considered crosi seclion, rnust lie wiinin a [olerance zone 0,0J'wide, the annular zone being formed by two coneentriccircleswhoseradii dif fer by 0'01' Note Roundnes$ can only be truly measured on a roundness rneasurinq instrument. The use of vees or cenlres in coniunction with an indieating device always brings in faclors which detract from the truth of the measuremenl'
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r h e c o n s i r t e e d s u rf a e e r n t r s l b e r b e l w e e n t w o c o a x . i a c y l i n d e r s ,t h e r a d i" "o f 1 , 1 0c.h l i ", w h i , | dif fer by 0,0/t. No [e Cylindricity is difficult to measure in practice, but can.be verified by measurinq Roundness, S t r a i g h t n e s s n d P a r a l l e l i s ms e p a r a t e l y . a

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PROFILE OF A LII.E
EXAMPLE

PROFILE OF A SURFACE
EXAMPLE

INTERPRETATION
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INTERPRETATION
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PROFILE

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T h e l i n e m u s t t l i e w h o l l y w i L h i n a L o l e r a n c ez o n e 0,15 wide equally disposed abou{ Ihe perfect profile. The lolerance is always bilateral unless otherwise shown.

INDICATIONOF UNILATERIAL TOLERANCE

The surface musI lie wholly wit.hin the 0r0J lolerance zone normal to the perfeqt profile. Tolerance is always bilateral unless o[herwise sho wn.

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The line rnust lie whollY within a 0rI5 tolerance zone cornPletelY s d i s p o s e do n l h e i n d i c a t , e d i d e ' o f the perfect profile. r)

INDICATION OF UNILATERAL TOLERANCE Unilaleral [olerance may be indica[ed in lhe same way as for Profile of a Linei see page 5 facing.

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PARALLf LISM
EXAMPLE
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PERPENDICULARIT (SCUNRENEss) Y
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TA INTERPRE TION The toleranced r n t 1t s x is a lie wholly w ithin a c y l i n d e r 0 , 0I d i a parallel wrth the Datum Axis.

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INTERPRETATION
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The surface rnust lie wholly between two planes 0,01 paraile| with apart the datum surface-

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9URFACE

The surface must lie wholly within two p e r a l l e p l a n e s 0 , 0J I apart perpendicularIo the DatumSurface.

The axis of Lhe feature must lie wholly wiLhina eylinder 0 , 0J dia perpendicular to the Datrrm Ax is.
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ANGULARITY'
EXAMPLE

trOsITION
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INTERPRETATION

INTERPRETATION 0 , 0 3 T 0 L .z o H E

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The centre of lhe toleranced feature must fall within a zone 0,0J dia wiLh its centre in [he position the Boxed indiealed by exact nsions. D Ime Ir

The surface must lie wholly between two parallel planes 0,01 apart at the specified angle lo the Datum Surface.

T C O A X I A L I T Y / C O N C E NR C I T Y
EXAMPLE

SYMMETRY
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I N T E R P R E T AT I O N

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INTERPRETATION
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Drturn exlr The axis of the toleranced feature must fall within a cy,lindricalzone 0,0] dia coaxial with the datum axis.

The median plane of Lhe slot mrrst fall belween two paralleI planes 0,1 epart, equidistant on e i t h e r s i d e o ' f L h ed a t u m a x i s .

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RUNOUT
EXAMPLE

TOTAL RUNOUT
EXAMPLE

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INTERPRETATION
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INTERFRETATION
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The tolerance iven is the maxirnum g permissible n a d i a lo r a x i a l v a r i a t . i o n f a p o s i L i o n o d u r i n go n e r e v o l u t i o na b o u t t h e D a t u m A x i s , . , v i l h o u t axial rnovgrnent.

The Lolerance iven is the maximum permissible g full indicator m o v e m e n t ( F I M ) d u r i n g a n u m b e r of revolutions b o u t t h e d a l u m a x i s , d u r i n g w h i c h a t h e i n d i c a t o r i s L r a v e r s e d a l o n g t h e s p e c i fi e d contour. I5

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DATUM TARGET
tums are lins3, points or clirl*, used as a base rneasuiernents. Generallt', .neasurements are the surf aces of maenines or tade f rom [E"".i"g instruments in contact with e feature ' the oart, known as lhe datum feattrre, feated on the drawing tums may alsc be imaginary features, such as a r i s , o r a p o i n Ef i x e d b y b o x e d d i m e n s i o n s . Points, lines, or limited areas on the workpiece to be used for cont.act with the rnanufacturing and inspeetion equiprnent Lo define [he required datum or to satisfy the fun[ional requirements.

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etums are indicated by, a triangle and mav be l a n t i fi e d b y a r e f e r e n c e l e t t e r a s s h o w n t - l e l o w .

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D a t u m P o i n t s A l , A Z & A l e s t a b l i s hD a t u m A Refer alsoto 5l -J-6 'Datrrms, Refer also to 51-J-6'Datumsf

PROJECTED TOLERANCE
A Proiected Tolerance Zone is one which is siLuated a[ some distance frorn the considered feaflrre so ilrat fhe proiection of a faslener (or o t h e r f e a l u r e ) l o c a t e d b y t h e c o n s i d e r e df e a t u r e ( t h r e a d , p r e s s f i t , h o l e e t c . ) u p o n i n s t a l l a t i o nw i l l have adequate perpendicularity conlrol over ibs length beyond engagement

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Tha axh of cach holo shetl fall wi[hin a is eyllndar 0.02 dlsmotcr, thc sxls of '..rhich in thc cxact spoclflad poaltton and parpcndlcular axtondlng 40mrn to tha datum rtrrf ectl thercfrom.

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MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONIDTTION


M a x i m u m m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i ' o n@ i s $ r s t e o n d i L i o n at B par[ or feature wherein it contains the maximum smount of melerial. Fdr example:Minlmqm Size Hole Maxlmurn Slze Shaft The use of fhe @ principle ellows an incresse ln the specified fee[ure tolerance by Indlcating [hat lhe tolarsnce applies to the faature only at its i rrrx mum ma lerial condit ioru Tfre@ condition concept may be epplied Lo: Parallelism Angulari[y Coaxiality/Concen[ric ity

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5[raightness Perpendiculerily

Position 5yrnmeLry

When epplied Lo a feaLure (Hole Slot eLc)but not t o a p l a n e s u r fa c e o r l i n e o n a s u r f a c e . msy be applied,to B daLum The@condition feature. .^ T h e Q f c o n d i L i o nm s y n o t b e a p p l i e i dL o t Fletness Roundness Cylindricily P r o fi l e o f a L i n e Profile of a 5urfece Runout T o t a l R u n o ut

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