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INTRODUCTION TO GIS Our Complex Society Our world is becoming More Populated Urbanized Technical Specialized Connected Globalized Informed Fragile GIS is focused on Integration, making it accessible. GIS is valuable as a FRAMEWORK for Managing Human Activities. What is GIS? Geographic spatial Information data System group of related elements > a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world GIS COMPONENTS People manage the system and develop plans for applying it to real world problems Software made up of integrated collections of computer programs that provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze, and display geographic info Data info about the contents of the earth and related parameters Procedures methodologies, plans, business rules, models, operating practices Hardware the comp on w/c a GIS operates, including the resources available to the computer HOW DOES GIS WORK? A GIS stores info about the world as a collection of thematic layers that can be linked together by geography. This simple but extremely powerful and versatile concept has proven invaluable for solving many real-world problems. Physical reality real world model data model database maps/reports
Actual phenomenon: Properties


To bring the real world into GIS, one has to make use of simplified models of the real world

Why GIS? Able to store large amounts of spatial data Integrate diverse types of data Provide better methods for managing and manipulating data Facilitate the creation and updating of spatial data Provide a better organizational decision-making tool Questions GIS can answer Location: Where is ? Condition: What is ? Trends: What has changed since? Patterns: What spatial pattern exists? Modeling: What if? GIS IN THE PHIL Resource Management / Land Use Planning Natural Resource Management Urban Agriculture Poverty Mapping Coastal Resource Management Agriculture Water Resource Management Environmental Management Solid Waste Management 2. Participatory GIS Moving beyond maps: Toward a People-Centered GIS If GIS is needed ubiquitous and easy to usethen it has the potentials to revolutionize the ways in w/c communities develop consensusresolve disagreements and difficulties and plan for the future The objective Empowerment Management

Community-based solutions GIS can assist community organizations Develop appropriate responses The importance Venue for consultation and dialogue Social and cultural practices of the people Resources Issues Concerns Aspiration Community Based-Tools Community Mapping sketch mapping Participatory 3D Modeling Some community mapping and P3DM applications Dialogue Resource management Planning Research Issues management Cultural documentation Program evaluation Characteristics of Traditional GIS Applications and Community GIS Practice Traditional GIS Characteristic Participatory GIS Technology and people Focus People, process and technology Facilitate official Motivation/Goal Empower communities policymaking. Improve Facilitate public software programs participation. Public officials, decision Participants Local, underprivileged makers groups Supply driven, Implementation Demand and need driven technological push Because it is possible Why adopt? Because it is needed Decided by GIS experts Details of Applications Decided by users/focus groups Led and controlled by GIS Role of GIS Experts GIS experts act as experts facilitators

Top down, hierarchically structured

Information Flow

Bottom up, grassroots and citizen participation.

It is not enough for a handful of experts to attempt the solution of a problem, to solve it, and the apply it. The restriction of knowledge to an elite group destroys the spirit of society and leads to its intellectual impoverishment. -- Albert Einstein, 1931 Empowerment is the process by w/c stakeholders identify and shape their livs and the society in w/c they live through access to knowledge, political processes and financial, social and natural resources (Arnstein, 1969). Community Mapping Phases Community Mapping is a process consisting of seven phases: Networking and Initial Consultations: Building solid relationships with key people in the area (e.g., expresses willingness to participate in a community mapping activity Data Preparation: All available data is studied and acquainted (topographical maps, socioeconomic and demographic data, livelihood, etc.) Initial Consultation with the community and Site Analysis: Aim to gain familiarity with the culture ad the features of its environment. Community Mapping Activity: actual mapping activity-the community produces a map of the area where they live. Community Validation: Opportunity for the community to check and validate the digitized community map. Activity provides the opportunity to discuss further details and concerns that are relevant to the activity. Technical Integration: Spatial accuracy of a topographical map is related to the community map. Geographic Information System- A comp system capable of holding and using data in describing places on the earths surface. The integrated map is subject to field verification and community validation. The validation activity will result in the finalization of maps. Presentation and Submission: The validated community map and integrated map are given to the community. Opportunity to discuss with them the significance and uses of maps produced. Applications For awareness raising and education for community cohesion and self-actualization for increasing local communications capacity for collaborative planning for collaborative research for participatory monitoring and evaluation for conflict resolution 3. Data Models and Georeferencing

Data Types: Raster Data cells or pixels in a grid matrix. Points or cells organized into rows and columns. Each cell has an attribute value that represents a geographic phenomenon. Resolution/ pixel size of the grid determines the level of detail. Vector Data represents the location ad shape of features and boundaries precisely. Geoobjects are represented as points, lines or polygons Real World Attribute Data Record info about feature. Provide a linkage between spatial and nonspatial data. Linkages make the GIS intelligent, as the user can store and examine info Raster Data vs. Vector Data Raster rapid large average simple low poor good simple

Vector slow small good complex high good average complex

Data collection Data volume Graphic treatment Data structure Geometrical accuracy Analysis in network Area analysis Generalization

BASIC DATA MODELS Vector Model real world can be divided into clearly defined elements. Consists of an identifiable objects with its own geometry of points, lines, or areas. Coordinate systems are displayed in grids. Points, lines and polygons are homogeneous ad discrete units that carry information. Raster Model surfaces arranged in regular pattern. Grid model because squares or rectangles. Common sizes are 10 X 10 m and 100 X 100 m DATA MODELS FOR SURFACES Grid Model systematic grid, or raster, of spot heights at fixed mutual spaces often used to describe terrain. Elevations are constant within each cell of the grid. Size of the cells is constant in a model. Suitable for describing random variations in the terrain. TIN Model array of triangular areas with their corners. Incliation of the terrain are constant w/in each triangle. Requires larger storage capacity than the grid model. Good for describing terrain. Georeferencing a mechanism to situate measurements on a geometric body, such as the earth establishes a point of origin, orientation of reference axes, and geometric meaning of measurements, as well as units of measure

In GIS every dataset has a coordinate system, w/c is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers w/in a common coordinate framework such as a map. Types of coordinate systems: geographic coordinate system a global or spherical coordinate system such as latitude-longitude Latitude and longitude measures of the angles (in degrees) from the center of the earth to a point on the earths surface Latitude angles measured in a north-south direction. Longitude angles measured in an east-west direction. The Shape of the Earth Possible representations: Geoid figure that adjusts the best ellipsoid and the variation of gravity locally. Computationally very complex. Sphere simplistic representation. Assumes the same length of both its axis. Ellipse assumes different lengths for each axis. More appropriate since the earth is flatter at its poles due to its rotation speed Datum Base elevation model for mapping Representation of the earths surface Using a set of control points projected coordinate system provide various mechanisms to project maps of the earths spherical surface onto a two-dimensional coordinate plane. Sometimes referred to as map projections. An imaginary light is projected onto a developable surface. Coordinate space becomes implicit. A variety of diff projection models exist. UTM best known map projection coordinate system Based on a special type of cylindrical projection known as the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Coordinates are defined in meters PHILIPPINE SPATIAL REFERENCE FRAMEWORK Cylindrical projection, Transverse Mercator (TM) projection most commonly used 2 Projected Coordinate Systems: 1. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) a series of global projections that divide the earth into 60 zones, 6 degrees for each zone - designed for regional areas of study - uses a Cartesian coordinate system where the origin of X and Y is located at the

intersection of the equator and the central meridian - unit of measurement is the meter - only one zone to cover the country 2. Philippine Transverse Mercator (PTM) - designed specifically for the Phil - primarily used for surveying political boundaries - uses 5 separate zones: - Zone I 117 East Area west of 188 E - Zone II 119 East Palawan and Calamian Islands - Zone III 121 East Luzon (except SE), Mindoro - Zone IV 123 East SE Luzon, West Mindanao - Zone V 125 East East Mindanao, Bohol, Samar - Uses the Luzon 1911 datum and the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid with a scale factor at the central meridian of 0.99995. 2 Basic datums: 1. World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84) - commonly used worldwide datum developed from satellite measurements of the earth - rapidly becoming the preferred datum around the world - origin is the center of the earth - the ellipsoid is also called WGS84 2. Luzon 1911 most commonly used datum for the Phil uses the Clark 1866 ellipsoid origin is located just south of Luzon at Balacanan, Marinduque Island 4. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE GIS HARDWARE Input data capture devices for both map and on-map data Output data display/printing devices for both map and non-map data GIS SOFTWARE geoprocessing engine of a complete, working GIS made up of integrated collections of computer programs that encapsulate geographic processing functions GIS software packages aim to provide a unified approach to working with geographic information. Main components of a GIS software system: User Interface Applications

Geographic Tools output, translation, analysis, editing, display, customization Data Access spatial reference, vector, data manager, network Classical 3-tier architecture of a GIS software system TIER1 (User Interface presentation): The user interacts with the graphical user interface(GUI), an integrated collection of menus, tool bars and other controls. The GUI provides access to the GIS tools. TIER2 (Tools business logic): The tool set defines the capabilities or functions that the GIS software has for processing data management software. TIER3 (Data Management data server): The data are stored in files or databases organized by data. 3 types of GIS implementation configuration 1. project 2. department 3. enterprise Classification of GIS software packages Professional GIS high-end, fully functional systems Desktop GIS mainstream workhouses of GIS today Hand-held GIS lightweight systems designed for mobile and field use Component GIS/ Developer GIS used by developers to create focused applications GIS viewer have limited functional capabilities restricted to display, query and simple mapping Internet GIS integrates GIS technology with Web browsers and servers and uses the hypertext transmission protocol (http) for communication Server GIS GIS that runs on a computer server that can handle concurrent processing requests from a range of networked clients

MAIN GIS SOFTWARE VENDORS (Companies that design, develop and sell GIS softwares) ESRI (www.esri.com) Intergraph (www.intergraph.com) Autodesk (www.autodesk.com) Smallworld (www.gepower.com) 5. Other Vendors:

IBM Leica MapInfo ESRI GIS SOFTWARE What is ArcGIS? ArcGIS is an integrated collection of GIS software products for building a complete GIS. ArcGIS enables users to deploy GIS functionality wherever it is needed in desktops, servers, or custom applications; over the Web; or in the field. ArcGIS Desktop is a collection of software products that runs on standard desktop computers. It is used to create, import, edit, query, map, analyze, and publish geographic information.


Three views of GIS used for working with elements of geographic knowledge. HYPERLINK "http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/concepts/gis-data.html" \t "_parent" Geodatabase view: A GIS is a spatial database containing data sets that represent geographic information in terms of a generic GIS data model (features, rasters, topologies, networks, and so forth). ArcCatalog HYPERLINK "http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/concepts/ geovisualization.html" \t "_parent" Geovisualization view: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views that shows features and feature relationships on the earth's surface. Various map views of the underlying geographic information can be constructed and used as "windows into the database" to support queries, analysis, and editing of the information. ArcMap HYPERLINK "http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/concepts/geoprocessing.html" \t "_parent" Geoprocessing view: A GIS is a set of information transformation tools that derives new geographic data sets from existing data sets. These geoprocessing functions take information from existing data sets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived data sets. ArcToolbox ArcCatalog The ArcCatalog application organizes and manages all GIS information such as maps, globes, data sets, models, metadata, and services. It includes tools to Browse and find geographic information Record, view, and manage metadata Define, export, and import geodatabase schemas and designs Search and browse GIS data on local networks and the Web Administer an ARCGIS server Users employ ArcCatalog to organize, find, and use GIS data as well as document data holdings using standards-based metadata. A GIS database administrator uses ArcCatalog to define and build geodatabases. A GIS server administrator uses ArcCatalog to administer the GIS server framework. ArcMap the central application in ArcGIS Desktop for all map-based tasks including cartography, map analysis, and editing. a comprehensive map authoring application for ArcGIS Desktop. ArcMap offers two types of map views Geographic data view an environment where geographic layers are symbolized, analyzed, and compiled into GIS data sets. A table of contents interface organizes and controls the drawing properties of the GIS data layers in the data frame. The data view is a window into any GIS data set for a given area.

Page layout view an environment where map pages contain geographic data views as well as other map elements such as scale bars, legends, north arrows, and reference maps. The page layout view is used to compose maps on pages for printing and publishing. ArcToolbox ArcToolbox contains a comprehensive collection of geoprocessing functions including tools for Data management Data conversion Coverage processing Vector analysis Geocoding Statistical analysis ArcToolbox is embedded in ArcCatalog and ArcMap and is available in ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo.

5. VISUALIZATION AND MAP LAYOUT VIZUALIZATION the translation or conversion of spatial data from a database into graphics MAPS enable the user to perceive the structure of the phenomenon or the area being represented How do I say what to whom, and is it effective? Why Visualize? Maps are valuable sources of Info useful for storing and displaying info important bases for planning and decision-making good records of landscape changes Types of Maps General Reference Maps Also known as topographic maps presets general image of the earths surface Thematic Maps Used to emphasize the spatial distribution of one or more geographic attributes or variables Basic Steps for Communicating Map Info

Important factors to consider: Who is going to use it? What is its purpose? What is its content? What is the scale of the map? What is the projection of the map? How accurate is the map? Levels of Measurements Type of Variables: Qualitative (nominal) attribute values are diff. in nature, w/out one aspect more important than another Ordinal attribute values are different from each other, but there is one single way to order them, as some are more important/intense than others Qualitative Interval data measured with a randomly selected starting point and arbitrary interval Ratio data measured in relation to a zero starting point and fixed interval

Visual Variables Basic Graphic Variables: color size value grain/texture orientation

shape Visual Variables for Color Maps hue lightness saturation tip: use associative colors!!! DATA CLASSIFICATION - Purpose is to simplify the appearance of the map Classes portray relationship among data. Methods: Equal intervals difference bet lowest and highest value in each class is the same Quantiles arranges from low to high. Equal number of observations in each class. Natural Breaks looks for gaps (breaks) in the data Mean Standard Deviation standard deviation used to set cutpoints above and below the average (mean) Types of Thematic Maps Choropleth Map values are calculated for the areas and expressed as stepped values Proportional Symbol Map scaling symbols that are proportion to the magnitude of data occurring at point locations whether these locations are true point or conceptual point Dot Map one dot is set equal to a certain amount of a phenomenon, and dots are placed where that phenomenon is most likely to occur Isopleth Map map showing lines with equal values Map Design Basic Map Elements

6. BASIC SPATIAL ANALYSIS Spatial Analysis transforming data into useful info to satisfy the requirements or objectives of decision-makers at all levels in terms of detail process for looking at geographic patterns in data and relationships bet features It helps us to: Identify trends on the data create new relationships from the data view complex relationships bet data sets predict events in another location or at another point in time make better decisions about the real world

Attribute Data Operation: Query by Location - also known as select-by-theme - where features in one theme are selected based on their spatial relation to features in a second theme; new data is not created, just a set of features are selected Query / Logical Operations - set algebra - boolean Arithmetic Operations - perform simple mathematical functions on values in the database Statistical Operations - sum, ave, min, max, std. deviation, etc - histograms (frequency charts) and correlations can also be derived from attribute data

creating a new field (class) in the data table dissolving boundaries bet polygons of same attribute value reducing/increasing info content

Relating Tables - involves joining or liking records bet 2 tables Spatial Join - this operation is a mix of spatial and attribute operations. The end result is a join of two database tables, but the basis for the join is coincident space Overlay is the core of GIS analysis operations - a spatial operation that combines various geographic layers to generate new info

Vector Overlay can be performed on various types of map features: polygon-onpolygon, line-on-polygon, point-on-polygon - during the process of overly, the attribute data associated with each feature type are merged Points on polygon det w/c pt. features of specified characteristics fall in specified areas Lines on polygons det w/c line features of specified characteristics fall in specified areas Polygons on polygons overlapping 2 or more polygons to create a new region Raster Overlay Also known as map algebra - the pixel or grid cell values I each map are combined using arithmetic and Boolean operators to produce a new value in the composite map 3 groups of mathematical operators in the map calculator: 1. Arithmetic operators (+, -, , ) allow for the addition, subtraction, multiplication, ad division of 2 raster maps or umbers or a combination of the 2 2. Boolean operators (and, not, or, xor) use Boolean logic (true or false) on the input values. Output values of true are written as 1 and false as 0. 3. Relation operators (<=, =, >, >=) evaluate specific relational conditions. If the condition is true, the output is assigned 1; if the condition is false, the output is assigned 0. Buffer creates a new theme with new polygon features (geometric objects) based on a constant measure from features in a source theme - buffers can be created based on: a single set width, multiple widths, varying width Buffer types (vector data)

point circles line corridors polygon donuts Buffer (Raster data) calculates the distance from each source cell center to all other centers

Determine whether users find the maps USEFUL and INFORMATIVE Construct the map Collect DATA appropriate for the map purpose Det. the PURPOSE for making the map Consider the REAL WORLD

Impacts Environment Security Natural Places Biodiversity Available Resources Sustainability

Symbol, Line, text Object: Type Attributes Relationship Geometry Quality Entity: Type Attributes Relationships