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Variability in the abundance of plankton diversity at Upstream, Midstream and Downstream.

Armin kalalang, Patrick Diy, Kyle Causing, Kristian Reyes, and John Arroyo. BSbio2A in completion of research work in Marine Biology and Ecology Submitted to: Mr. Mark de la Paz and Mrs. Jessica Pacalioga
Abstract The objective of this work is to analyze the Variability on plankton diversity in each transect stream at Bayanihan II River. Results show that there is high variability on the downstream location having a standard deviation of 2.67 and lowest variability on the upstream having a standard deviation of 1.20. This tells us that there is a High variability in the downstream location when it comes to planktonic species and their abundance and as a result the biodiversity of that area is more complementary in niche and intraspecific competition compared to the other transect streams (Campbell & Reece 2009) Introduction The estuaries are filled with marine life, and each living organisms that dwell in a community with a large diversity of life are important wether how small this organisms might be and one of this small but equally important organisms are called plankton. The word plankton is derived from Greek for Drifters it refers to all the plants and animals that drift with the ocean currents as inhabitants of the open waters of the sea. This paper aims to determine if there is a significant variability in the abundace of plankton at each transect stream by using sample standard deviation. Methods: Study area This study was carried out in April 17, 2012, at Bayanihan II River, Punta-taytay. Collection areas were taken from the midpoint of the estuary to both directions 15 m away and toward the sea. Samples were collected only during the day between 9 am to 12 nn. The estuaries are used for passage of commercial water from the city across the underlying houses and barangays. The area is surrounded by riparian vegetation (e.g. shrubs, mangroves) and are home to many organism (e.g. filefishes) Collection of Samples Water samples were collected at a depth of 1.0 m at three designated stations, each sample has a volume of 5 liters, having collected three replicates at each locations. Water samples were

collected by using a typical plastic bucket and was force submerged; the water salinity by then was measured to be 1.025 parts per thousand (ppt). Plankton samples were collected by pouring the water sample into a 62-m plankton net, the plankton sample where then poured into a plastic bottle for later processing. The plankton sample were preserved in 2 ml of 5% formalin and was left aside for 24 hours. Decantation of the sample was followed next and the addition of a distilled water creating an aliquot of 100 ml. The samples were later analyzed under an inverted microscope and the species using the provided reference by Robert P. Higgins and Hjalman Thiel (1988) Introduction to the study of Meiofauna Results The table below shows the list of plankton found at each transect stream at April 17, 2010, at Bayanihan II River, Punta-taytay.
Plankton Upstream Cumacea: Gynodiastylidae Caldocera: Leydigia Gastroticha: Megadosys Ostracoda: Diastrope schmitti Bacillariophyceae: Naviculla Fragilariophyceae: Syedra Bacillariophyceae: Bacillaria Bacillariophyceae: Pleurosigma Planula of obelia Round worm Ostracoda: cyprodopsis newtoni Coscinodiscophycae: Coscinodiscus granii Coscinodiscophycae: Streptotheca Cnidaria: Anthomedusae Sarcomastigophora: Elphidium selseyensis Microstoma No. of Individuals 1 1 3 1 2 5 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 5 1

Plankton Upstream Polyclad Flatworm Acoel flatworm synedra Leptocylindricus Coscinodiscus Grammatophora Ophiodromus Metatrocophore Barnacle Cypris Unidentified foraminiferan Unidentified radiolarian test Coscinodiscophyceae - planktoniella Fragilariophyceae - thalassionema Fragilariophyceae - Synedra Fragilariophyceae - Fragilaria Total

No. of Individuals 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 4 2 3 3 2 64

Plankton Midstream Thalassiosira Pseudonana Navicula Coscinodiscus Hyalodiscus Nemertina Copepoda Cyclopoda Snail eggs Planktoniella

No. of Individuals 3 6 5 2 7 4 4 3 2

Plankton Midstream Globiregina bulloides Leptocylindricus Nematoda Ephyra of aurelia Cylindrotheca Nonionidae Thalassionema Juvenile from pilidium Halitholus pentacula pilidium larva Grammatophora Triceratium Halalaimus Exogone (Syllidae) Leptohalaisis Ciratulid larva Siphonophores Phlyctenophora aff. Zealandica copepoda-diarthrodes major(thalestridae) Coscinodiscophyceae - Coscinodiscus Total

No. of Individuals 1 2 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 68

Plankton Downstream Bract (Order Siphonophora) Conscinodiscus

No of individuals 14 2

Plankton Downstream Chaetopterus larva Panielopolina orghidani Exogone Cilliated spheres Planktoniella Cypridopsis newtoni Perissocypheridea meyerabichi Patagonacythere tricostata Paleonemertina Striatella Diphyes (Siphonophora) Psammonobiotus commnis Golemansky Pilidium Larva Asteropteron skogsbergi Rhabdonema Pontohedyle verrucosa Legumino cyphereis oertlii Polychaete Trocophore Bacillaria Synedra Quinquiloculona seminulum Grammatophora Leptohatysis sp. Navicula Halalaimus Trochopores Unidentified Nemertea

No of individuals 1 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 9 1 2 2 3 1

Plankton Downstream Unindetified Total

No of individuals 3 70

The graph below shows the plankton that were identified at each transect stream. According to the graph there were 64 plankton found at the upstream, 68 plankton found at the midstream and a total of 70 plankton found at the downstream (the samples were taken from 100 ml at each streams). There is no doubt that the downstream has the highest variability in the distribution of plankton among the transect stream. Varying abundance in planktonic Diversity

Upstream

Midtream

Downstream

63

64.75

66.5

68.25

70

Fig. Show Abundance at each transect streams Conclusion: There is a significant variability in the abundance of plankton diversity among the three locations namely: Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream.

Discussion The downstream having the highest variability in the abundance of plankton diversity shows that the area exhibit more in niche compared with the other transect streams. However this alone is not reliable for the reason that the data was gathered at a single day and only in the morning. Recommendation Should there be another research with the same agenda at hand, it is recommended that the researchers should gather data with a large range of time availability for this reason, results that were concluded in a wider scope (e.g. seasons, Day and Night) can be compared and conclusions can be made convincingly.

Appendix: H: There is no significant variability in the abundance of plankton diversity at Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream. H: There is at least one significant variability in the abundance of plankton diversity at Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream. Type of statistical test to be used: population Standard deviation Solutions: Upstream Calculate the mean of the sample ( ).

1 + 1 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 5 + 2 + = 2.13 2+2+3+3+1+1+3+ 5+1+1+1+2+1+4+ 2+1+1+1+4+2+3+ 3+2 30

Data ( 1 1 3 1 2 5 2 2 2 3

Mean ( 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13

-1.13 -1.13 0.87 -1.13 -0.13 2.87 -0.13 -0.13 -0.13 0.87

1.28 1.28 0.75 1.28 0.02 8.22 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.75

)2

3 1 1 3 5 1 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 4 2 3 3 2

2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13

0.87 -1.13 -1.13 0.87 2.87 -1.13 -1.13 -1.13 -0.13 -1.13 1.87 -0.13 -1.13 -1.13 -1.13 1.87 -0.13 0.87 0.87 -0.13

0.75 1.28 1.28 0.75 8.22 1.28 1.28 1.28 0.02 1.28 3.48 0.02 1.28 1.28 1.28 3.48 0.02 0.75 0.75 0.02

Calculate the sum of (

)2:

1.28 + 1.28 + 0.75 + 1.28 + 0.02 + 8.22 + 0.02 + 0.02 + 0.02 + 0.75 + 0.75 + 1.28 + 1.28 + 0.75 + 8.22 + 1.28 + 1.28 + 1.28 + 0.02 + 1.28 + 3.48 + 0.02 + 1.28 + 1.28 + 1.28 + 3.48 + 0.02 + 0.75 + 0.75 + 0.02 = 43.47

Substitute (

)2 and

into the sample standard deviation formula below:

43.47 30

1.45
1.2

Therefore, the sample standard deviation, s, is 1.20. Midstream Calculate the mean of the sample ( ).

3 + 6 + 5 + 2 + 7 + 4 + 4 + = 2.33 3+2+1+2+4+2+2+ 1+2+1+1+2+2+1+ 1+2+1+2+1+1+1+ 2+2 30

Data ( 3 6 5 2 7 4 4 3 2 1 2 4 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2

Mean ( 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33

0.67 3.67 2.67 -0.33 4.67 1.67 1.67 0.67 -0.33 -1.33 -0.33 1.67 -0.33 -0.33 -1.33 -0.33 -1.33 -1.33 -0.33 -0.33 -1.33 -1.33 -0.33 -1.33 -0.33 -1.33 -1.33 -1.33 -0.33 -0.33

0.44 13.44 7.11 0.11 21.78 2.78 2.78 0.44 0.11 1.78 0.11 2.78 0.11 0.11 1.78 0.11 1.78 1.78 0.11 0.11 1.78 1.78 0.11 1.78 0.11 1.78 1.78 1.78 0.11 0.11

)2

Calculate the sum of (

)2:

0.44 + 13.44 + 7.11 + 0.11 + 21.78 + 2.78 + 2.78 + 0.44 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 2.78 + 0.11 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 0.11 = 70.67 Substitute ( )2 and into the sample standard deviation formula below:

70.67 30

2.36
1.5 Therefore, the sample standard deviation, s, is 1.53.
Downstream Calculate the mean of the sample ( ). = 2.33

14 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 3 +1+3+1+1+3+2+1 +1+1+2+1+1+1+1 +4+1+9+2+2+3+1 +3+1 30

Data ( 14 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 9 2 2 3 1 3

Mean ( 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33

11.67 -0.33 -1.33 -1.33 -1.33 -0.33 0.67 -1.33 0.67 -1.33 -1.33 0.67 -0.33 -1.33 -1.33 -1.33 -0.33 -1.33 -1.33 -1.33 -1.33 1.67 -1.33 6.67 -0.33 -0.33 0.67 -1.33 0.67

136.11 0.11 1.78 1.78 1.78 0.11 0.44 1.78 0.44 1.78 1.78 0.44 0.11 1.78 1.78 1.78 0.11 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.78 2.78 1.78 44.44 0.11 0.11 0.44 1.78 0.44

)2

2.33

-1.33

1.78

Calculate the sum of (

)2:

136.11 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 0.44 + 1.78 + 0.44 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 0.44 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 0.11 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 1.78 + 2.78 + 1.78 + 44.44 + 0.11 + 0.11 + 0.44 + 1.78 + 0.44 + 1.78 = 214.67

Substitute (

)2 and

into the sample standard deviation formula below:

214.67 30

7.16
2.7

Therefore, the sample standard deviation, s, is 2.67. Decision: Reject null hypothesis; There is at least one significant variability in the distribution of plankton at Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream.