Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 22

PRINCIPAL PARTS

Most Latin verbs are put into one of four groups (conjugations) depending on their Principal Parts. This grouping system is found in modern languages, including French, which has four sorts of verbs: -er, -re, -ir, -oir. The 4th p.p. means -ed (and nothing else). It is a passive participle an adjective formed from a verb, describing a noun or pronoun, and followed by a preposition like by, with, from, etc. CONJ. 1st p.p. port-o 1st () I carry doce-o 2nd () I teach trah-o 3rd () I drag audi-o 4th () I hear to hear I heard heard to drag aud-re I dragged aud-ivi dragged aud-itus to teach trah-re I taught tra-xi taught trac-tus to carry doc-re I carried doc-ui carried doc-tus 2nd p.p. port-re 3rd p.p. port-avi 4th p.p. port-atus

You must learn all of the Principal Parts and be ready to write them in tests. The Principal Parts give you a quick way of remembering the present (1st p.p.) and perfect (3rd p.p.) tenses, the present infinitive (2nd p.p.) and the perfect passive participle (4th p.p. which means -ed). Tip: most English words ending in -ion come from the 4th p.p.

SPECIAL 4th P.P.s = HAVING -ED


Some 4th Principal Parts in Latin mean HAVING -ED. There are not many of these and you learn them as special cases. Most give interesting English words.
adeptus, a, um ingressus, a, um precatus, a, um regressus, a, um conspicatus, a, um egressus, a, um passus, a, um locutus, a, um secutus, a, um = = = = = = = = = having received, having obtained, having gained, having got having entered, having gone in having prayed (to) having returned, having come back, having gone back having noticed, having spotted, having caught sight of having departed, having gone out, having left having suffered having said, having spoken having followed

senex, deam precatus, anulum extraxit the old man, having prayed to the goddess, took off his ring fur, anulum conspicatus, se celavit a thief, having noticed a ring, hid himself fur, anulum adeptus, celeriter fugit the thief, having obtained the ring, escaped quickly

THE CHIEF MASTERS FAVOURITE VERB KNOW THIS LITTLE VERB AND YOU KNOW THEM ALL EO, IRE, II, ITUS Present EO IS IT IMUS ITIS EUNT IBAM IBAS IBAT IBAMUS IBATIS IBANT II IISTI IIT IIMUS IISTIS IERUNT IERAM IERAS IERAT IERAMUS IERATIS IERANT = I GO, TO GO, I WENT, GONE I go; I am going you go; you are going (s)he goes; (s)he is going we go; we are going you go; you are going they go; they are going I was going; I began to go you were going; you began to go (s)he was going; (s)he began to go we were going; we began to go you were going; you began to go they were going; they began to go I went; I have gone you went; you have gone (s)he went; (s)he has gone we went; we have gone you went; you have gone they went; they have gone I had gone you had gone (s)he had gone we had gone you had gone they had gone

Imperfect

Perfect

Pluperfect

TABLE OF NOUN ENDINGS (UMS)


DEC CASE Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. SINGULAR PUELL - A PUELL - AM PUELL - AE PUELL - AE PLURAL PUELL - AE PUELL - AS PUELL - ARUM PUELL - IS

1st

2nd

Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat.

SERV - US SERV - UM SERV - I SERV - O

SERV - I SERV - OS SERV - ORUM SERV - IS

3rd

Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat.

MERCATOR MERCATOR - EM MERCATOR - IS MERCATOR - I

MERCATOR - ES MERCATOR - ES MERCATOR - UM MERCATOR - IBUS

Nominative: says start with me. I am the subject. I go before the verb in English. I am the Who in Who does what? The cat sees the dog Accusative: says dont start with me. I am the object. I go after the verb in English I am the What in Who does what? The dog sees the cat Genitive: says add of before you translate me; I tell you who owns something; I am the OF WHOM in who owns the what of whom I am the Who owns something Whose shoes? Dative: says add to or for before you translate me; I am the indirect object; I am the TO WHOM in who does what to whom I am the Who you give something to Gimme the money!

TABLE OF NEUTER NOUN ENDINGS


A small number of 2nd and 3rd declension words in Latin are neuter. 2nd declension neuter nouns end in -UM in the nominative singular and -A in the nominative plural. They keep the same endings in the accusative singular and plural. 3rd declension neuter nouns end in anything in the nominative singular but always -A in the nominative plural. They keep the same endings in the accusative singular and plural. BELLUM, BELLI neuter DEC CASE Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. SINGULAR BELL - UM BELL - UM BELL - I BELL - O NOMEN, NOMINIS neuter DEC CASE Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. SINGULAR NOMEN NOMEN NOMIN - IS NOMIN - I = = WAR PLURAL BELL - A BELL - A BELL - ORUM BELL - IS NAME PLURAL NOMIN - A NOMIN - A NOMIN - UM NOMIN - IBUS

2nd

3rd

Nominative: says start with me. I am the subject. I go before the verb in English. I am the Who in Who does what? The cat sees the dog Accusative: says dont start with me. I am the object. I go after the verb in English I am the What in Who does what? The dog sees the cat Genitive: says add of before you translate me; I tell you who owns something; I am the OF WHOM in who owns the what of whom I am the Who owns something Whose shoes? Dative: says add to or for before you translate me; I am the indirect object; I am the TO WHOM in who does what to whom

I am the Who you give something to Gimme the money!

LATIN VERBS: PRESENT TENSE


The Latin verb consists of two parts: (1) (2) STEM ENDING tells you what the verb is doing tells you who is doing the verb

The present tense of port- o (I carry) goes as follows: PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL

1st

port - o
I carry

porta - mus
we carry

2nd

porta - s
you carry

porta - tis
you carry

3rd

porta - t
(s)he carries

porta - nt
they carry

RULE If the verb dont end in - t

It says YOU START WITH ME

LATIN VERBS: IMPERFECT TENSE


The imperfect tense sets the scene for a story. Theatres have scenery painted on canvas but stories use verbs in the imperfect tense. In English, the imperfect tense can be translated in three different ways: (1)I was ________ing, he was ________ing, ________ing, they were ________ing, etc. we were

(2) I began to ________, he began to ________, we began to ________, they began to ________, etc. (3) I would ________, he would ________, ________, they would ________, etc. we would

PERSON

SINGULAR

PLURAL

1st

porta - bam
I was carrying

porta - bamus
we were carrying

2nd

porta - bas
you were carrying

porta - batis
you were carrying

3rd

porta - bat
(s)he was carrying

porta - bant
they were carrying

LATIN VERBS: PERFECT TENSE


The perfect tense tells you about things that happened in the past: As Julius Caesar said I came, I saw, I conquered. In English, the perfect tense is translated in three different ways: (1)I (have) ________ed, he (has) ________ed, we (have) ________ed, they (have) ________ed, etc. (2) I did ________, he did ________, we did ________, they did ________, etc.

English usually puts the ending -ed on the end of the verb to make it perfect tense. Latin puts one of three letters between the stem and the ending: v or u or s. PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL

1st

portav - i
I (have) carried

portav - imus
we (have) carried

2nd

portav - isti
you (have) carried

portav - istis
you (have) carried

3rd

portav - it
(s)he (has) carried

portav - erunt
they (have) carried

PLUPERFECT TENSE
In English, the pluperfect tense means I had -ed, he had -ed, we had -ed, they had -ed, etc. It is the most distant of all the English tenses: e.g. Father arrived in the afternoon but mother had arrived an hour before him and James had arrived an hour before her. In Latin, the following endings are put on the end of the 3rd principal part: -eram -eras -erat -eramus -eratis -erant

portav- eram portav- eras portav- erat portav- eramus portav- eratis portav- erant

= = = = = =

I had carried you had carried (s)he had carried we had carried you had carried they had carried

e.g. puella erat laetissima quod canem suum invenerat the girl was very happy because she had found her dog Caecilius habebat servum, qui in Britannia habitaverat Caecilius had a slave, who had lived in Britain cena, quam Grumio paraverat, optima erat the meal, which Grumio had prepared, was very good

THE LATIN SUBJUNCTIVE


All the Latin verbs that you have met so far have been indicative (main) verbs, making one sentence and followed by a full stop. You will now meet sentences starting with cum (since / when) + a subjunctive (subordinate) verb, followed by a comma. Latin uses a subjunctive verb when a sentence does not make sense on its own. It is usually found after words like cum (since / when) or ut (in order that) or si (if). These words introduce a sentence but do not make one.

PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
RULE: 3rd p.p. + sse + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt

portav-issem portav-isses portav-isset portav-issemus portav-issetis portav-issent

= = = = = =

I had carried you had carried (s)he had carried we had carried you had carried they had carried

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
RULE: 2nd p.p. + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt

portare-m portare-s portare-t portare-mus portare-tis portare-nt

= = = = = =

I was carrying you were carrying (s)he was carrying we were carrying you were carrying they were carrying

there are no irregular pluperfect or imperfect subjunctives

LATIN INDIRECT QUESTION

How do we recognise an English direct question? (1) (2) (3) (4) question word at start of sentence (why, what) question mark at end of sentence (?) subject and verb inverted (what were you doing?) pitch of voice raised at end of sentence

How do we recognise an English indirect question? (1) (2) (3) (4) question word in middle of sentence (why) full stop at end of sentence (.) subject and verb not inverted (what you were doing) voice not raised at end of sentence

How do we recognise a Latin indirect question? (1) (2) (3) main clause with indicative verb at the start question word in the middle subordinate clause with subjunctive verb at the end

DIRECT QUESTION quid faciebas? = what were you doing?

INDIRECT QUESTION scire volebam quid faceres = I wanted to know what you were doing.

QUESTIONS IN LATIN

-NE

expects YES or NO venitne? = is he coming? YES/NO

NONNE

expects YES NONNE venit? = SURELY he is coming? He is coming, isnt he? YES

NUM

expects NO NUM venit? = SURELY he is NOT coming? He is NOT coming, is he? NO

THREE IRREGULAR VERBS


SUM, ESSE, FUI I am, to be, I have been
present sum es est imperfect eram eras erat I was you were (s)he was eramus eratis erant we were you were they were I am you are (s)he is sumus estis sunt we are you are they are

POSSUM, POSSE, POTUI I am able, I can


present possumI am able, I can possumus we are able; we can potes you are able, you can potestis you are able, you can potest he is able, he can possunt they are able, they can imperfect poteram poteras poterat I was able, I could you were able, you could (s)he was able, (s)he could poteramus poteratis poterant we were able, we could you were able, you could they were able, they could

VOLO, VELLE, VOLUI I want, I wish


present vol-o vi-s vul-t imperfect vole-bam vole-bas vole-bat I wanted, I wished you wanted, you wished (s)he wanted, (s)he wished vole-bamus vole-batis vole-bant we wanted, we wished you wanted, you wished they wanted, they wished I want, I wish you want, you wish (s)he wants, (s)he wishes volu-mus vul-tis vol-unt we want, we wish you want, you wish they want, they wish

LATIN PURPOSE CLAUSES

How do we recognise an English Purpose Clause? (1) gives an answer to question why? (2) (3) uses the infinitive of a verb to / in order to / so that

What is the difference in Latin? The Latin infinitive (because it is a single word) is not strong enough for a purpose clause. The same is true in French, where the infinitive is a single word. Compare these French words that go before the infinitive: pour, , de. e.g. prt porter (ready to wear), maison vendre (house for sale); pour encourager les autres (to encourage the others) P.C. Q. A.

The boy ran quickly to see the show. why did the boy run quickly? to see the show How do we recognise a Latin Purpose Clause? UT + imperfect subjunctive The boy ran quickly to see the show Puer celeriter currebat ut spectaculum videret

RULE ENGLISH LATIN

How do we translate a Latin Purpose Clause? cross off the ut, cross off the -t (to leave the infinitive) Puer celeriter currebat (ut) spectaculum videre(t). The boy ran quickly to see the show.

RULE

THE LITTLE WORDS LATIN A (ab) E (ex) I (ite) O U ENGLISH from, by from, out of go! Oh! THE LITTLE ORDERS SINGULAR DIC DUC FAC FER ES facite FERTE ESTE PLURAL dicite ducite MEANING say! speak! tell (me)! lead! take! do! make! bring! carry! take! be!

DICk had a DUCk with FER on its back, and thats a FACt, ESmeralda

IMPERATIVES (COMMANDS!)
In all languages, commands (!) are the shortest bit of the verb that makes sense: Look! Listen! Stop! Come here! (Be) Careful!
CONJ. 2nd P. P. PORTARE SINGULAR PORTA CARRY! DOCE TEACH! TRAHE DRAG! AUDI LISTEN! PLURAL PORTATE CARRY! DOCETE TEACH! TRAHITE DRAG! AUDITE LISTEN!

1st
to carry DOCERE

2nd
to teach TRAHERE

3rd
to drag AUDIRE

4th
to listen

NOLI (singular) NOLITE (plural) NOLI audire! NOLITE audire! NOLI id facere! NOLITE ridere!

+ + = = = =

infinitive infinitive do not listen! do not listen! dont do it! dont laugh!

= =

do not (dont) do not (dont) (singular) (plural) (singular) (plural)

LATIN ADJECTIVES
Adjectives tell you more about nouns just as adverbs tell you more about verbs. Adjectives describe nouns and adverbs describe verbs. The word adjective means a word thrown alongside a noun. e.g. a large house; a fierce dog; a nice school. Adjectives are optional extras and can be missed out from a sentence without ruining the meaning. Nouns cannot be missed out. Adjectives need nouns but nouns do not need adjectives. In Latin and most modern foreign languages (but not in English) adjectives try to look as much like the nouns they describe as possible. They do this in three ways: (1) GENDER masculine masculine feminine feminine neuter neuter (2) NUMBER singular plural singular plural (3) CASE nom. acc. gen. dat. masculine, feminine, neuter laetus servus laetum servum laeta puella laetam puellam bonum vinum bonum vinum singular, plural laetus servus laeti servi laeta puella laetae puellae happy slave happy slave happy girl happy girl good wine good wine happy slave happy slaves happy girl happy girls good merchants good merchants of good merchants to good merchants

nominative, accusative, genitive, dative bonus mercator boni mercatores bonum mercatorem bonos mercatores boni mercatoris bonorum mercatorum bono mercatori bonis mercatoribus

In Latin, there are three grades of agreement, depending, like families, on how much the adjective tries to look like the noun it goes with: (1) IDENTICAL TWINS: the endings so similar that they rhyme: laetus servus; laetam puellam; bonum vinum (2) (3) NB: BROTHERS / SISTERS: the endings so similar that they almost rhyme: bonum mercatorem; bonos mercatores RELATIVES: the endings so dissimilar that they do not rhyme at all: bonus mercator; bono mercatori; boni mercatores (1) (2) All the Latin that you meet is correct and the agreements will be correct. Adjectives are put next to nouns, usually before, but sometimes after.

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES THIS


hic, haec, hoc = this; he, she, it; him, her, it
SINGULAR

CASE

MASCULINE

FEMININE

NEUTER

NOM. HOC
this

HIC
this

HAEC
this

ACC.
GEN.

HUNC
this HUIUS of this HUIC to/for this

HANC
this HUIUS of this HUIC to/for this

HOC
this HUIUS of this HUIC to/for this

DAT.

PLURAL

CASE NOM. ACC. GEN. DAT.

MASCULINE HI these HOS these HORUM of these HIS to/for these

FEMININE HAE these HAS these HARUM of these HIS to/for these

NEUTER HAEC these HAEC these HORUM of these HIS to/for these

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES THAT


ille, illa, illud = that
SINGULAR

CASE

MASCULINE

FEMININE

NEUTER

NOM.
ACC.
DAT.

ILLE
that

ILLA
that

ILLUD
that

ILLUM
that ILLI to/for that

ILLAM
that ILLI to/for that

ILLUD
that ILLI to/for that

PLURAL

CASE

MASCULINE

FEMININE

NEUTER

NOM.
ACC.
DAT.

ILLI
those

ILLAE
those

ILLA
those

ILLOS
those ILLIS to/for those

ILLAS
those ILLIS to/for those

ILLA
those ILLIS to/for those

ILLE gives the French words IL (he) and LE (the) and ILLA gives the French words ELLE (she) and LA (the). Latin uses ILLE and ILLA in the the same way.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
In English, the relative pronoun means who, whom, whose, or which and its job is to join two sentences together, rather like a conjunction. In Latin, the most important relative pronouns are QUI (who) and QUEM (whom) This is the cook. He was preparing a meal. This is the cook, who was preparing a meal. Hic est coquus, qui cenam parabat This is the cook. I saw him in the shop. This is the cook, whom I saw in the shop. Hic est coquus, quem in taberna vidi. SINGULAR

CASE NOM. ACC. DAT.

MASCULINE QUI who QUEM whom CUI to/for whom

FEMININE QUAE who QUAM whom CUI to/for whom

NEUTER QUOD which QUOD which CUI to/for which

PLURAL

CASE NOM. ACC. DAT.

MASCULINE QUI who QUOS whom QUIBUS to/for whom

FEMININE QUAE who QUAS whom QUIBUS to/for whom

NEUTER QUAE which QUAE which QUIBUS to/for which

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
PERSON CASE Nom. SINGULAR EGO ME MIHI I me to/for me PLURAL NOS NOS NOBIS we us to/for us

1st

Acc. Dat.

Nom.

TU TE TIBI

you you to/for you

VOS VOS VOBIS

you you to/for you

2nd

Acc. Dat.

Acc.

EUM EAM EI

him her to/for him/her

EOS EAS EIS

them them to/for them

3rd

Acc. Dat.

EXAMPLES Ego te video sed tu me non vides = Grumio cenam optimam ei parat Caecilius eam in taberna vidit Caecilius eum in taberna vidit Caecilius nos in taberna vidit Caecilius eos in taberna vidit = = = = = I see you but you do not see me Grumio prepares an excellent meal for him Caecilius saw her in the shop Caecilius saw him in the shop Caecilius saw us in the shop Caecilius saw them in the shop

LATIN PRESENT PARTICIPLES


In English, the present participle ends in -ing The slaves returned to the house, carrying Barbillus The maids stood near the bed, crying In Latin, the present participle goes like a 3rd declension word -ans, -antem (like Bregans) -ens, -entem (like Clemens) 1st conjugation 2nd, 3rd, 4th conjugations

Because the 3rd declension has masculine and feminine words in roughly equal numbers, the present participle endings are the same for masculine and feminine words. PORTANS = CARRYING SINGULAR Nom Acc Gen Dat PORT-ANS PORTANT-EM PORTANT-IS PORTANT-I AUDIENS = HEARING SINGULAR Nom Acc Gen Dat AUDI-ENS AUDIENT-EM AUDIENT-IS AUDIENT-I PLURAL AUDIENT-ES AUDIENT-ES AUDIENT-IUM AUDIENT-IBUS PLURAL PORTANT-ES PORTANT-ES PORTANT-IUM PORTANT-IBUS

EXAMPLES

servi ad villam revenerunt, Barbillum portantes the slaves returned to the house, carrying Barbillus ancillae prope lectum stabant, lacrimantes the maids stood near the bed, crying dominus servum vidit, in horto sedentem the master saw the slave, sitting in the garden